Study finds COVID-19 lockdown in China brought only slight reduction in PM2.5 and ozone

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and ozone were only slightly reduced or barely affected. Ozone can irritate breathing, affect lung function and worsen lung conditions such as asthma. We found almost no change in ozone concentrations because of the pandemic control measures.

2020 227

CSIRO study finds ozone uptake in oceans much lower than previously thought

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CSIRO scientists have developed a new way to account for ozone in computer simulations of the climate. This latest modeling shows that the oceans take much less ozone out of the atmosphere than previously thought. Ozone (O 3 ) is formed by reactions of chemicals such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds—i.e., Ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane, in terms of potential for global warming.

2019 150

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Study suggests air pollution may be linked to heightened mouth cancer risk; PM2.5 and ozone

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High levels of air pollutants, especially fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and to a lesser extent, ozone, may be linked to a heightened risk of developing mouth cancer, suggests a study by a team of Taiwanese researchers. Exposure to heavy metals and emissions from petrochemical plants are also thought to be implicated in the development of the disease, while air pollution, especially PM 2.5 , is known to be harmful to respiratory and cardiovascular health. Emissions Health

2018 220

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. Ramanathan concludes that full implementation of existing emissions-control technologies could offset the warming effects of one to two decades of carbon dioxide emissions.

New statistical method to detect ozone pollution hot spots and monitor instrument failure; combining PCA and MEWMA

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A new statistical method developed by researchers at KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia) can detect abnormal ozone levels within large bodies of monitored data. The monitoring methods can quickly and accurately detect ozone anomalies—localized spikes in ozone concentration indicated by sensor data. Ozone is the reactive form of oxygen that contains three atoms per molecule (O 3 ) rather than the normal two. Emissions Health

2016 200

Texas study finds PHEV use could increase ozone at night, decrease ozone during the day

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A study by researchers at the University of Texas found that in general, use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. In addition, the study, published in the IOP journal Environmental Research Letters , found that charging plug-in vehicles at night could slightly reduce, on average, ozone.

Ozone 195

Satellite data show resurgence in NO2 emissions over China

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Data from the ESA’s Tropomi (TROPOspheric Monitoring) instrument on board the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite shows the variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) emissions over China from December to March. Behavior China Emissions Health Market Background Policy

2020 380

Study: surface ozone in India in 2005 damaged 6M tonnes of crops, enough to feed 94M people in poverty

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Ozone, the main component of smog, is a plant-damaging pollutant formed by emissions from vehicles, cooking stoves and other sources. New research shows that ozone pollution damaged millions of tons of wheat, rice, soybean and cotton crops in India in 2005. Surface ozone pollution in India damaged 6 million metric tons (6.7 Rising emissions are causing severe ozone pollution in some of India’s most populated regions. Emissions Health India Policy

2014 209

UNEP study: small number of measures targeting black carbon and tropospheric ozone could yield immediate climate benefits

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A small number of emissions reduction measures targeting black carbon (BC) and tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) could immediately begin to protect climate, public health, water and food security, and ecosystems, according to a study, Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone , newly released by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Black carbon and tropospheric ozone are harmful air pollutants that also contribute to climate change.

2011 195

Fast action on black carbon, ozone and methane could help limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees C

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Fast action on pollutants such as black carbon, ground-level ozone and methane may help limit near term global temperature rise and significantly increase the chances of keeping temperature rise below 2 °C (3.6 °F)—and Fast action might also reduce losses of mountain glaciers linked in part with black carbon deposits while reducing projected warming by two thirds in the Arctic over the coming decades by two thirds. emission reduction potential.

2011 195

Ethanol and Ozone

Plugs and Cars

Of our "alternative fuel" options, only electricity can truly be made renewably (wind, solar, geothermal, small hydro), with no carbon or other noxious emissions. And only electric drive cars can operate truly zero-emission. ozone There are so many reasons ethanol shouldn't be priority #1 in America's quest for petroleum replacement. I blogged about this previously here. Yet another reason to think again about the ethanol craze in an article in today's LA Times.

2007 100

Study: 2/3 of aviation climate impact due to emissions other than CO2

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of the human-made climate impact; two-thirds of this impact are caused by emissions other than CO 2 , according to a new study by researchers in Europe and the US. This new study is based on a thorough review of a decade of research on aviation emissions. Aviation accounts for 3.5%

2020 279

Study finds São Paulo switch from ethanol to gasoline dropped local ozone levels by 20%, increased CO and nitric oxide concentrations

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A study by a pair of researchers at Northwestern University found that when fuel prices drove residents of São Paulo, Brazil, to switch from ethanol to gasoline in their flexible-fuel vehicles, local ozone levels dropped 20%. At the same time, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide concentrations tended to go up. Ozone levels are relatively high in São Paulo, with hourly concentrations above 75 and 125 µg m ?3 Sasha Madronich (2014) “Atmospheric chemistry: Ethanol and ozone,”.

2014 260

EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan sees likely increase in tropospheric ozone, with more difficulty in attaining NAAQS in many areas

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Among the many climate-related vulnerabilities that can impact its mission, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cites a likely increase in tropospheric ozone pollution as potentially making it more difficult to attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards ( NAAQS ) in many areas with existing ozone problems. The relationship between temperature changes and tropospheric ozone formation is well understood, EPA notes in the draft. Climate Change Emissions Policy

Latest GHG Inventory shows California remains below 2020 emissions target; much steeper rate of GHG reductions required

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California’s latest greenhouse gas data shows that while the state continues to stay below its 2020 target for emissions, there is much more work to do to achieve carbon neutrality by 2045. Total statewide 2018 GHG emissions were 425.3 Transportation emissions declined 1.5

2020 212

Flying first class on a single domestic round trip can contribute more greenhouse gas emissions than a year of driving

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This analysis examined the effect of flight distance on greenhouse gas emissions per passenger, and compared emissions from flying different distances with annual emissions from driving. Greenhouse gas emissions were examined for 17 nonstop flights with round-trip distances ranging from 131 miles to 19,040 miles. by adding an amount that corresponds to the direct portion of emissions. (A Greenhouse gas emissions from round trips flying economy class.

2019 329

Study finds propane school buses significantly decrease NOx emissions compared to diesel

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According to a study commissioned by the Washington, DC-based Propane Education & Research Council (PERC), NO x emissions measured from propane autogas school buses were substantially lower than those measured from diesel school buses. The study was conducted in 2018 by West Virginia University’s Center of Alternatives Fuels, Engines, and Emissions (CAFEE). For the stop-and-go route, NO x emissions were 34 times higher for the diesel school bus. Diesel Emissions LPG

2019 258

EPA proposes approval of new ozone plans for the two of the worst Air Quality Zones in US: California’s San Joaquin Valley and South Coast

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US EPA Region 9 8-hour ozone trends, 1979-2000. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to approve the 8-hour ozone air quality plans—which include their attainment demonstrations, enforceable commitments and reductions from new technologies—for California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and South Coast (SC) areas, two of the worst air quality areas left in the country. Children and the elderly are most impacted by ozone pollution. Emissions

2011 207

EPA report to Congress finds a strong scientific and technical foundation for mitigating black carbon emissions

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has submitted its final Report to Congress on Black Carbon , in response to an October 2009 request from Congress to advance efforts to understand the role of black carbon (BC) in climate change. Reducing current emissions of BC may help slow the near-term rate of climate change, particularly in regions such as the Arctic. —Report to Congress on Black Carbon. emissions in 2005.

2012 218

International study identifies 14 key measures to reduce methane and black carbon emissions; reduction in projected global mean warming of ~0.5 °C by 2050

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A study by an international team of researchers, led by Drew Shindell of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York City, has identified 14 measures targeting methane and black carbon (BC) emissions that could reduce projected global mean warming ~0.5°C Black carbon, a product of burning fossil fuels or biomass such as wood or dung, can worsen a number of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Black carbon Climate Change Emissions

2012 221

Study: curbing diesel emissions could reduce mortality rates in big cities

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Freight transportation is a pillar of the US national economy, but while long-haul trucks account for less than 6% of the vehicle miles traveled over US highways, they account for about 40% of the emissions of air polluting particulate matter and about 55% of nitrogen oxides, the precursor to ozone in the atmosphere, the study said. The researchers examined the air quality and public health impacts of projected freight-related emissions in 2050 over the continental United States.

2019 240

Urban CO2 Domes May Enhance May Increase Ozone and PM, With Accompanying Increase in Mortality

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In a new study published online 10 March in the ACS journal Environmental Science and Technology , however, Stanford University professor Mark Jacobson finds that local CO 2 emissions in isolation may increase local ozone and particulate matter. His study estimates that local CO 2 emissions may increase premature mortality by 50-100 and 300-1,000/year in California and the US, respectively. Not all carbon dioxide emissions are equal.

Ozone 195

California 2017 GHG inventory shows 1.2% total drop from 2016; transportation sector emissions up 1%

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The California Air Resources Board’s latest state inventory of greenhouse gas emissions shows that California’s GHG emissions continue to decrease. In 2017, emissions from GHG emitting activities statewide were 424 million metric tons of CO 2 equivalent (MMTCO 2 e), 5 MMTCO 2 e lower than 2016 levels and 7 MMTCO 2 e below the 2020 GHG Limit of 431 MMTCO 2 e. while the carbon intensity of its economy declined by 4.5%. Trends in California GHG Emissions.

2019 203

Using Ozone-Generated Bubbles to Remove Oil Sheen and Contaminants from Water

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A University of Utah engineer has developed an inexpensive new method to remove oil sheen by repeatedly pressurizing and depressurizing ozone gas, creating microscopic bubbles that attack the oil so it can be removed by sand filters. We are not trying to treat the entire hydrocarbon [oil] content in the water—to turn it into carbon dioxide and water—but we are converting it into a form that can be retained by sand filtration, which is a conventional and economical process.

2009 183

Emissions of potent GHG HFC-23 have grown, contradicting reports of huge reductions

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Despite reports that global emissions of the potent greenhouse gas, HFC-23, were almost eliminated in 2017, an international team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, has found atmospheric levels growing at record values. HFC-23 is a very potent greenhouse gas, with one tonne of its emissions being equivalent to the release of more than 12,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide. As a result, they reported that they had almost completely eliminated HFC-23 emissions by 2017.

2020 183

Tohoku team finds swirling ammonia in combustion chambers can help reduce NO emissions

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Researchers at Tohoku University in Japan have identified a way to reduce harmful NO emissions produced by ammonia fuel during combustion. The finding helps advance research into ammonia as an alternative to carbon-based fuels for cars, airplanes, and power generation facilities. Although the space and time-averaged emission (STAE) of NO was found to decrease with increase in the global equivalence ratio (global ?) Ammonia Emissions Engines Fuels

2018 255

EU emissions of ozone pollutants fall 78 per cent

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A European air pollutant report reveals a significant fall in the emissions of sulphur oxides and other ozone-forming pollutants over the last two decades. The official EU emission inventory report compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA) shows that the 27 countries that make make up the European Union have collectively cut sulphur emissions (SOx) [.]. Tags: Green credentials carbon EEA emissions nitrogen sulphur

Ozone 40

Up close and personal with Volkswagen’s e-Golf carbon offset project: Garcia River Forest

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In 2014, Volkswagen of America announced that starting with the launch of the zero-tailpipe emissions battery-electric 2015 e-Golf ( earlier post ), it would invest in projects to offset the carbon emissions created from the e-Golf on a full lifecycle basis: production, distribution and up to approximately 36,000 miles (57,936 km) of driving. The carbon offset program is a key element of Volkswagen’s holistic approach to e-Mobility. Carbon offsets.

2015 271

North American Countries Target “Super” Greenhouse Gases Through Strengthened Ozone Treaty

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The US, Canada, and Mexico have submitted a proposal to strengthen climate protection under the Montreal Protocol— the international treaty that phases out the production of a number of substances responsible for ozone depletion. If accepted by the other Montreal Protocol Parties, the proposal would deliver climate mitigation equivalent to preventing more than 100 billion tonnes of CO 2 emissions. Uncontrolled growth of HFCs will offset the benefits of reducing carbon dioxide.

Ozone 163

NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 reaches orbit

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At 2:56 AM PST today, NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) was successfully launched into orbit from Space Complex 2 West at California’s Vandenberg Air Force Base, riding on a two-stage Delta II 7320-10 launch vehicle. Consisting of a single observing instrument, the Observatory is designed to provide precise measurements of atmospheric CO 2 , and is NASA’s first satellite mission dedicated to studying concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. by Jack Rosebro.

2014 210

Study finds significant slowdown in decrease of NOx emissions in US; implications for air quality management

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NO x emissions have not been decreasing as expected in recent years (2011–2015) when comparing top-down estimates from satellites and surface NO 2 measurements to the trends predicted from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s emission inventory data, according to a new study by an international team of researchers. But top-down emission estimates using satellite measurements show that the decline has slowed significantly in recent years. Emissions Forecasts Regulations

2018 150

MIT study says combustion emissions cause ~200,000 premature deaths/year in US; vehicles and power generation top sources

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Annual average concentrations of fine particulates from US sources of combustion emissions from (a) electric power generation; (b) industry; (c) commercial and residential sources; (d) road transportation; (e) marine transportation; (f) rail transportation; (g) sum of all combustion sources; (h) all sources. 1,000 to 21,000) deaths due to changes in ozone concentrations. Emissions from road transportation are the most significant contributor, causing ?53,000

2013 302

FTA to award up to $24.9M to low- or no-emissions transit bus projects

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million of Fiscal Year 2013 funds ( FTA-2014-001-TRI ) for the deployment of low- or no-emission (LoNo) transit buses. The LoNo Program provides funding for transit agencies for capital acquisitions and leases of zero emission and low-emission transit buses, including acquisition, construction, and leasing of required supporting facilities such as recharging, refueling, and maintenance facilities. A maintenance area, as defined in section 5303, for ozone or carbon monoxide.

2014 228

The importance of considering non-exhaust traffic emissions; the role of EVs

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Regulatory regimes seeking to reduce emissions from transport have largely focused on tailpipe emissions—i.e., 2013 found that the ratio of non-exhaust to exhaust particles is strongly increasing in the last two decades, due to exhaust emission reductions. While battery electric vehicles have the obvious advantage of zero tail-pipe emissions, they are not equally advantaged when it comes to non-exhaust emissions. Non-exhaust emissions require active regulation.

2016 235

Study uncovers role of longer-chain unburned hydrocarbon emissions from diesels in London air pollution; calls for regulatory shift

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The study found that 60% of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity in London is from those diesel-related hydrocarbons; the authors predicted that the longer-chain HCs contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. The primary regulated air pollutants (criteria pollutants) are particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Diesel Emissions Engines Regulations

2015 209

MIT study finds air quality co-benefits of US carbon policies can significantly offset costs, depending upon the policy

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The human health benefits associated with improvements in air quality related to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions improvements can offset 26–1,050% of the cost of US carbon policies, depending upon the type of policy, according to a new study by a team from MIT. Air quality co-benefits are additional to climate benefits realized from reduced CO 2 emissions.). Carbon-reduction policies significantly improve air quality. Climate Change Emissions Health Policy

2014 204

Study identifies Bakken Formation alone as responsible for ~2% of global ethane emissions

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Ethane reacts with sunlight and other molecules in the atmosphere to form ozone, which at the surface can cause respiratory problems, eye irritation and other ailments and damage crops. Surface-level ozone is one of the main pollutants that the national Air Quality Index measures in its effort to let the public know when breathing outside for long periods of time could be harmful. Hydrocarbons react with NO x and sunlight to produce ozone.

2016 195

Congressman introduces “Super Pollutant” emissions act

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US Congressman Scott Peters (CA-52) introduced the Super Pollutant Emissions Reduction Act (SUPER Act) of 2013, legislation aimed at combating short-lived climate pollutants, which are only somewhat addressed by disparate government programs. The short-lived climate pollutants (also called super pollutants) include black carbon, a primary component of soot; tropospheric ozone, the principle component of urban smog; methane; and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

2013 183

CRC ACES Phase 2 report finds emissions from modern heavy-duty diesels well below required levels

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2010 engines emissions reduction relative to 2010, 2007, and 2004 US emission standards. The study, the Phase 2 Report of the comprehensive Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES). earlier post ), found that emissions of NO 2 and other nitrogen oxides—which can have direct health effects and contribute to the formation of smog—were approximately 61% below the 2010 EPA standard and 99% lower than in 2004 engines. Diesel Emissions Engines Heavy-duty

2013 247

London and Paris launch car scoring initiative based on real-world emissions; ICCT the technical lead

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Mayor of Paris and Chair of C40 Cities Anne Hidalgo and Mayor of London Sadiq Khan announced they are working together to create schemes to score new cars based on their real-world emissions and their impact on air quality and to provide that data in an accurate and accessible form to the public. This new undertaking will capture detailed information on pollutants from vehicle exhaust using remote-sensing equipment and portable emissions monitoring systems.

2017 163

Study finds fleet switch from PFI to GDI engines will result in net reduction in global warming

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A new study quantifying emissions from a fleet of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and port fuel injection (PFI) engines finds that the measured decrease in CO 2 emissions from GDIs is much greater than the potential climate forcing associated with higher black carbon emissions from GDI engines. Widespread adoption of new engine technologies raises concerns about changes in emissions and their effects on air quality and the climate.

2017 188

Stanford Professor Urges EPA to Include Black Carbon in Endangerment Finding

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In testimony for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) public hearing ( earlier post ) on the proposed endangerment finding for greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act ( earlier post ), Stanford Professor Mark Jacobson urged the EPA to include black carbon in the finding. Black carbon—soot—is a global-warming agent the immediate control of which will slow the demise of Arctic sea ice faster than will control of any other global-warming agent, Jacobson said.

2009 150

ICCT finds growth in shipping in Arctic could increase pollutant emissions 150-600% by 2025 with current fuels

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Comparison of the potential reduction in emissions with the application of lower sulfur 0.5% While that report projected vessel activity, it did not explore the environmental impacts of increased shipping in terms of air emissions or the potential climate impacts from increases in short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon. The new paper provides emissions estimate for the projected traffic growth outlined in that earlier report.

2015 232