Ariel researchers develop new type of hydrogen generator with sodium borohydride for on-demand use

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Hydrogen is produced in a catalytic hydrolysis reaction of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) with ruthenium powder as a catalyst. The system consists of two main chambers: an upper chamber with granulated sodium borohydride powder and a lower reaction chamber with a solution of water and catalyst.

Sodium 382

Study finds high sodium bicarbonate concentrations in water from coal-bed natural gas production harms aquatic life; water treatment can mitigate effects

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Produced water from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production may contain sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) at concentrations that can harm aquatic life, according to a new study by the US Geological Survey; Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks; the Bureau of Land Management and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Salts such as sodium bicarbonate are found naturally in the water along the coal-bed natural gas seams.

2012 191

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New heterogeneous acid catalyst shows high activity in release of hydrogen from sodium borohydride; lowest activation energy yet reported

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A team from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay has devised a heterogeneous acid catalyst, silica sulfuric acid, that shows high activity towards releasing hydrogen from sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), with a hydrolysis rate of 5.5 When NaBH 4 is suspended in an aqueous solution and then passed over a catalyst, the reaction produces hydrogen, along with a benign byproduct—sodium metaborate—that can be recycled back into sodium borohydride.

2014 275

Hyundai Motor and Kia collaborate with Next Hydrogen to develop advanced alkaline water electrolysis system

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Hyundai Motor Company and Kia Corporation have signed a memorandum of understanding with Canada-based Next Hydrogen Corporation, a specialist in water electrolysis technology and a subsidiary of Next Hydrogen Solutions Inc., Under the agreement, the companies will jointly develop an alkaline water electrolysis system and its related stack for the purpose of generating green hydrogen economically and exploring new business opportunities and technological applications.

Water 170

New liquid alloy electrode significantly lowers operating temperature of sodium-beta batteries; improved performance

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Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have devised an alloying strategy that enables sodium-beta batteries to operate at significantly lower temperatures. The new electrode enables sodium-beta batteries to last longer, helps streamline their manufacturing process and reduces the risk of accidental fire. The traditional design of sodium-beta batteries consists of two electrodes separated by a solid membrane made of the ceramic material beta alumina.

2014 191

German team produces hydrocarbons from thermal degradation of free fatty acids and animal fat in water and sodium carbonate; ultimately 43% diesel-range and 14% gasoline-range fractions

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Researchers in Germany have produced a hydrocarbon-based bio-crude and non-condensable gases from the thermal degradation of free fatty acids and animal fat in the presence of water and sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 , a sodium salt of carbonic acid commonly used as a water softener). The process was carried out in a moving bed of sodium carbonate at 5 wt% water at 430± 20 °C at a pilot-scale plant.

2011 191

KAUST team devises electrically-driven membrane process for seawater lithium mining

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13000 ppm of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and potassium ions, among others). The presence of monovalent ions, such as sodium and potassium, is not a significant issue in the conventional precipitation method since their salts are highly soluble.

Water 378

Univ. of Texas researchers propose lithium- or sodium-water batteries as next generation of high-capacity battery technology; applicable for EVs and grid storage

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Example of a lithium-water rechargeable battery. Researchers at the University of Texas, including Dr. John Goodenough, are proposing a strategy for high-capacity next-generation alkali (lithium or sodium)-ion batteries using water-soluble redox couples as the cathode. The present sodium-sulfur battery operates above 300 °C. In theory, the decomposition potential of water is 4.27 A = lithium or sodium (Li or Na), M represents a metal and 1 ≤ n < z.

2011 191

Ceramatec licensing molten sodium technology for heavy oil upgrading; removing the need for diluent for bitumen

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Flowchart of Molten Sodium Upgrading process. A new company, Field Upgrading (Calgary, Alberta), has been formed dedicated to developing and commercializing the Molten Sodium Upgrading (MSU) technology. The MSU process involves mixing elemental molten sodium and small quantities of hydrogen or methane to reduce significantly the levels of sulphur, metals, TAN (total acid number) and asphaltenes in heavy oil feedstocks, including oil sands bitumen.

2013 179

SiGNa Chemistry Demonstrates Sodium Silicate-Based Hydrogen Generation System for Portable Fuel Cells

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Prototype sodium silicate hydrogen generation system as presented earlier this year at DOE merit review. The H300 utilizes real-time swappable cartridges that generate hydrogen on demand using SiGNa’s proprietary sodium silicide (NaSi) powder. At greater than 9% hydrogen by weight, sodium silicide technology produces comparable results to chemical hydride technologies such as ammonia borane or sodium borohydride.

2009 199

Army Research Lab discovers aluminum nanomaterial rapidly splits water on contact

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Researchers at the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) have discovered that a nano-galvanic aluminum-based powder of their design splits water on contact, producing hydrogen and oxygen. Scientists have known for a long time that hydrogen can be produced by adding a catalyst—such as sodium or potassium hydroxide or an acid—to aluminum. The team demonstrated a small radio-controlled tank powered by the powder/water reaction.

2017 163

UMD-led study: road salts and other human sources are threatening world’s freshwater supplies

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Kaushal and his team named these cascading effects of introduced salts Freshwater Salinization Syndrome, and it can poison drinking water and cause negative effects on human health, agriculture, infrastructure, wildlife and the stability of ecosystems.

Clean water company Ostara raises $14.5M for major expansion

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a clean water company that recovers phosphorus and nitrogen from industrial and municipal wastewaters to create premium fertilizers, completed a US$14.5-million private equity financing. Nutrient-rich feed streams are mixed with magnesium chloride and, if necessary, sodium hydroxide and then fed into the Pearl reactor where minute particles or struvite “seeds” begin to form. Ostara Nutrient Recovery Technologies Inc.,

2012 196

New ionic liquid biomass pretreatment method eliminates need for enzymes, reduces water use

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We’re then able to separate the pretreatment solution into two phases, a sugar-rich water phase for recovery and a lignin-rich ionic liquid phase for recycling. As an added bonus, our new pretreatment technique uses a lot less water than previous pretreatments. By eliminating the need for enzymes and decreasing the water consumption requirements of more traditional ionic liquid pretreatments we should be able to reduce the costs of sugar production from lignocellulose.

2013 221

Nouryon, Tata Steel, Port of Amsterdam to study feasibility of largest green H2 cluster in Europe; 100 MW water electrolysis facility

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As a first step, the parties will study the feasibility of a 100 megawatt water electrolysis facility to produce up to 15,000 tons of hydrogen per year as well as oxygen at Tata Steel’s IJmuiden site, near Amsterdam. Nouryon already has 1000 MW of electrolysis capacity installed in various facilities, using three processes: chlor-alkali, sodium chlorate, and water electrolysis.

2018 161

Ionic liquid-enhanced solvent extraction for oil sands bitumen shows high recovery rates, less water use and no tailing water

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Canadian oil sands are a complex mixture of sand, clays, water, and bitumen. For surface mining oil sands production, a hot water extraction process (HWEP) has been widely applied. In this process, hot water and processing aids are mixed with oil sands to liberate bitumen from the minerals by shearing the oil sand particles. As a result, there is an ever-growing inventory of process-affected waters and tailing pond materials.

2011 161

Caltech engineers devise new thermochemical cycle for water splitting for H2; recyclable, non-toxic, non-corrosive and at lower temperatures

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The thermochemical production of hydrogen and oxygen from water via a series of chemical reactions is of interest because it directly converts thermal energy into stored chemical energy (hydrogen and oxygen), and thus can take advantage of excess heat given off by other processes. Research on thermochemical water splitting cycles largely began in the 1960s and 1970s and involved nuclear reactors and solar collectors as the energy sources, the team notes in their paper.

2012 185

Researchers Develop Lithium-Water Electrochemical Cell for the Controlled Generation of H2 and Electricity

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Schematic representation and operating principles of the lithium–water electrochemical cell used for hydrogen generation: (1) external circuit and (2) inside of lithium–water electrochemical cell. Scientists from the Energy Technology Research Institute, AIST in Tsukuba, Japan, have developed a lithium-water electrochemical cell for the controlled generation of hydrogen and electricity. sea water) by using sunlight.

2010 170

Researchers Develop New Lower-Cost, Efficient Catalyst for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

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A team of researchers from Tufts University, the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Harvard University report that alkali ions (sodium or potassium) added in small amounts activate platinum adsorbed on alumina or silica for the low-temperature water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (H 2 O+CO→ H 2 +CO 2 ) used for producing hydrogen. They also found that the sodium or potassium ions helped to stabilize the catalytic site.

2010 161

Researchers demonstrate concept desalination battery

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Schematic representation of the working principle behind a complete cycle of the desalination battery, showing how energy extraction can be accomplished: step 1, desalination; step 2, removal of the desalinated water and inlet of seawater; step 3, discharge of Na + and Cl ? At the current growth rate, humans will consume 90% of available fresh water by 2025, by which time the population living in water-stressed areas is expected to increase to 3.9 Batteries Water

2012 210

Electrolyzed Water for More Efficient Fuel Production from Ethanol Waste Products

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Using electrolyzed water rather than harsh chemicals could be a more effective and environmentally friendly method in the pretreatment of ethanol waste products to produce an acetone-butanol-ethanol fuel mix, according to research conducted at the University of Illinois. Feng, a University of Illinois food scientist, has been using electrolyzed water in his lab to kill bacteria such as E.

2009 150

Mangrove raises $3M from BDC Capital to accelerate deployment of battery-grade lithium processing systems

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The platform technology is also being commercialized for conversion of waste brines to chemicals and desalinated water. The Mangrove technology is derivative of the company’s original focus on the treatment of produced water.

Sodium 209

First Cobalt announces positive feasibility results for Canadian cobalt refinery expansion; first NA producer of battery-grade cobalt sulfate

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Several opportunities will be evaluated over the coming months that could enhance project economics further, including alternative approaches to managing elevated sodium concentrations prior to returning process water to the environment. Sodium Treatment. Water management.

2020 209

Imperial Oil and E3 Lithium partner on lithium pilot project, redeveloping historic oil field

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Under the agreement, E3 Lithium will continue to operate the Clearwater project and retain its IP, with technical and development support from Imperial in areas such as water and reservoir management. calcium, magnesium, sodium); and a 20x-100x lithium concentration factor.

Oil 339

Ganfeng Lithium’s Ma Hong Factory adding 50,000 tons of battery-grade lithium hydroxide annual production capacity; 81,000t total capacity

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The plant uses natural gas instead of coal as the main energy source; realizes 100% recycling and recycling of condensed water; encourages the utilization of by-products, and transports products such as calcium silicate slag, sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate slag, etc. Ganfeng Lithium’s Ma Hong factory, founded in 2012, is located in the High-tech Development Zone of Xinyu City, Jiangxi Province.

Sodium 179

Researchers develop rechargeable hybrid-seawater fuel cell; highly energy density, stable cycling

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The circulating seawater in the open-cathode system results in a continuous supply of sodium ions, endowing the system with superior cycling stability that allows the application of various alternative anodes to sodium metal by compensating for irreversible charge losses. Sodium can serve as an alternative to lithium in rechargeable batteries as the reversible storage mechanisms for sodium ions are very similar (e.g., V in de-aerated water.

2014 236

TUAT team develops more efficient method to recover heavy oil using novel chemical flooding

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To yield more oil, water may be injected into the reservoir to maintain pressure in order to keep the flow moving. Engineers may also make the water more alkaline by adding sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate to help the oil flow better.

2020 222

Audi and partners piloting project to turn faulty car glass into new windowpanes for the Audi Q4 e-tron

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Saint-Gobain Glass then mixes the recyclate with, among other things, quartz sand, sodium carbonate, and chalk—the basic components of glass. Faulty car windows often go in the recycling bin when the cracked part cannot be fixed.

Audi 311

New oxygenate additive for diesel fuels from glycerol

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Researchers from Tatung and National Cheng Kung Universities in China, and Case Western Reserve University in Ohio, report manufacturing a new oxygenate additive for diesels (bio or petroleum) using glycerol (a major byproduct of biodiesel production), dimethyl sulfate (DMS), and sodium hydroxide pellets as raw materials. By feeding the dimethyl sulfate into the batch reactor containing the sodium glycerate, a semi-batch mode operation enhanced the effective methylation of glycerol.

2011 191

Rio Tinto commits $2.4B for Jadar lithium project; planning 58,000 tons/year lithium carbonate by 2029

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Following ramp-up to full production in 2029, the mine will produce ~58,000 tonnes of lithium carbonate, 160,000 tonnes of boric acid (B 2 O 3 units) and 255,000 tonnes of sodium sulfate annually, making Rio Tinto one of the top ten lithium producers in the world. Rio Tinto has committed $2.4

Serbia 326

New mesoporous crystalline Si exhibits increased rate of H2 production; potential use in Li-ion batteries also

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The nanosized crystalline primary particles and high surface areas enable an increased rate of photocatalytic hydrogen production from water and extended working life. They then treat the material with a sodium potassium alloy. Micrograph of mesoporous silicon with sodium chloride and potassium chloride salts embedded in the matrix. The material is then heat-treated and washed in water to dissolve the salt, leaving pores that range from 5 to 15 nanometers.

2014 191

Chinese steel group Tsingshan investing $375M to build lithium plant in Argentina with Eramet

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Fresh water is then used to release the stored lithium. Purification of the lithium, then reaction with sodium carbonate to convert it to lithium carbonate.

New multifunctional polymer binder achieves theoretical capacity of LiFePO4 Li-ion batteries without additives

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Researchers led by a team from Griffith University in Australia have developed a multifunctional polymer binder that not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium-ion diffusion coefficient in a LiFePO 4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries.

2015 192

DOE awards Cummins $5M for automation of electrolyzer cell and stack assembly

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Proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers use a solid polymer electrolyte, and alkaline electrolyzers use an electrolyte solution, such as potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide mixed with water. Cummins has been awarded $5 million from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office for the automation of solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) and stack assembly.

Sodium 267

Fraunhofer team develops process to recycle carbon black from car tires

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Bottom, secondary products recovered from the ash, from left to right: liquid sodium silicate or “water glass”, precipitated SiO 2 , precipitated ZnSO 4. tons of fossil resources and vast quantities of water; the process generates up to three tons of carbon dioxide.

Carbon 335

UH team reports new catalyst efficiently produces hydrogen from seawater; promising for large-scale hydrogen production, desalination

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Researchers say the device, composed of inexpensive non-noble metal nitrides, manages to avoid many of the obstacles that have limited earlier attempts to inexpensively produce hydrogen or safe drinking water from seawater. Anderson Chair Professor of physics at UH, said it also would work with wastewater, providing another source of hydrogen from water that is otherwise unusable without costly treatment.

2019 211

Berkeley Lab leading investigation to quantify and characterize Salton Sea’s geothermal lithium resources

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The hot brine that comes up from the subsurface as part of geothermal power production at the Salton Sea in California is a rich stew of minerals, including iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, and lithium.

Researchers convert atmospheric CO2 to carbon nanofibers and nanotubes for use as anodes in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries

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Researchers from George Washington University and Vanderbilt University have demonstrated the conversion of atmospheric CO 2 into carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for use as high-performance anodes in both lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Here we show that this process can be used as a sustainable synthetic pathway for defect-controlled CNT and CNF materials, which exhibit excellent performance in the context of lithium-ion and sodium-ion battery anode materials.

2016 190

ORNL advancing LDH sorbent to recover lithium from geothermal brine wastes

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These plants pump hot water from geothermal deposits and use it to generate electricity. The LDH sorbent is made up of layers of the materials, separated by water molecules and hydroxide ions that create space, allowing lithium chloride to enter more readily than other ions such as sodium and potassium. The technique is very sensitive to hydrogen atoms, making it ideal for studying water.

2020 255

Tesla batteries switched on at world’s largest solar farm in the Middle East


The Tesla Powerpacks were switched on by the Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA). The system features a sodium sulphur (NaS) energy solution, and it has a capacity of 1.2

Tuning electrode surfaces to optimize solar fuel production

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Scientists have demonstrated that modifying the topmost layer of atoms on the surface of electrodes can have a remarkable impact on the activity of solar water splitting. This photocurrent drives the chemical reactions that split water into oxygen and hydrogen. Bismuth vanadate is a promising electrode material for solar water splitting because it strongly absorbs sunlight across a range of wavelengths and remains relatively stable in water.

Solar 170

Wuhan team develops new electrochemical cell for efficient, pollution-free extraction of lithium from salt lake brines

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Researchers at Wuhan University in China have developed a new electrochemical cell, PANI/Li x Mn 2 O 4 , for selective recovery of Li + ions from brine water with high impurity cations (K + , Na + , Mg 2+ , etc). free technology for Li + extraction from brine waters. Schematic illustration of the extraction of LiCl from brine water and the release of LiCl from the PANI/Li x Mn 2 O 4 cell.

2019 192

DOE awards $3.5M for advanced nuclear reactor projects

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million for four advanced nuclear reactor projects that go beyond traditional light water designs. Westinghouse’s project will conduct analysis on sodium thermal hydraulics to support advanced nuclear reactor design. The project will provide analytical tools to help quantify heat exchanger performance and improve component engineering for sodium-cooled reactor designs. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is awarding $3.5

2013 192