Study finds COVID-19 lockdown in China brought only slight reduction in PM2.5 and ozone

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and ozone were only slightly reduced or barely affected. Ozone can irritate breathing, affect lung function and worsen lung conditions such as asthma. We found almost no change in ozone concentrations because of the pandemic control measures.

2020 222

CSIRO study finds ozone uptake in oceans much lower than previously thought

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CSIRO scientists have developed a new way to account for ozone in computer simulations of the climate. This latest modeling shows that the oceans take much less ozone out of the atmosphere than previously thought. Ozone (O 3 ) is formed by reactions of chemicals such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds—i.e., Ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane, in terms of potential for global warming.

2019 150
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Study suggests air pollution may be linked to heightened mouth cancer risk; PM2.5 and ozone

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High levels of air pollutants, especially fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and to a lesser extent, ozone, may be linked to a heightened risk of developing mouth cancer, suggests a study by a team of Taiwanese researchers. They drew on average levels of air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and varying sizes of fine particulate matter), measured in 2009 at 66 air quality monitoring stations across Taiwan.

2018 216

New statistical method to detect ozone pollution hot spots and monitor instrument failure; combining PCA and MEWMA

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A new statistical method developed by researchers at KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia) can detect abnormal ozone levels within large bodies of monitored data. The monitoring methods can quickly and accurately detect ozone anomalies—localized spikes in ozone concentration indicated by sensor data. Ozone is the reactive form of oxygen that contains three atoms per molecule (O 3 ) rather than the normal two.

2016 196

Texas study finds PHEV use could increase ozone at night, decrease ozone during the day

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A study by researchers at the University of Texas found that in general, use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. In addition, the study, published in the IOP journal Environmental Research Letters , found that charging plug-in vehicles at night could slightly reduce, on average, ozone.

Ozone 191

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. Ramanathan concludes that full implementation of existing emissions-control technologies could offset the warming effects of one to two decades of carbon dioxide emissions.

Obama Administration withdraws proposed rulemaking on strengthened ozone standards

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In a statement released this morning, President Barack Obama said he has requested that US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa Jackson withdraw the agency’s draft Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) rulemaking. In January 2010, EPA proposed strengthening the NAAQS for ground-level ozone, the main component of smog, and said it planned to issue final standards by 31 August 2010. Overview of January 2010 proposed revisions to ozone NAAQS.

Ozone 219

Study: surface ozone in India in 2005 damaged 6M tonnes of crops, enough to feed 94M people in poverty

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Ozone, the main component of smog, is a plant-damaging pollutant formed by emissions from vehicles, cooking stoves and other sources. New research shows that ozone pollution damaged millions of tons of wheat, rice, soybean and cotton crops in India in 2005. Surface ozone pollution in India damaged 6 million metric tons (6.7 Rising emissions are causing severe ozone pollution in some of India’s most populated regions. Smog in India.

2014 205

Study finds some refrigerants less damaging to ozone layer can degrade to long-lived GHG CF4

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Some of the substitutes for ozone-damaging chemicals that being phased out worldwide under international agreements are themselves potent greenhouse gases and contribute to warming. This work was supported in part by NOAA’s Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle, and Climate (AC4) Program and NASA’s Atmospheric Composition Program.

2015 184

UNEP study: small number of measures targeting black carbon and tropospheric ozone could yield immediate climate benefits

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A small number of emissions reduction measures targeting black carbon (BC) and tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) could immediately begin to protect climate, public health, water and food security, and ecosystems, according to a study, Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone , newly released by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Black carbon and tropospheric ozone are harmful air pollutants that also contribute to climate change.

2011 191

Fast action on black carbon, ozone and methane could help limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees C

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Fast action on pollutants such as black carbon, ground-level ozone and methane may help limit near term global temperature rise and significantly increase the chances of keeping temperature rise below 2 °C (3.6 °F)—and Fast action might also reduce losses of mountain glaciers linked in part with black carbon deposits while reducing projected warming by two thirds in the Arctic over the coming decades by two thirds.

2011 191

Rice University team links PM2.5 and ozone levels with cardiac arrest

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A team from Rice University and the Houston Fire Department EMS has found a direct correlation between out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) and levels of air pollution and ozone. Given that the American Lung Association has ranked Houston eighth in the United States for high-ozone days, Rice statisticians Katherine Ensor and Loren Raun, and David Persse, Houston Fire Department EMS physician director, set out to see if there is a link between ambient ozone levels and cardiac arrest.

2013 200

KIT study finds extraordinarily cold Arctic stratospheric winter enhanced ozone degradation above the Arctic

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Extraordinarily cold temperatures in the stratosphere during the winter of 2010/2011 caused the most massive destruction of the ozone layer above the Arctic so far, according to a study by climate researchers at KIT (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology). March 2011: Strongly reduced ozone values (left, dark blue) and significantly increased concentration of chlorine monoxide (right, red) that is directly involved in ozone degradation.

Ozone 185

Researchers Find That Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Reduces Southern Ocean Carbon Uptake

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Researchers in France have found that ozone depletion above Antarctica has significantly reduced the Southern Ocean’s ability to absorb atmospheric CO 2 and has also accelerated acidification of southern polar waters, despite lesser CO 2 uptake. The Southern Ocean is a major carbon sink, absorbing almost 15% of anthropogenic carbon released every year. billion tons of carbon was not taken up by the oceans.

2009 150

Study finds São Paulo switch from ethanol to gasoline dropped local ozone levels by 20%, increased CO and nitric oxide concentrations

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A study by a pair of researchers at Northwestern University found that when fuel prices drove residents of São Paulo, Brazil, to switch from ethanol to gasoline in their flexible-fuel vehicles, local ozone levels dropped 20%. At the same time, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide concentrations tended to go up. Ozone levels are relatively high in São Paulo, with hourly concentrations above 75 and 125 µg m ?3 Sasha Madronich (2014) “Atmospheric chemistry: Ethanol and ozone,”.

2014 258

EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan sees likely increase in tropospheric ozone, with more difficulty in attaining NAAQS in many areas

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Among the many climate-related vulnerabilities that can impact its mission, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cites a likely increase in tropospheric ozone pollution as potentially making it more difficult to attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards ( NAAQS ) in many areas with existing ozone problems. The relationship between temperature changes and tropospheric ozone formation is well understood, EPA notes in the draft.

EPA proposes approval of new ozone plans for the two of the worst Air Quality Zones in US: California’s San Joaquin Valley and South Coast

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US EPA Region 9 8-hour ozone trends, 1979-2000. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to approve the 8-hour ozone air quality plans—which include their attainment demonstrations, enforceable commitments and reductions from new technologies—for California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and South Coast (SC) areas, two of the worst air quality areas left in the country. Children and the elderly are most impacted by ozone pollution.

2011 203

Using Ozone-Generated Bubbles to Remove Oil Sheen and Contaminants from Water

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A University of Utah engineer has developed an inexpensive new method to remove oil sheen by repeatedly pressurizing and depressurizing ozone gas, creating microscopic bubbles that attack the oil so it can be removed by sand filters. We are not trying to treat the entire hydrocarbon [oil] content in the water—to turn it into carbon dioxide and water—but we are converting it into a form that can be retained by sand filtration, which is a conventional and economical process.

2009 179

Urban CO2 Domes May Enhance May Increase Ozone and PM, With Accompanying Increase in Mortality

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In a new study published online 10 March in the ACS journal Environmental Science and Technology , however, Stanford University professor Mark Jacobson finds that local CO 2 emissions in isolation may increase local ozone and particulate matter. Not all carbon dioxide emissions are equal. The cap-and-trade proposal assumes there is no difference in the impact of carbon dioxide, regardless of where it originates.

Ozone 191

Study Finds Ozone, Nitrogen Change the Way Rising CO2 Affects Earths Water

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Through a recent modeling experiment, a team of NASA-funded researchers have found that future concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone in the atmosphere and of nitrogen in the soil are likely to have an important but overlooked effect on the cycling of water from sky to land to waterways. Plants consume carbon dioxide—a significant greenhouse gas—in the process of photosynthesis. The reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has an indirect cooling effect.

2009 170

North American Countries Target “Super” Greenhouse Gases Through Strengthened Ozone Treaty

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The US, Canada, and Mexico have submitted a proposal to strengthen climate protection under the Montreal Protocol— the international treaty that phases out the production of a number of substances responsible for ozone depletion. Uncontrolled growth of HFCs will offset the benefits of reducing carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is the long-term bad guy, and rightfully deserves attention, but we won’t even have the chance to fight that battle if we ignore the near-term forcers.

Ozone 161

International study identifies 14 key measures to reduce methane and black carbon emissions; reduction in projected global mean warming of ~0.5 °C by 2050

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A study by an international team of researchers, led by Drew Shindell of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York City, has identified 14 measures targeting methane and black carbon (BC) emissions that could reduce projected global mean warming ~0.5°C Black carbon, a product of burning fossil fuels or biomass such as wood or dung, can worsen a number of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. All 14 would curb the release of either black carbon or methane.

2012 218

NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 reaches orbit

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At 2:56 AM PST today, NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) was successfully launched into orbit from Space Complex 2 West at California’s Vandenberg Air Force Base, riding on a two-stage Delta II 7320-10 launch vehicle. Consisting of a single observing instrument, the Observatory is designed to provide precise measurements of atmospheric CO 2 , and is NASA’s first satellite mission dedicated to studying concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. by Jack Rosebro.

2014 207

Up close and personal with Volkswagen’s e-Golf carbon offset project: Garcia River Forest

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In 2014, Volkswagen of America announced that starting with the launch of the zero-tailpipe emissions battery-electric 2015 e-Golf ( earlier post ), it would invest in projects to offset the carbon emissions created from the e-Golf on a full lifecycle basis: production, distribution and up to approximately 36,000 miles (57,936 km) of driving. The carbon offset program is a key element of Volkswagen’s holistic approach to e-Mobility. Carbon offsets.

2015 268

EPA report to Congress finds a strong scientific and technical foundation for mitigating black carbon emissions

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has submitted its final Report to Congress on Black Carbon , in response to an October 2009 request from Congress to advance efforts to understand the role of black carbon (BC) in climate change. —Report to Congress on Black Carbon. Most of this infrared radiation passes through the atmosphere, but some is absorbed by GHG molecules like CO 2 , methane, ozone and others. Report to Congress on Black Carbon.

2012 214

EU emissions of ozone pollutants fall 78 per cent

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A European air pollutant report reveals a significant fall in the emissions of sulphur oxides and other ozone-forming pollutants over the last two decades. Tags: Green credentials carbon EEA emissions nitrogen sulphur The official EU emission inventory report compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA) shows that the 27 countries that make make up the European Union have collectively cut sulphur emissions (SOx) [.].

Ozone 40

Stanford Professor Urges EPA to Include Black Carbon in Endangerment Finding

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In testimony for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) public hearing ( earlier post ) on the proposed endangerment finding for greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act ( earlier post ), Stanford Professor Mark Jacobson urged the EPA to include black carbon in the finding. Black carbon—soot—is a global-warming agent the immediate control of which will slow the demise of Arctic sea ice faster than will control of any other global-warming agent, Jacobson said.

2009 150

MIT study finds air quality co-benefits of US carbon policies can significantly offset costs, depending upon the policy

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The human health benefits associated with improvements in air quality related to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions improvements can offset 26–1,050% of the cost of US carbon policies, depending upon the type of policy, according to a new study by a team from MIT. Carbon-reduction policies significantly improve air quality. In fact, policies aimed at cutting carbon emissions improve air quality by a similar amount as policies specifically targeting air pollution.

2014 200

Study finds fleet switch from PFI to GDI engines will result in net reduction in global warming

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A new study quantifying emissions from a fleet of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and port fuel injection (PFI) engines finds that the measured decrease in CO 2 emissions from GDIs is much greater than the potential climate forcing associated with higher black carbon emissions from GDI engines. We estimate ozone and SOA formation potential. Therefore, the secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation potential of the exhaust does not depend on engine technology.

2017 184

World Bank to focus on reducing short-lived climate pollutants; transport projects

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A new report prepared by the World Bank at the request of the G8 identifies ways that the World Bank can do more through its projects to reduce the emission of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs): black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone, and fluorinated gases known as HFCs. The World Bank is beginning to use this opportunity for example, through green freight projects that aim to improve fuel efficiency of transport fleets and provide black carbon reductions as a co-benefit.

2013 185

OptiFuel finalizing $2.6M DOE grant to demonstrate RNG hybrid line-haul locomotive

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All will have zero NO x /PM emissions with carbon-neutral emissions by consuming an RNG/CNG mixture. As of September 2016, there were more than 1,000 railyards in the US located in densely populated, urban areas classified as particulate matter and ozone EPA defined nonattainment areas.

2020 222

Latest GHG Inventory shows California remains below 2020 emissions target; much steeper rate of GHG reductions required

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California’s latest greenhouse gas data shows that while the state continues to stay below its 2020 target for emissions, there is much more work to do to achieve carbon neutrality by 2045.

2020 209

California introduces first-in-nation rules to reduce climate “super pollutants” from commercial refrigeration, air conditioning equipment

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HFCs are synthetic gases that are used in a variety of applications, but mainly to replace ozone-depleting substances in aerosols, foams, refrigeration and air-conditioning. HFCs are considered to be super pollutants because they trap heat in the atmosphere thousands of times more effectively than carbon dioxide, the most prevalent greenhouse gas.

2020 175

Satellite data show resurgence in NO2 emissions over China

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The satellite carries the Tropomi instrument to map a multitude of trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide, ozone, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide and aerosols. ©ESA/ATG

2020 377

United States and China agree to work together on phasing down HFCs

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While they do not deplete the ozone layer, many are highly potent greenhouse gases. Their use is growing rapidly as replacements for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Left unabated, HFC emissions growth could grow to nearly 20 percent of carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, a serious climate mitigation concern.

Study: 2/3 of aviation climate impact due to emissions other than CO2

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Net warming from NO x emissions is a sum over warming (short-term ozone increase) and cooling (decreases in methane and stratospheric water vapor, and a long-term decrease in ozone) terms. Aviation accounts for 3.5%

2020 273

Study identifies Bakken Formation alone as responsible for ~2% of global ethane emissions

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Ethane reacts with sunlight and other molecules in the atmosphere to form ozone, which at the surface can cause respiratory problems, eye irritation and other ailments and damage crops. Surface-level ozone is one of the main pollutants that the national Air Quality Index measures in its effort to let the public know when breathing outside for long periods of time could be harmful. Hydrocarbons react with NO x and sunlight to produce ozone.

2016 195

Northwestern/Princeton study explores air quality impacts of aggressive conversion to EVs

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Among the findings: Summer surface ozone (O 3 ) decreases in most locations due to widespread reductions of traffic NO x emissions. Across scenarios, we found the more cars that transitioned to electric power, the better for summertime ozone levels. No matter how the power is generated, the more combustion cars you take off the road, the better the ozone quality.

2019 234

Study: 25% EV adoption would save US $17B annually from avoided climate change & pollution damages

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Vehicle electrification in the United States could prevent hundreds to thousands of premature deaths annually while reducing carbon emissions by hundreds of millions of tons. They found if 25% of US drivers adopted electric vehicles in 2014, and the power required to charge their batteries came from 2014’s energy generation infrastructure, then 250 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions would have been mitigated.

Study finds propane school buses significantly decrease NOx emissions compared to diesel

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NO x was reduced by 96% and carbon dioxide by 13% with a propane bus. These findings are significant due to the fact that NO x and ozone are major non-attainment concerns for many areas across the nation. According to a study commissioned by the Washington, DC-based Propane Education & Research Council (PERC), NO x emissions measured from propane autogas school buses were substantially lower than those measured from diesel school buses.

2019 254

Volvo Trucks awarded $21.7M from US EPA and South Coast AQMD to deploy 70 Class 8 VNR Electric trucks

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The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Targeted Air Shed Grant Program focuses on the regions that have the highest ozone and particulate matter (PM) pollution, including California’s South Coast Air Basin. Volvo Trucks North America was awarded $21.7 million in grants to deploy 70 VNR Electric trucks in Southern California for regional freight distribution and drayage.

2020 170

US, China, and G-20 agree to work to global phase down of HFCs

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While they do not deplete the ozone layer, many are highly potent greenhouse gases whose use is growing rapidly as replacements for ozone-depleting substances being phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Left unabated, HFC emissions could grow to nearly 20% of carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, a serious climate mitigation concern. The Montreal Protocol was established in 1987 to protect the ozone layer.

2013 179

Flying first class on a single domestic round trip can contribute more greenhouse gas emissions than a year of driving

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Average greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) per passenger from flying were obtained from an online emissions calculator at myclimate (a nonprofit spin-off from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology). Furthermore, myclimate accounts for other warming effects of aircraft emissions (through changes in the ozone layer, initiation of contrails, formation of cirrus clouds, etc.) by Michael Sivak.

2019 329