UCSD researchers improve method to recycle and renew used cathodes from Li-ion batteries via eutectic molten salts

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Illustration of the process to restore lithium ions to degraded NMC cathodes using eutectic molten salts at ambient pressure. However, that process involves pressurizing a hot lithium salt solution of cathode particles to around 10 atmospheres.

U Waterloo team shows four-electron conversion for Li-O2 batteries for high energy density; inorganic molten salt electrolyte, high temperature

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Nazar and her colleagues switched the organic electrolyte to a more stable inorganic molten salt and the porous carbon cathode to a bifunctional metal oxide catalyst.

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Western Hydrogen produces first hydrogen from Molten Salt Gasification pilot plant

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Molten Salt Gasification Process. Western Hydrogen Limited reported first production of hydrogen from its Molten Salt Gasification (MSG) pilot plant in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. Click to enlarge.

Sumitomo considering marketing new lower-temperature molten-salt electrolyte battery to automakers for EVs and hybrids

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Construction of the molten-salt electrolyte battery. is considering targeting its lower-temperature molten-salt electrolyte battery, being developed in partnership with Kyoto University ( earlier post ), to makers of electric and hybrid passenger cars, according to Bloomberg. A drawback to the general class of molten salt batteries (e.g., In a joint project with Kyoto University, Sumitomo developed a molten salt with a melting point as low as 57 °C.

GE unit invests with KGAL in 50-Mw Spanish concentrated solar power plant featuring molten salt energy storage

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million in a 50-megawatt parabolic trough concentrated solar power plant using molten salt energy storage in Torre de Miguel Sesmero, Badajoz, Spain. ACS has built more than €2 billion worth of concentrated solar power facilities with molten salt storage in Spain. This investment is GE Energy Financial Services’ first in a concentrated solar power plant using molten salt storage.

SDTC awards C$1.5M to support Molten Salt Catalyzed Gasification for hydrogen production; targeting reduced GHG footprint for oil sands synthetic crude

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will receive a $C1.5-million investment from Sustainable Development Technology Canada to support the development and commercialization of a new hydrogen manufacturing technology called Molten Salt Catalyzed Gasification (MSG), originally developed at the US Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

Report: Sumitomo and Kyoto University developing lower temperature molten-salt battery; about 10% the cost of Li-ion

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in partnership with Kyoto University, has developed a lower temperature molten-salt rechargeable battery that promises to cost only about 10% as much as lithium ion batteries. Molten-salt batteries use highly conductive molten salts as an electrolyte, and can offer high energy and power densities. The ZEBRA battery is an example of a molten salt battery. The Nikkei reports that Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd.,

ARPA-E to award $27M for advanced nuclear reactor systems operational technology: GEMINA

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Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) aims to reduce the O&M cost of the Kairos Power fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor through advanced sensing and automation. Moltex Energy will develop a multi-physics plant digital twin environment for its Stable Salt Reactor - Wasteburner (SSR-W).

2020 102

ARPA-E announces $12M for five projects in nuclear materials science; first OPEN+ cohort

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Accelerated Materials Design for Molten Salt Technologies Using Innovative High-Throughput Methods, University of Wisconsin-Madison, $1,861,820. The University of Wisconsin-Madison is developing new materials that are resistant to molten salt corrosion to enable promising molten salt technologies used in advanced nuclear reactors, concentrated solar power, and thermal storage.

2018 82

Silicon nanoparticles show high capacity and cycling stability as Li-ion anode

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To prepare the nanoparticles, the team reduced SiCl 4 with metallic magnesium in a molten salt of AlCl 3 at 200 ?C AlCl 3 not only acts as molten salt, but also participates in the reaction. C in Molten Salt for High-Performance Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries,” Angew.

Muons and ADNA proposing using accelerator-driven subcritical reactor for heat for production of synthetic fuels and chemicals

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The type of spallation target: lead, lead– bismuth, tungsten, molten salt, etc. The nature of the cooling agent: gas, molten metal, molten salt. The tank below shows an accumulation of salt that overflowed into it from the free salt surface.

2012 134

ARPA-E awarding up to $24M to 10 projects to support advanced nuclear power plants

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Terrestrial Energy USA: Magnetically Suspended Canned Rotor Pumps for the Integral Molten Salt Reactor – $3,150,000. The Terrestrial Energy USA team will develop a novel, magnetically suspended circulation pump for molten salt reactors to improve plant performance, increase pump lifetime, and reduce cost. By establishing a design for reprocessing the reactor’s molten salt fuel, the team hopes to remove a major barrier to commercialization for molten salt reactors.

2018 94

Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Receives $10.2M Contract for Concentrated Solar Power Tower with Thermal Storage Technology

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Liquefied molten salt is circulated into the receiver, where it is heated to about 1,000 °F (about 538 °C), then stored in a large insulated tank. The energy from this stored molten salt is available on-demand to drive a steam turbine to create electricity. Because hot molten salt can be stored for days with little heat-loss, it can be used at night or on cloudy days to generate electricity. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne received an award of up to $10.2

Lux Research: grid storage battery cost to fall to $500/kWh by 2022, short of expectations

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Lithium-ion and molten-salt battery costs will approach $500/kWh by 2022, reducing the high capital cost of emerging grid storage technologies. Molten-salt batteries hold the most potential to be the cheapest large-scale systems, with manufacturing improvements playing the largest role, accounting for 95% of the cost reduction.

Sadoway and MIT team demonstrate calcium-metal-based liquid metal battery

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All the active components in a liquid metal battery (LMB) are liquid: a low-density liquid metal negative electrode; an intermediate-density molten salt electrolyte; and a high-density liquid metal positive electrode.

2016 78

Novel Li-metal electrode design could lead to more powerful solid-state batteries

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The researchers used a high-temperature surface treatment with molten salt to produce a protective surface layer on particles of manganese- and lithium-rich metal-oxide, so the amount of oxygen loss is drastically reduced. 2019) “Gradient Li-rich oxide cathode particles immunized against oxygen release by a molten salt treatment.”

2020 90

Lux: Li-ion dominating grid storage market with 90% of 2014 proposals

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Molten salt batteries still account for a majority of installations by energy capacity, because of NGK Insulators’ early lead, but are no longer the technology of choice, according to Lux. Molten salt batteries—consisting almost entirely of sodium-sulfur (NaS)—account for 23% of all deployed MW and 64% of deployed MWh respectively.

2015 83

BASF announces winners of the open innovation contest on energy storage

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The winning concepts were: A molten air battery that uses a molten salt electrolyte at elevated temperature from Professor Stuart Licht at George Washington University. BASF announced the winners of the BASF Energy Contest at the “Creator Space Summit” in Ludwigshafen. From 122 applications submitted on the online platform NineSights, a jury of BASF experts and external specialists chose the four best proposals which will be funded with €100,000 (US$106,000) each.

2015 60

DOE requesting information on critical energy materials, including fuel cell platinum group metal catalysts

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Solid oxide solid acid Phosphoric acid molten carbonate Polymer electrolyte membrane. Mirrors Molten salts. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has released a Request for Information (RFI) on critical materials in the energy sector, including fuel cell platinum group metal catalysts.

2016 60

Stanford team devises new bio-inspired strategy for using CO2 to produce multi-carbon compounds such as plastics and fuels

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In the paper in Nature they showed that intermediate-temperature (200 to 350 ˚C) molten salts containing caesium or potassium cations enable carbonate ions (CO 3 2– ) to deprotonate very weakly acidic C–H bonds, generating carbon-centered nucleophiles that react with CO 2 to form carboxylates. She then heated the mixture to about 200 ˚C to form a molten salt. After five hours, 89% of the molten-salt mixture had been converted to FDCA.

2016 60

JBEI team develops one-pot, wash-free process for pretreatment and saccharification of switchgrass; avenues for driving down biofuel cost

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In their efforts to develop cost-effective ways to deconstruct cellulosic biomass into fuel sugars, the researchers focused on pretreatments of the biomass with ionic liquids—environmentally benign organic salts often used as green chemistry substitutes for volatile organic solvents.

2013 123

Researchers report advances toward room-temperature fluoride-ion batteries

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However, current fluoride batteries use molten salt electrolytes, and thus need to operate at high temperatures. The first advance is the development of a room-temperature liquid electrolyte based on a stable tetraalkylammonium salt–fluorinated ether combination. We report a liquid fluoride ion–conducting electrolyte with high ionic conductivity, wide operating voltage, and robust chemical stability based on dry tetraalkylammonium fluoride salts in ether solvents.

2018 95

ORNL and Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics in CRADA for development of fluoride salt-cooled high-temp reactors

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Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP) are engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) focused on accelerating scientific understanding and technical development of salt-cooled reactors, specifically fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors ( FHRs ). Samples of the new alloys show promise for application in high stress applications at higher temperatures along with good fluoride salt corrosion resistance.

2015 77

MIT team calls initial performance results of magnesium-antimony liquid metal battery “promising”

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Because of density differences and immiscibility, the salt and metal phases stratify into three distinct layers: Schematic of a Mg||Sb liquid metal battery comprising three liquid layers that operates at 700 °C.

2012 128

GE Launches Durathon Sodium-Metal Halide Battery for UPS Market

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The cathode structure of a sodium-metal halide cell consists of a conductive Ni network, molten salt electrolyte, metal current collector, carbon felt electrolyte reservoir, and the active sodium-metal halide salts.

Sodium 104

DOE awarding $60M to 13 projects for advanced nuclear technology development; $40M of that to NuScale for SMR

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Modeling and Optimization of Flow and Heat Transfer in Reactor Components for Molten Chloride Salt Fast Reactor Application: Elysium Industries USA.

2018 99

3 MIT-led teams win DOE NEUP funding for next-gen nuclear technologies

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Fluoride-salt High-Temperature Reactor. The award extends funding for the integrated research project (IRP) between MIT, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Wisconsin at Madison to develop a test reactor and, ultimately, a commercial high-temperature salt-cooled reactor, also called a Fluoride-salt High-Temperature Reactor [FHR].

2014 74

Rio Tinto and Alcoa announce world’s first carbon-free aluminum smelting process; Apple assist; Elysis JV to commercialize

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The conventional Hall–Héroult process (invented in 1886) for smelting aluminum involves dissolving alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) in molten cryolite, and electrolyzing the molten salt bath, typically in a purpose-built cell with carbon electrodes.

2018 91

GE to expand sodium-halide battery plant with $70M investment

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The structure of a sodium-metal halide cell consists of a conductive Ni network, molten salt electrolyte, metal current collector, carbon felt electrolyte reservoir, and the active sodium-metal halide salts. The batteries thus are produced using abundantly available raw materials such as salt and nickel and are non-toxic and fully recyclable.

ARPA-E Selects 6 Projects for $9.6M in Funding, Including Improving Efficiency and Power Density of Electric Machines

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Two-tank molten salt is currently the preferred state-of-the-art thermal energy storage for solar thermal power plants. The UCLA-led team will develop and implement a supercritical fluid based thermal energy storage system which will potentially increase the energy density by over a factor of two compared to the two-tank molten salt system, with a cost less than 70% of the molten salt system.

2010 80

Honda develops process to reuse rare earth metals extracted from old NiMH batteries for new NiMH batteries for hybrid vehicles

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Now, by applying molten salt electrolysis to this oxide, Honda has succeeded in extracting metallized rare earth that can be used directly as negative-electrode materials for nickel-metal hydride batteries. Honda’s process for recycling NiMH batteries. The new portion of the process is outlined in red. Click to enlarge. Honda Motor Co.,

German researchers improve catalyst for steam reforming of methanol with salt coating; enabler for renewable energy storage systems

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This is a temperature level too low for operating the MeOH steam reforming reaction with high hydrogen yields.Herein, we report that Pt on alumina catalysts exhibit an exceedingly enhanced activity and selectivity after surface modification with a thin-film coating of hygroscopic and basic inorganic salts. Liquid salts have very low vapor pressures so that even under the conditions used for a continuous reaction in the gas phase, they remain on the surface of the catalyst.

2013 78

Team develops electroplating method for Li-ion cathode production; high performance and new form factors, functionalities

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In an open-access paper in the journal Science Advances, the team reports using a low-temperature (260 °C) molten salt electrodeposition approach directly to electroplate the Li-ion cathode materials layered LiCoO 2 , spinel LiMn 2 O 4 , and Al-doped LiCoO 2.

2017 85

AIST researchers synthesize new class of high-voltage, high-capacity cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

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Recently, we reported that a thermal treatment after the ion-exchange reaction using a molten salt improved the charge- discharge performance of O3-Li 0.7 The team attributed the performance of the new composition to the predominant retention of the layered rock-salt structure over the spinel phase.

2016 65

MIT team proposes ARC fusion reactor: affordable, robust, compact

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ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing fluorine lithium beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt.

DOE awarding >$24M to 77 projects through Technology Commercialization Fund

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Advanced Inorganic Fluors in the Scintillation Hydro-Gel for Isotopic Neutron Emitters (SHINE) Neutron Detection Material for Nuclear Reactor Monitoring Systems, $37,500 Advanced Manufacturing of Electrochemical Sensors for Molten Salt Applications, $75,000 INFlex Labs LLC, Boise, Idaho Application of advanced preprocessing technologies for biopower and biobased products, $300,000 Lignetics Inc.,

2019 84

GWU team uses one-pot process to co-generate H2 and solid carbon from water and CO2; solar fuels

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Molten hydroxides are important as conductive, high-current, low-electrolysis-potential electrolytes for water splitting to generate hydrogen, the team notes in the paper. In general, we have found an energy advantage in applying STEP to liquid, molten electrolyte cells.

2014 107

Oak Ridge-GM prototype low-viscosity ionic liquid-additized engine oil delivers 2% fuel economy improvement over 5W-30

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Ionic liquids are “room temperature molten salts”, composed of cations & anions, instead of neutral molecules. A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and General Motors, led by ORNL researcher Dr. Jun Qu, has developed a new group of ionic liquids as lubricant additives that could help improve the energy efficiency of cars and trucks.

2013 117

Solartaxi visits AeroVironment

Revenge of the Electric Car

Solartaxi has two Swiss made 14kwhr Zebra batteries which are a molten-salt type battery that has an operating temperature window of 270-350degC (518-662degF). Stefano readies for a Solartaxi test drive. This summer Swiss visionary Louis Palmer and his friendly team made several stops in Southern California on their global whirlwind tour with their spectacular Solartaxi Electric Vehicle. One of the stops was at AeroVironment in Simi Valley.

2008 100

ARPA-E awarding $30M to 12 hybrid solar projects; conversion and storage

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The engine and solar cell are surrounded by salts that store heat as needed by melting when the sun shines and releases the heat to make electricity by solidifying when the sun is not shinning. Hybrid Solar Converter with Solar Pond Receiver Otherlab will develop an integrated system that splits the solar spectrum, converting the most suitable wavelengths of sunlight into electricity via high-efficiency solar cells and using the rest of the spectrum to directly heat a pool of molten salt.

2014 99

Boulder Ionics raises $4.3M for high-throughput production of ionic liquid electrolytes for energy storage devices

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Ionic liquids (room-temperature molten salts) are a relatively new class of materials that show promise for electrolytes in energy storage applications. Boulder Ionics Corporation, a startup that has developed a novel, high-throughput, low-cost synthesis platform for producing ionic liquid electrolytes for use in advanced energy storage devices, completed a $4.3-million Series A financing. With this $4.3

2012 81

JBEI team develops new one-pot process to extract biomass sugars from ionic liquid solutions

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The use of ionic liquids (molten salts with melting points. reported that certain hydrophilic ILs could form an aqueous biphasic system (ABS) in the presence of concentrated kosmotropic salts.

2013 109

US DOE Offers Abengoa Solar a Conditional Commitment for $1.45B Loan Guarantee for Concentrating Solar Power Plant

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Solana will include six hours of molten salt thermal energy storage capability, which will allow energy to be dispatched as needed during cloudy periods and after sunset. President Obama announced in his weekly video address on 3 July that DOE has offered a conditional commitment for a $1.45 billion loan guarantee to Abengoa Solar, Inc.

2010 68