Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. The piece was co-authored by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego climate and atmospheric scientist V. Besides a danger to breathe, ozone lowers crop yields.

Studies find global COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced PM2.5 and NO2 pollution, but ozone up

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However, the drop in nitrogen dioxide pollution has caused an increase in surface ozone levels in China, according to one of the new studies. Ozone is a secondary pollutant formed when sunlight and high temperature catalyze chemical reactions in the lower atmosphere.

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Study Concludes Warming Climate Will Increase Ozone Levels in Major California Air Basins; Climate Change and Regional Air Quality Are Intertwined Problems

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Illustration of projected ozone changes in the South Coast region due to climate change in 2050. Areas in orange and red could see ozone concentrations elevated by 9 to 18 parts per billion. In a new report released by the California Air Resources Board, scientists from the University of California at Davis and Berkeley estimate that rising temperatures from climate change will increase ozone levels in California’s major air basins.

UN Review of Recent Climate Research Concludes That Impacts Of Climate Change Coming Faster Than Anticipated

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Significant climate anomalies 2008/2009. Source: Climate Change Compendium. A UN review of some 400 major scientific contributions to Earth systems and climate science released through peer-reviewed literature or from research institutions over the last three years, has found that the pace and scale of climate change may now be outstripping even the worst case predictions of the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC).

Cutting Non-CO2 Pollutants Can Delay Abrupt Climate Change; The Fast Action Climate Agenda

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A “fast-action” climate agenda including reducing non-CO 2 climate change agents such as black carbon soot, tropospheric ozone, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), as well as expanding bio-sequestration through biochar production, can forestall fast-approaching abrupt climate changes, according to Nobel Laureate Dr. Mario Molina (Chemistry, 1995) and co-authors in a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Climate policy.

California ARB and NOAA Collaborating in $20M Research on Interaction of Air Pollution and Climate Change; One Atmosphere Approach

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Schematic diagram of the trade-offs between the implications for regional air quality and global climate change of new policies for management of the atmosphere. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are collaborating in the $20-million CalNex research project to examine the nexus between air pollution and climate change. What is the importance of natural emissions to the ozone formation process?

Study finds rising temperatures increase risk of unhealthy ozone levels absent sharp cuts in precursors

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Ozone pollution across the continental United States will become far more difficult to keep in check as temperatures rise, according to new work led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The study shows that Americans face the risk of a 70% increase in unhealthy summertime ozone levels by 2050, assuming continued greenhouse gas emissions with resultant significant warming (IPCC Scenario A2 and RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5.). Ozone formation.

2014 179

China study connects ozone pollution to cardiovascular health

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Exposure to ozone, long associated with impaired lung function, is also connected to health changes that can cause cardiovascular disease such as heart attack, high blood pressure and stroke, according to a new study of Chinese adults. The findings associated ozone exposure with markers of platelet activation and increased blood pressure. They monitored indoor and outdoor ozone levels, along with other pollutants.

2017 163

Fast action on black carbon, ozone and methane could help limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees C

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Global benefits from full implementation of the identified measures in 2030 compared to the reference scenario. The climate change benefit is estimated for a given year (2050) and human health and crop benefits are. Fast action on pollutants such as black carbon, ground-level ozone and methane may help limit near term global temperature rise and significantly increase the chances of keeping temperature rise below 2 °C (3.6 °F)—and

2011 191

CSIRO study finds ozone uptake in oceans much lower than previously thought

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CSIRO scientists have developed a new way to account for ozone in computer simulations of the climate. This latest modeling shows that the oceans take much less ozone out of the atmosphere than previously thought. This has implications not only for the understanding of future global warming, but also on human health, plant productivity and the economy. Ozone (O 3 ) is formed by reactions of chemicals such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds—i.e.,

2019 150

WHO issues new, lower Global Air Quality Guidelines for classical pollutants

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New WHO has issued new Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) that reduce levels of key air pollutants, some of which also contribute to climate change. When action is taken on these classical pollutants—particulate matter (PM), ozone (O?),

UNEP study: small number of measures targeting black carbon and tropospheric ozone could yield immediate climate benefits

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Global benefits from full implementation of the identified measures in 2030 compared to the reference scenario. The climate change benefit is estimated for 2050 and human health and crop benefits are for 2030 and beyond. Black carbon and tropospheric ozone are harmful air pollutants that also contribute to climate change. Full implementation of these measures would reduce future global warming by 0.5 °C Climate Change Diesel Emissions Policy

2011 191

Latest GHG Inventory shows California remains below 2020 emissions target; much steeper rate of GHG reductions required

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in 2018 (2000-2018 average year-over-year increase is 6.8%), continuing the increasing trend as they replace Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) being phased out under the 1987 Montreal Protocol. Climate Change Emissions Market Background Policy Regulations

2020 209

Climate Expert: Don't Call It Geoengineering

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The leaders of the world have just returned from the UN's latest climate change summit, COP26 , in which the countries that have signed on to the Paris Agreement upped their commitments to fight climate change. C by the year 2100 , according to Climate Action Tracker.

Study finds fleet switch from PFI to GDI engines will result in net reduction in global warming

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A new study quantifying emissions from a fleet of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and port fuel injection (PFI) engines finds that the measured decrease in CO 2 emissions from GDIs is much greater than the potential climate forcing associated with higher black carbon emissions from GDI engines. Thus, the researchers concluded, switching from PFI to GDI vehicles will likely lead to a reduction in net global warming. We estimate ozone and SOA formation potential.

2017 184

Report: Rising temperatures to increase ozone levels

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A new report released by the California Air Resources Board (ARB) has sent a stark warning on the effects of climate change on ozone levels in the state’s major air basins. According to scientists from the University of California at Davis and Berkeley, rising temperatures will increase ozone levels while peak concentrations of dangerous airborne [.].

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Emissions of potent GHG HFC-23 have grown, contradicting reports of huge reductions

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Despite reports that global emissions of the potent greenhouse gas, HFC-23, were almost eliminated in 2017, an international team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, has found atmospheric levels growing at record values. In response to these measures, scientists were expecting to see global emissions drop by almost 90% between 2015 and 2017, which should have seen growth in atmospheric levels grind to a halt. This would have been a big win for climate.

2020 179

NOAA Study Identifies Nitrous Oxide as Top Ozone-Depleting Emission in 21st Century

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Currently, anthropogenic N 2 O emissions represent the largest contribution to ozone depletion. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) has become the most important ozone-depleting substance (ODS) emitted through human activities, and is expected to remain the largest throughout the 21 st century, according to a new study by scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). About one-third of global nitrous oxide emissions are from human activities.

2009 150

International study identifies 14 key measures to reduce methane and black carbon emissions; reduction in projected global mean warming of ~0.5 °C by 2050

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Circle areas are proportional to values for (A and B) climate change, (C and D) human health (values for population over age 30), and (E and F) agriculture. A study by an international team of researchers, led by Drew Shindell of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York City, has identified 14 measures targeting methane and black carbon (BC) emissions that could reduce projected global mean warming ~0.5°C Black carbon Climate Change Emissions

2012 218

California 2017 GHG inventory shows 1.2% total drop from 2016; transportation sector emissions up 1%

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Changes in emissions by Scoping Plan sector between 2000 and 2017. Emissions from all other sectors have remained relatively constant in recent years, although emissions from high Global Warming Potential (GWP) gases have continued to increase as they replace Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) banned under the 1987 Montreal Protocol. Climate Change Emissions

2019 201

Royal Society Report Concludes Geoengineering and its Consequences May be the Price for Failure to Act on Climate Change; Recommendations for Plan B

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From: Geoengineering the Climate (2009) Click to enlarge. Geoengineering is defined as the deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system in order to moderate global warming. It is an unpalatable truth that unless we can succeed in greatly reducing CO 2 emissions we are headed for a very uncomfortable and challenging climate future, and geoengineering will be the only option left to limit further temperature increases.

2009 170

Test of Planet-Cooling Scheme Could Start in 2022

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Up there, 10 to 50 kilometers above the Earth’s surface, ozone molecules absorb the sun’s ultraviolet light, protecting life far below. For many, the mere idea of purposefully intervening in the climate system is problematic and worth shutting down before it gains traction.

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NASA-led study identifies unprecedented depletion of stratospheric ozone layer above Arctic

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A NASA-led study has documented an unprecedented depletion of Earth’s protective ozone layer above the Arctic last winter and spring caused by an unusually prolonged period of extremely low temperatures in the stratosphere. The study, published online Sunday in the journal Nature , finds the amount of ozone destroyed in the Arctic in 2011 was comparable to that seen in some years in the Antarctic, where an ozone “hole” has formed each spring since the mid 1980s.

2011 170

Toyota develops tropospheric ozone-concentration simulator for South and East Asia

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have developed a simulator able to predict tropospheric ozone concentrations across the whole of South and East Asia. The simulator is expected to contribute with efforts to reduce energy consumption and limit emissions of the substances in South and East Asia that cause atmospheric pollution—one factor in global warming—and thereby bring about significant benefits worldwide. Tropospheric ozone can move unhindered across national boundaries.

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Study Finds Controlling Soot May Be Fastest Method to Reduce Arctic Ice Loss and Global Warming; Second-Leading Cause of Global Warming After CO2

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Controlling soot from fossil fuels and solid biofuels may be a faster method of reducing Arctic ice loss and global warming than other options, including controlling CH 4 or CO 2 , although all controls are needed, according to a new study by Dr. Mark Z. Results of the study suggest that soot is second only to carbon dioxide in contributing to global warming. 1990; Anisimov, 2007] and chemical production of ozone in already-polluted locations [Jacobson, 2008b].

2010 199

WMO reports GHG concentrations at highest in 800K years

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Globally averaged concentrations of CO 2 reached 403.3 Together, the Greenhouse Gas Bulletin and Emissions Gap Report will provide a base for decision-making at the UN climate change negotiations, which will be held from 7-17 November in Bonn, Germany. WMO is also striving to improve weather and climate services for the renewable energy sector and to support the Green Economy and sustainable development. Globally averaged concentrations for CO 2 reached 403.3

2017 174

Here’s How We Could Brighten Clouds to Cool the Earth

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As we confront the enormous challenge of climate change, we should take inspiration from even the most unlikely sources. Solar climate intervention " is the umbrella term for projects such as ours that involve reflecting sunlight to reduce global warming and its most dangerous impacts.

California Air Resources Board posts revised draft of strategy to reduce “Super Pollutants”

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The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has posted a revised draft of California’s proposed Short-Lived Climate Pollutant (SLCP) Strategy. SLCPs are a category of pollutants which remain in the atmosphere for a relatively brief period, but have global warming potentials that are much higher than those of CO 2. SLCPs may account for an estimated 40% of global warming, increasing the impacts of climate change. Climate Change Emissions Policy Regulations

2016 196

Study: Hydrofluorocarbons Will Contribute Significantly to Global Warming by 2050

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Global ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and HFC emissions (A), global CO 2 and HFC emissions (B), and ODS, HFC, and CO 2 global RF (C) for the period 2000–2050. These HFCs, gases used in refrigerators and air conditioners, are substitutes for ozone-depleting gases, but they are also strong greenhouse gases. Their contribution to global warming is currently small, but can increase to the equivalent of 9-19% (CO 2 -eq.

2009 150

Study Finds Traveling by Car Increases Global Temperatures More than Traveling by Plane In the Long Term

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Temperature change per transport work by mode for various years after the emissions: per passenger kilometer for passenger travel (left) and per ton-kilometer for freight transport (right). Global average values for the year 2000. A new study comparing both the absolute and normalized climate impacts of current passenger and freight transportation finds that driving a car increases global temperatures in the long run more than making the same long-distance journey by air.

2010 196

UN report projects that increasing use of HFCs likely to have a significant climate impact by 2050; equivalent to current total annual emissions from transport

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The decrease in CO 2 equivalent emissions of ODSs (ozone-depleting substances: CFCs, halons, HCFCs, and others) may be offset by the projected increase in their non-ozone depleting substitutes (HFCs) (lines designated as HFC scenarios). Used in products such as air conditioners, refrigerators, firefighting equipment and insulation foams, HFCs are becoming popular as replacements for those phased-out or being phased-out to protect the ozone layer. Climate and the Ozone Layer.

2011 237

Up close and personal with Volkswagen’s e-Golf carbon offset project: Garcia River Forest

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Emission reductions produced by the project are verified by an approved third party and registered with the Climate Action Reserve (Project ID CAR102 ). In February 2008, GRF became one of the first forests—and the largest—to receive verification as a source of greenhouse gas reductions under the protocols of the Climate Action Reserve , adopted by the California Air Resources Board in 2007. ozone depletion potential (ODP). photochemical ozone creation potential.

2015 268

Study Concludes that Rocket Launches May Need Regulation to Prevent Ozone Depletion

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The global market for rocket launches may require more stringent regulation in order to prevent significant damage to Earth’s stratospheric ozone layer in the decades to come, according to a new study by researchers in California and Colorado. If left unregulated, rocket launches by the year 2050 could result in more ozone destruction than was ever realized by CFCs.” This raises the possibility of regulation of space launch systems in the name of ozone protection.

2009 150

IPCC: GHG emissions accelerating despite mitigation efforts; major institutional and technological change required to keep the heat down

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Decomposition of the decadal change in total global CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion by four driving factors; population, income (GDP) per capita, energy intensity of GDP and carbon intensity of energy. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released a policymaker’s summary of Working Group III’s (WG III) latest report showing that despite a growing number of climate change mitigation policies, annual anthropogenic GHG emissions grew on average by 1.0

2014 218

Sponsors of SAE Study Conclude HFO-1234yf Can Be Used As Low-GWP Global Replacement Refrigerant in MAC Systems

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A two-year Cooperative Research Program conducted through SAE International to investigate the safety and environmental performance of the low-global-warming-potential (GWP) refrigerant HFO-1234yf for mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems has finished its study. HFO-1234yf is a non-Ozone Depleting Substance with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 4. Tags: Climate Change Emissions Vehicle Systems

2009 170

Study Finds Ozone, Nitrogen Change the Way Rising CO2 Affects Earths Water

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Through a recent modeling experiment, a team of NASA-funded researchers have found that future concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone in the atmosphere and of nitrogen in the soil are likely to have an important but overlooked effect on the cycling of water from sky to land to waterways. The researchers concluded that models of climate change may be underestimating how much water is likely to run off the land and back into the sea as atmospheric chemistry changes.

2009 170

Volkswagen to use CO2 as refrigerant for future air conditioning systems

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The Volkswagen Group announced that it is choosing CO 2 as the future low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant for its mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems. With a GWP (Global Warming Potential) value of 1, R744 is 99.3% R134a replaced CFC-12 as the MAC refrigerant in the early 1990s due to the negative impact of CFCs on the Earth’s ozone layer. With its GWP of 1, it is also the refrigerant that has the least impact on climate.

2013 255

US and UK researchers report direct measurement of key atmospheric reactant; more rapid formation of secondary aerosols

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The researchers believe the measurements will substantially impact the understanding of atmospheric chemistry mechanisms—in particular, in the more rapid formation of secondary aerosols, important in the formation of local smog as well as in global climate change. Our results will have a significant impact on our understanding of the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and have wide ranging implications for pollution and climate change.

2012 225

Study Finds On-Road Transportation Sector the Greatest Net Contributor to Atmospheric Warming Now and in Mid-Term; Power Sector Takes the Lead by 2050

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A new study by led by Nadine Unger at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) that analyzes the net climate impacts of emissions from economic sectors rather than by individual chemical species has found that on-road transportatation is and will be the greatest net contributor to atmospheric warming now and in the near term. It’s good for the climate in the short term and long term, and it’s good for our health.”. Tags: Climate Change Emissions Policy

2010 310

Study identifies Bakken Formation alone as responsible for ~2% of global ethane emissions

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Ethane reacts with sunlight and other molecules in the atmosphere to form ozone, which at the surface can cause respiratory problems, eye irritation and other ailments and damage crops. Surface-level ozone is one of the main pollutants that the national Air Quality Index measures in its effort to let the public know when breathing outside for long periods of time could be harmful. And they’re sufficient to explain much of the global shift in ethane concentrations.

2016 195

New international Climate and Clean Air Coalition to focus on reduction of short-lived climate pollutants

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Global benefits from full implementation of measures for reduction of short-lived climate pollutants in 2030 compared to the reference scenario. The climate change benefit is estimated for a given year (2050) and human health and crop benefits are. Such pollutants together account for approximately one-third of current global warming, have significant impacts on public health, the environment, and world food productivity. Climate Change Emissions Policy

2012 185

North American Countries Target “Super” Greenhouse Gases Through Strengthened Ozone Treaty

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The US, Canada, and Mexico have submitted a proposal to strengthen climate protection under the Montreal Protocol— the international treaty that phases out the production of a number of substances responsible for ozone depletion. Climate protection from the Montreal and Kyoto protocols. If accepted by the other Montreal Protocol Parties, the proposal would deliver climate mitigation equivalent to preventing more than 100 billion tonnes of CO 2 emissions.

2010 161

NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 reaches orbit

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The Afternoon Constellation, so named because it crosses the equator at approximately 1:30 PM local time every day, consists of five existing satellites in tight formation, collecting simultaneous data on aerosols, clouds, cloud ice, carbon sinks, carbon sources, ozone, particulates, and atmospheric water vapor. Level 3 - Monthly gridded global maps of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Level 4 - Monthly maps of global carbon dioxide sources and sinks.

2014 207