Proposed process for low-emissions coal-to-liquids

Green Car Congress

The EMS (Earth and Mineral Science) Energy Institute at Penn State has developed a conceptual novel process configuration for producing clean middle-distillate fuels from coal with some algal input with minimal emissions. The Institute was involved for about 20 years in a project intended to develop a coal-derived jet fuel; a number of papers and reports have already been published on that work. Principal inputs are coal, water, non-carbon electricity, and make-up solvent.

2015 184

EIA: light duty vehicle energy consumption to drop 25% by 2040; increased oil production, vehicle efficiency reduce US oil and liquid imports

Green Car Congress

Energy consumption by light-duty vehicles in the United States, AEO2013 and AEO2014, 1995-2040 (quadrillion Btu). Reflecting slow growth in travel and accelerated vehicle efficiency improvements, US light-duty vehicle (LDV, cars and light trucks) energy use will decline sharply between 2012 and 2040, according to the US Energy Information Administration’s (EIA’s) Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014) Reference case released today.

2013 241

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U-M study finds current CAFE standards create profit incentive for larger vehicles

Green Car Congress

The current vehicle footprint-based Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards create a financial incentive for automakers to increase vehicle size, except under certain limited conditions of consumer preference for vehicle size, according to a study by University of Michigan researchers Kate Whitefoot and Steven Skerlos. 10 11 kg with no size changes)—the equivalent to adding three to ten coal-fired power plants to the electricity grid each year.

2011 207

Tsinghua University provincial-level lifecycle study finds fuel-cycle criteria pollutants of EVs in China could be up to 5x those of natural gas vehicles due to China’s coal-dominant power mix

Green Car Congress

A province-by-province life cycle analysis of natural gas and electric vehicles by a team from Tsinghua University concludes that while, from the perspective of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant emissions, natural gas vehicles (CNGVs) are “ an option with no obvious merits or demerits ”, electric vehicles (EVs) are “ an option with significant merits and demerits in this regard ” due to China’s heavily coal-based electricity generation (national average of about 77%).

2013 200

UCS analysis finds Hyundai-Kia with best sales-weighted new vehicle environmental performance in US in 2013

Green Car Congress

Due to strong federal and state emissions standards, the average new car has gotten 43% cleaner since 1998. Stronger tailpipe emissions standards have led to an 87% reduction in smog-forming tailpipe emissions from the average car or truck since 2000, while global warming emissions from the average vehicle have decreased by nearly 20% percent since 1998. To develop the ranking, UCS averaged the per-mile emissions for each light-duty vehicle sold by each automaker.

2014 246

Renewable hydrogen fuel being studied for the Port of Seattle

Green Car Congress

Two studies—led by a team from Seattle City Light, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories—are exploring the potential of shifting from fossil fuel to clean hydrogen as fuel to power medium-and heavy-duty vehicles. The research is part of Seattle City Light's “Utility Next” portfolio, a collection of 17 prospective projects to enable Seattle’s vision of a clean energy future. million DOE award, $150,000 City Light = $1.5

BMW Group plans to source steel produced with green power and hydrogen from H2GS in Sweden

Green Car Congress

From 2025 on, the company plans to source steel produced with up to 95% less CO 2 emissions and without requiring fossil resources such as coal. The region is best known for its reindeer and spectacular northern lights, but also provides access to high-quality iron ore, plentiful energy from renewable sources such as hydroelectric and wind power, a major seaport and generations of steel production know-how.

Sweden 273

EIA projects US energy-related CO2 emissions to remain near current level through 2050; increased natural gas consumption

Green Car Congress

The AEO2019 Reference case, which reflects no changes to current laws and regulations and extends current trends in technology, projects that US energy-related CO 2 emissions will be 5,019 million metric tons in 2050—4% below their 2018 value—as emissions associated with coal and petroleum consumption fall and emissions from natural gas consumption rise. Natural gas surpassed coal to become the most prevalent fuel used to generate electricity in the United States in 2016.

2019 194

House Chairmen Waxman, Markey Release Draft of Energy and Climate Legislation; Among the Many Provisions Are Cap-and-Trade, Harmonization of CAFE and California Vehicle Regulations, and Low Carbon Fuel Standard

Green Car Congress

Among the direct transportation-related provisions in the extensive package are a low-carbon fuel standard for all transportation fuels; financial support for large scale demonstrations of electric vehicles; and financial support for automakers retooling plants to make electric vehicles. Any Federal vehicle standards are to achieve at least the results of the California standards. The draft establishes a Renewable Portfolio Standard—i.e., light duty vehicles—e.g.,

2009 174

Mad Power thoughts

EV Info

Wind can indeed be light everywhere and the grid still needs vast extra investment to transfer wind power from northern Scotland to southern England. As for batteries,it would take billions of pounds to build ones that could keep the lights on for a few hours let alone a week. .

Coal 52

UK power crisis – entirely the fault of regulators and ministers

EV Info

We have closed most of the coal plants and several the aging nuclear plants are moving offline as they close for repair of reach end of life. Coal 3%. Or in other words we are reliant on Putin to keep the light on and at his mercy on the cost of the gas.

Price 83

NuScale boosts SMR module output 25%

Green Car Congress

The power increase will be reviewed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as part of NuScale’s Standard Design Approval (SDA) application, which NuScale is scheduled to submit in 2022.

2020 343

Harvard study links short-term exposure to PM2.5 with risks of common but rarely studied causes of hospital admissions; substantial economic costs

Green Car Congress

Fine particulate air pollution is composed of tiny solids and liquids floating in the air that come from sources such as motor vehicles, coal-fired power plants, and wildfires. For this study, we wanted to shed further light on the risks of exposure to short-term air pollution by searching for links between such pollution and all diseases that are plausible causes of hospitalizations.

2019 267

New 3-step process for conversion of kraft lignin from black liquor into green diesel

Green Car Congress

This makes black liquor the fifth most important fuel in the world, next to coal, oil, natural gas, and gasoline. An organocatalyzed esterification of the lignin residue with an in situ prepared tall oil fatty acid anhydride gives an esterified lignin residue that was soluble in light gas oil. The esterified lignin residue is then coprocessed with light gas oil in a continous hydrotreater to produce a green diesel.

2016 224

EIA projects decline in transportation sector energy consumption through 2037 despite increase in VMT, followed by increase

Green Car Congress

Specifically, AEO2019 projects that: Increases in fuel economy standards temper growth in US motor gasoline consumption, which decreases by 26% between 2018 and 2050. Increases in fuel economy standards result in heavy-duty vehicle energy consumption and related diesel use remaining at approximately the same level in 2050 as in 2018, despite rising economic activity that increases the demand of freight truck travel.

2019 186

Study from Thuringia shows 50% of harmful soot comes from local sources, 50% from long-distance transport

Green Car Congress

The main sources were combustion emissions, probably from wood and coal-fired heating systems. It is becoming increasingly clear that soot also contributes to global warming by causing the dark particles to absorb light or contribute to cloud formation.

Altex & Unitel partner to demonstrate a new technology for making synthetic gasoline from biomass

Green Car Congress

coal, biomass, or waste—is heated in the absence of molecular oxygen to produce a solid containing char and ash and volatile gases. This reactor converts a portion of the volatile gases into a mixture of light olefins, predominantly ethylene and propylene. This use of light olefins as building blocks results in good control of the product composition as with a traditional gasification/F-T process.

2016 163

President Biden’s climate plan, potential EV updates expected to be announced Thursday


The plan will be set forward by monumental changes in the United States’ infrastructure, including transportation and energy, which have long been dominated by oil, coal, and other fossil fuels. Hopefully, President Biden’s long-term climate plans will bring light to what the U.S.

Study suggests current levels of methane leakage would result in numerous decades of more rapid climate change from a shift to natural gas vehicles

Green Car Congress

A) CNG light-duty cars vs. gasoline cars; (B) CNG heavy-duty vehicles vs. diesel vehicles; and (C) combined-cycle natural gas plants vs. supercritical coal plants using low-CH 4 coal. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH 4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits, they found.

EIA Energy Outlook 2011 more than doubles estimates of US shale gas resources; higher production at lower prices

Green Car Congress

It also updated the costs and sizes of electric and plug-in hybrid electric batteries and revised downward light-duty vehicle travel demand due to the adoption of a new estimation technique. AEO2011 assumes the adoption of CAFE standards for light-duty vehicles for model year 2011, as well as joint CAFE and greenhouse gas emissions standards set forth by the EPA and NHTSA for model years 2012 through 2016. Energy consumption for light-duty vehicles grows from 16.7

2010 179

BNEF: Oil price plunge to have only moderate impact on low-carbon electricity development, but likely to slow EV growth

Green Car Congress

per gallon, EV penetration in the US could reach 6% of the light-duty vehicle fleet by 2020, whereas with gasoline at $3.34, the EV share could be 9%. With wind and even solar power increasingly competitive with coal and natural gas without subsidies, with many utilities needing to meet renewable portfolio standards, and with new EPA rules forcing coal plant retirements, the impact of lower oil prices on renewable energy in the US is expected to be insignificant.

2014 225

New process produces high-octane synthetic fuel from low-octane Fischer-Tropsch gasoline

Green Car Congress

In recent years, interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has increased significantly and thus it makes possible to produce synthetic motor fuels by using alternative energy resources as raw materials such as natural gas, coal, and biomass. The resulting product, which is commonly called synthetic crude oil, is a mixture of light and medium distillates with a boiling point of up to 350–360 °C.

2019 163

Black carbon linked to increased cardiovascular risk; exacerbated by co-exposure to motor vehicle emissions

Green Car Congress

Black carbon (BC) from incomplete biomass and fossil fuel combustion is the most strongly light-absorbing component of particulate matter (PM) air pollution and a major climate-forcing emission. China’s particulate matter (PM) air pollution significantly exceeds health guidelines and is driven by industrial emissions, motor vehicles, and household use of biomass and coal fuels.

2014 229

Transphorm introduces 600V Gallium Nitride on Silicon products at PCIM 2012

Green Car Congress

The following Transphorm products are now available for sale as evaluation samples through the Transphorm website to approved customers: TPS30xxPK series – 600 V, 2-4-6 A, GaN diode in the industry standard TO-220 package. TPH3006PS- 600V, 180 mohm GaN transistor in the industry standard TO-220 package. Electric power waste that occurs during power conversion is equivalent to the daily output of 318 coal plants, and it costs the US economy $40 billion per year.

2012 191

Cummins announces compatibility with select 100% paraffinic diesel fuels for B4.5, B6.7, L9 engines

Green Car Congress

EN 15940 was approved by CEN, the European Committee for Standardization, in April 2016. Paraffinic diesel fuels are liquid fuels that can be synthetically created from feedstocks such as natural gas (GTL), biomass (BTL) or coal (CTL); or through hydro-treatment of vegetable oils or animal fats (HVO). Paraffinic diesel fuels can be used as a 100% substitute for standard EN 590 or ASTM D975 Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) without requiring any change to the Cummins engine.

2017 174

MIT, Ford researchers find lightweight conventional vehicles could have lower lifecycle GHG impact than EVs depending upon location

Green Car Congress

Assessments of GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles should take a cradle-to-grave life cycle perspective and capture important regional effects. We report the first regionally explicit (county-level) life cycle assessment of the use of lightweighting and electrification for light-duty vehicles in the U.S. Kirchain (2019) “Regional Heterogeneity in the Emissions Benefits of Electrified and Lightweighted Light-Duty Vehicles” Environmental Science & Technology doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b00648.

2019 204

UN Environment report says national GHG pledges only bring one-third of reductions needed for Paris Agreement

Green Car Congress

The emission reduction potential is most significant for light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, with other contributions coming from shipping, aviation and biofuels. GtCO 2 /year (light duty vehicles) by 2030. Substantial emission reductions due to fuel economy standards for passenger cars are already included in the current policy scenario. There are an estimated 6,683 operating coal-fired power plants in the world, with a combined capacity of 1,964 GW.

2017 150

Canada targets cutting GHGs 30% below 2005 levels by 2030; new regulations for oil and gas, power, petrochemicals

Green Car Congress

Regulations for natural gas-fired electricity, which would build on Canada’s existing coal-fired electricity regulations. The new proposed regulatory actions are in addition to recently announced regulations establishing more stringent standards for cars, light trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as Canada’s intent to regulate hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

2015 199

Geely invests in Carbon Recycling Intl.; vehicles fueled by methanol from CO2, water and renewable energy

Green Car Congress

The process is certified by SGS Germany according to the ISCC Plus system, based on standard ISCC EU methodology for calculation of GHG emission in the product lifecycle. Methanol can be produced from a range of renewable sources and fossil-fuel based feed-stocks; in practice methanol is mainly produced in coal-rich China from coal. In the same year, national standards for M85 and M100 were also promulgated.

2015 210

Wholesome Foods selects Nonox emulsion-combustion technology to reduce diesel emissions and fuel consumption

Green Car Congress

WFI will benefit from a payback of less than a year on its investment and more than bring the WFI fleet into compliance with environmental standards. The ECU operates at all engine speeds and loads, and accommodates multiple fuel types including light oil, heavy oil, bunker fuel and is capable of producing a Coal-Oil-Water Emulsion as a direct replacement for residual oils. Nonox Ltd.

2012 204

Hyundai: Prophecy is an “iconic silhouette of perfect proportions”

Current EV

Its envisioners says it defines “a bright future for Hyundai designs” and “establishes a new standard for the EV segment. The car’s pixilated headlight design and gleaming coal-black paint make it look like a prop in a sci-fi flick.

2020 60

Global geothermal industry passes 12,000 MW operational

Green Car Congress

Although US national energy policy was gridlocked, several individual US states opened up new opportunities in 2013: Hawaii Electric Light Company completed a geothermal Request for Proposals and is soon expected to announce the winner out of six bidders. In Nevada, NV Energy is looking to replace coal plants with 300 MW of renewable energy, including geothermal.

2013 256

Lessons from a year with solar power

EV Info

According to the Department for Business, the average cost for standard electricity in the UK in 2020 was 17.2p/kWh. . It is simply a unit of measurement that equals the amount of energy you would use if you kept a 1,000 watt appliance running for an hour: So if you switched on a 100 watt light bulb, it would take 10 hours to rack up 1 kWh of energy. The standard unit of electrical power is the watt, which is defined as a current of one ampere, at a voltage of one volt.

Solar 67

ASTM approves 7th annex to D7566 sustainable jet fuel specification: HC-HEFA

Green Car Congress

The standard provides that HC-HEFA-SPK fuel, the development of which was led by IHI Corporation, may be blended at up to 10% by volume with conventional jet fuel. Syngas is typically produced from the gasification of biomass such as municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural and forest wastes, and wood and energy crops, as well as non-renewable feedstocks such as coal and natural gas.

2020 170

Study projects emission impacts of inexpensive, efficient EVs: 36% further reduction in LDV GHG by 2050, or 9% economy-wide

Green Car Congress

A new study by researchers at the University of Colorado at Boulder projects the emission impacts of the widespread introduction of inexpensive and efficient electric vehicles into the US light duty vehicle (LDV) sector. The database includes joint Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and GHG emission standards for LDVs. Electricity generation from natural gas increases over time in both scenarios, whereas generation from existing coal plants declines.

2017 150

Final session on international mercury convention this week expected to culminate in agreement; UNEP Global Mercury Assessment 2013 finds industrial source Hg emissions may be rising

Green Car Congress

Unintentional emission sectors: Coal burning, ferrous- and non-ferrous (Au, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) metal production, cement production. Mercury (Hg)—the only metal that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure—is very volatile and highly toxic to humans and animals when inhaled or ingested. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining and coal burning are the major sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions to air.

2013 221

EIA 2035 reference case projects drop in US imports of petroleum due to modest economic growth, increased efficiency, growing domestic oil production, and biofuels

Green Car Congress

In recent years, the US electric power sector’s historical reliance on coal-fired power plants has begun to decline. Over the next 25 years, the projected coal share of overall electricity generation falls to 39%, well below the 49% share seen as recently as 2007, because of slow growth in electricity demand, continued competition from natural gas and renewable plants, and the need to comply with new environmental regulations.

2012 185

Mercedes-Benz Cars plants in Germany to be supplied with CO2-neutral energy from 2022

Green Car Congress

Thereby, we completely forego coal-based electricity and obtain our electrical energy from only renewable sources. According to its slogan— digital, flexible, green—it will set standards within the worldwide automobile production. Almost all electrical consumers in production—computers, industrial drives, robots and production technologies, hall lighting and so on—already require direct current.

2018 163

Opinion: Why Buffett Bet A Billion On Solar: Miles Per Acre Per Year

Green Car Congress

The cost to operate an EV, per mile, is already well below the cost to drive a standard ICE-age model, and the advantage is likely to widen. Coal still supplies more power in the US than anything else, with natural gas next. However, building more coal and gas power plants to make miles for transport is counter-productive if the game plan is to reduce carbon output. But suppose your new car is up to current Chinese standards (~35 mpg). by Henry Hewitt for

2015 293

ExxonMobil Outlook projects hybrids and advanced vehicles to account for nearly 50% of cars globally by 2040; fuel demand for for personal vehicles to peak and decline, while commercial transportation demand rises 70%

Green Car Congress

Light duty vehicle fleet by type and average fuel efficiency. ExxonMobil expects that by 2040, hybrids and other advanced vehicles will account for nearly 50 percent of light duty vehicles on the road, compared to only about 1 percent today. ExxonMobil projects that global electricity demand will rise by 80% through 2040 as economies and living standards improve, and consumers switch to electricity from other sources such as oil, coal or biomass.

2011 322

Study finds PHEVs will reduce net emissions of CO2 and NOx; upward pressure on SO2

Green Car Congress

In a paper published in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology , they present their results for a 10% PHEV market share of the light-duty vehicle fleet. When compared to 2020 CAFE standards (6.7 L/100 km), net CO 2 emissions in New York are greatly reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity, but coal-heavy PJM shows lower benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO 2 generation.

2011 207

IEA: carbon intensity of global energy supply has barely changed in last 20 years; “window of opportunity in transport”

Green Car Congress

Fuel economy levels for new passenger light-duty vehicles LDV vary by up to 55% from country to country, demonstrating enormous scope for improving efficiency through policy. Fuel economy improvements accelerate where implementation of fuel economy standards and other policy measures has been scaled up, the report notes. Coal technologies continue to dominate growth in power generation. Around half of coal-fired power plants built in 2011 use inefficient technologies.

2013 224

Inaugural Quadrennial Technology Review report concludes DOE is underinvested in transport; greatest efforts to go to electrification

Green Car Congress

The DOE-QTR defines six key strategies: increase vehicle efficiency; electrification of the light duty fleet; deploy alternative fuels; increase building and industrial efficiency; modernize the electrical grid; and deploy clean electricity. Impartial DOE research can help inform these standards. Recognizing the differences in the fleet, DOE will establish separate technology priorities for heavy-duty and light-duty vehicles.

2011 191