Severe drought influences ozone pollution

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Drought conditions can have complicated effects on ozone air quality, so to better understand the process, researchers have analyzed data from two ozone-polluted cities before, during and after the California drought. Although ozone in the stratosphere protects the earth from ultraviolet radiation, at ground level the molecule is a harmful air pollutant to humans, animals and plants. Emissions

Ozone 186

York study: Less traffic in first UK lockdown reduced NO2 pollution but caused increase in surface ozone

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Less traffic on the roads during the first COVID-19 lockdown in the UK led to a reduction in air pollution but may have caused potentially damaging surface ozone levels to rise, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of York. COVID-19 Emissions Health

2020 327
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Studies find global COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced PM2.5 and NO2 pollution, but ozone up

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The gas typically enters the atmosphere through emissions from vehicles, power plants, and industrial activities. The only other comparable events are short-term reductions in China’s emissions due to strict regulations during events like the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

2020 256

Global study links daily exposure to ozone pollution to increased risk of death

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Daily exposure to ground level ozone in cities worldwide is associated with an increased risk of death, according to the largest study of its kind, published in an open-access paper in The BMJ. Emissions Health

2020 224

UB study finds link between ambient ozone exposure, artery wall thickness

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Long-term exposure to ambient ozone appears to accelerate arterial conditions that progress into cardiovascular disease and stroke, according to a new University at Buffalo study. The research is the first epidemiological study to provide evidence that ozone might advance subclinical arterial disease—injuries that occur to the artery walls prior to a heart attack or stroke—and provides insight into the relationship between ozone exposure and cardiovascular disease risk.

2019 256

Study finds COVID-19 lockdown in China brought only slight reduction in PM2.5 and ozone

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and ozone were only slightly reduced or barely affected. Ozone can irritate breathing, affect lung function and worsen lung conditions such as asthma. We found almost no change in ozone concentrations because of the pandemic control measures.

2020 224

Study associates acute exposure to higher ozone levels to higher risk of cardiac arrest

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Exposure to higher ozone concentrations in the air is significantly associated with a higher risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), according to preliminary research to be presented at the American Heart Association’s Resuscitation Science Symposium 2020. Previous studies have shown acute exposure to ozone and particulate matter in the air is associated with the development of chronic diseases. Emissions Health Regulations

2020 172

Harvard/Nanjing study: China’s war on PM2.5 pollution is causing more severe ozone pollution

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In early 2013, the Chinese government declared a war on air pollution and began instituting stringent policies to regulate the emissions of PM 2.5. Cities restricted the number of cars on the road, coal-fired power plants reduced emissions or were shuttered and replaced with natural gas. pollution is falling, harmful ground-level ozone pollution is on the rise, especially in large cities. Emissions Policy Regulations

2019 223

Study explores mechanisms of effects of personal ozone exposure on blood pressure and vascular endothelial function

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A research team in China conducted a longitudinal panel study among 43 non-smoking college students in Shanghai to explore the effects of personal ozone exposure on blood pressure (BP), vascular endothelial function, and the potential molecular mechanisms. They used an untargeted metabolomic approach to explore potentially important metabolites and applied linear mixed-effect models to examine the effects of ozone on the above biomarkers. Emissions Health

2018 202

TOAR shows present-day global ozone distribution and trends relevant to health; public database

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Ozone levels across much of North America and Europe dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. Even so, during 2010-2014, people in parts of California, Arizona, Colorado, Texas, the Midwest and the Middle Atlantic still experienced more than 15 days a year in which ozone levels exceeded the US health-based air quality standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb) averaged over eight hours. Trends in daily maximum ozone levels (known as 4MDA8) at urban and non-urban sites.

2018 218

Study: ozone levels higher across China than in other countries tracking the air pollutant

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In China, people breathe ozone-laden air two to six times more often than people in the United States, Europe, Japan, or South Korea, according to a new international study published in Environmental Science & Technology Letters. By one metric—total number of days with daily maximum average ozone values (8-hour average) greater than 70 ppb—China had twice as many high ozone days as Japan and South Korea, three times more than the United States, and six times more than Europe.

2018 183

Study links ambient PM2.5 and ozone specifically caused by vehicle exhaust emissions to ~361,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010 and ~385,000 in 2015

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A new study provides the most detailed picture available to date of the global, regional, and local health impacts attributable to emissions from four transportation subsectors: on-road diesel vehicles; other on-road vehicles; shipping; and non-road mobile engines such as agricultural and construction equipment. and ozone deaths, associated mortality rates, and population in G20 economies in 2015. and ozone worldwide in 2010 and ~385,000 in 2015, equivalent to 11.7%

2019 202

Using ozone injection to control HCCI combustion

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In-cylinder pressure (on the left) and heat release rate (on the right) as a function of the CAD and ozone concentration injected in the intake of the engine for PRF40. The results show that ozone seeding improves combustion and advances phasing. Now, researchers in France have added to that body of work by showing that ozone seeding in the intake of an HCCI engine can control HCCI combustion. Ozone was produced with an ozone generator.

Ozone 221

China study connects ozone pollution to cardiovascular health

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Exposure to ozone, long associated with impaired lung function, is also connected to health changes that can cause cardiovascular disease such as heart attack, high blood pressure and stroke, according to a new study of Chinese adults. The findings associated ozone exposure with markers of platelet activation and increased blood pressure. They monitored indoor and outdoor ozone levels, along with other pollutants. The 24-hour ozone exposure concentrations ranged from 1.4

2017 163

Study finds pollution emitted near equator has biggest impact on global ozone

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Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the University of Colorado, Boulder and their colleagues have now shown that this changing global emissions map is creating more total tropospheric ozone worldwide compared to the amount of pollution being emitted, signaling an effect that could be difficult to reign in without strategic policy planning. Emissions are growing in places where there is a much greater effect on the formation of ozone.

2016 202

CSIRO study finds ozone uptake in oceans much lower than previously thought

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CSIRO scientists have developed a new way to account for ozone in computer simulations of the climate. This latest modeling shows that the oceans take much less ozone out of the atmosphere than previously thought. Ozone (O 3 ) is formed by reactions of chemicals such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds—i.e., Ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane, in terms of potential for global warming.

2019 150

Study quantifies impact of oil and gas emissions on Denver’s ozone problem

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The first peer-reviewed study to directly quantify how emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) activities influence summertime tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution in the Colorado Front Range confirms that chemical vapors from oil and gas activities are a significant contributor to the region’s chronic ozone problem. em>That allows us to look at how oil and gas emissions are influencing ozone production ,” said McDuffie. Emissions Health Natural Gas Oil

Denver 150

EPA tightens ground-level ozone standard to 70 ppb

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issued its final rule revising the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone to 70 parts per billion (ppb) from 75 ppb to protect public health. Ground-level ozone forms when nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the air. EPA examined nearly 2,300 studies in this review of the ozone standards including more than 1,000 new studies published since the last review of the standards in 2008. Emissions Regulations

2015 197

Study suggests air pollution may be linked to heightened mouth cancer risk; PM2.5 and ozone

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High levels of air pollutants, especially fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and to a lesser extent, ozone, may be linked to a heightened risk of developing mouth cancer, suggests a study by a team of Taiwanese researchers. Exposure to heavy metals and emissions from petrochemical plants are also thought to be implicated in the development of the disease, while air pollution, especially PM 2.5 , is known to be harmful to respiratory and cardiovascular health. Emissions Health

2018 218

Satellite method provides insight into ozone-NOx-VOCs sensitivity for different locations

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Ozone pollution near Earth’s surface is one of the main ingredients of summertime smog. It is also not directly measurable from space due to the abundance of ozone higher in the atmosphere, which obscures measurements of surface ozone. New NASA-funded research has devised a way to use satellite measurements of the precursor gases that contribute to ozone formation to differentiate among three different sets of conditions that lead to its production. Emissions Health

2017 150

New statistical method to detect ozone pollution hot spots and monitor instrument failure; combining PCA and MEWMA

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A new statistical method developed by researchers at KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia) can detect abnormal ozone levels within large bodies of monitored data. The monitoring methods can quickly and accurately detect ozone anomalies—localized spikes in ozone concentration indicated by sensor data. Ozone is the reactive form of oxygen that contains three atoms per molecule (O 3 ) rather than the normal two. Emissions Health

2016 198

Study associates ozone exposure at birth to increased risk of developing asthma

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A long-term study of the health of Canadian children has found that exposure to ozone (O 3 ) at birth was associated with an 82% increased risk of developing asthma by age three. Our findings show that the hazard ratios for ozone measured at birth as a single pollutant showed statistically significant higher risks for development of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Emissions Health

2018 174

Texas study finds PHEV use could increase ozone at night, decrease ozone during the day

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A study by researchers at the University of Texas found that in general, use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. In addition, the study, published in the IOP journal Environmental Research Letters , found that charging plug-in vehicles at night could slightly reduce, on average, ozone.

Ozone 193

EPA proposes tightening primary ozone standards to range of 65-70 ppb; final rule by October 2015

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Counties where measured ozone is above proposed range of standards, based on 2011-2013 monitoring data. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing tightening the ground-level 8-hour ozone (O 3 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to within a range of 65 to 70 parts per billion (ppb), while taking comments on a level as low as 60 ppb. EPA will issue final ozone standards by 1 October 2015. Emissions Regulations

2014 231

Airborne measurements show ozone-forming VOCs emissions from ethanol plant higher than government estimates

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New airborne measurements downwind from an Archer Daniels Midland fuel ethanol plant in Decatur, Illinois, show that ethanol emissions are 30 times higher than government baseline estimates. The measurements also show emissions of all volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which include ethanol, were five times higher than government numbers, which estimate emissions based on manufacturing information.

2015 181

CARB, NOAA, NASA and San Jose State University scientists team up to study ozone transported across Pacific

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As California continues to reduce local sources of ozone, ozone entering the state from the Pacific makes up a larger fraction of measured ozone levels. Current ozone levels in the San Joaquin Valley are predominantly caused by local emissions, but as air quality standards become lower, any contribution from global ozone levels needs to be understood. Emissions Regulations

Obama Administration withdraws proposed rulemaking on strengthened ozone standards

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In a statement released this morning, President Barack Obama said he has requested that US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa Jackson withdraw the agency’s draft Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) rulemaking. In January 2010, EPA proposed strengthening the NAAQS for ground-level ozone, the main component of smog, and said it planned to issue final standards by 31 August 2010. Overview of January 2010 proposed revisions to ozone NAAQS.

Ozone 221

Study Links Springtime Ozone Increases Above Western North America to Emissions in Asia

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Springtime ozone distributions for 1984, 1995–2008 in the mid-troposphere (3.0–8.0 Springtime ozone levels above western North America are rising primarily due to air flowing eastward from the Pacific Ocean, a trend that is largest when the air originates in Asia. These increases in ozone could make it more difficult for the United States to meet Clean Air Act standards for ozone pollution at ground level, according to a new international study.

BASF launches next-generation PremAir NXT catalytic coating technology for direct ozone reduction

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BASF announced the commercial launch of PremAir NXT, a next-generation direct ozone reduction (DOR) catalytic coating technology for heat exchange surfaces such as radiators that can help automakers meet new US Tier 3 and California LEV III emissions reduction requirements. it converts ground-level ozone already in the air. Because PremAir is a DOR technology, California LEV III has approved the use of PremAir to earn emission reduction credits.

2015 202

HEI study finds no heart effects of ozone exposure in healthy older adults; lungs affected at relatively low exposures

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The largest systematic study ever conducted of human volunteers exposed to ozone air pollution has found no evidence of effects on the heart in its healthy, older participants, but did find effects on the volunteers’ ability to breathe, even at low ambient levels. HEI Research Report 192 , Multicenter Ozone Study in oldEr Subjects (MOSES): Part 1. Possible pathways by which ozone may cause adverse health effects. Emissions Health

2017 150

Satellite data show resurgence in NO2 emissions over China

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Data from the ESA’s Tropomi (TROPOspheric Monitoring) instrument on board the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite shows the variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) emissions over China from December to March. Behavior China Emissions Health Market Background Policy

2020 379

Study finds rising temperatures increase risk of unhealthy ozone levels absent sharp cuts in precursors

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Ozone pollution across the continental United States will become far more difficult to keep in check as temperatures rise, according to new work led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The study shows that Americans face the risk of a 70% increase in unhealthy summertime ozone levels by 2050, assuming continued greenhouse gas emissions with resultant significant warming (IPCC Scenario A2 and RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5.).

2014 181

Study: surface ozone in India in 2005 damaged 6M tonnes of crops, enough to feed 94M people in poverty

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Ozone, the main component of smog, is a plant-damaging pollutant formed by emissions from vehicles, cooking stoves and other sources. New research shows that ozone pollution damaged millions of tons of wheat, rice, soybean and cotton crops in India in 2005. Surface ozone pollution in India damaged 6 million metric tons (6.7 Rising emissions are causing severe ozone pollution in some of India’s most populated regions. Emissions Health India Policy

2014 207

Duke/York study finds long-term exposure to ozone has significant impacts on human health, but lower than prior modeling results

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A team from Duke University in the US and University of York in the UK have utilized a novel method to estimate long-term ozone exposure and previously reported epidemiological results to quantify the health burden from long-term ozone exposure in three major regions of the world. Long-term ozone (O 3 ) exposure estimates from chemical transport models are frequently paired with exposure-response relationships from epidemiological studies to estimate associated health burdens.

2018 187

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. To avoid the severe consequences associated with such a dramatic change, we need to look at other feasible complementary measures, in addition to reducing CO 2 emissions, that will provide near-term mitigation. —V.

Study: 2/3 of aviation climate impact due to emissions other than CO2

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of the human-made climate impact; two-thirds of this impact are caused by emissions other than CO 2 , according to a new study by researchers in Europe and the US. This new study is based on a thorough review of a decade of research on aviation emissions. Aviation accounts for 3.5%

2020 361

US EPA to Reconsider National Ozone Standards

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will reconsider the 2008 primary and secondary ozone standards. In 2008, EPA established a new primary 8-hour standard for ozone of 0.075 parts per million (ppm), and a new secondary standard set at a form and level identical to the new primary standard. The agency will propose any revisions to the ozone standards by December 2009 and will issue a final decision by August 2010.

Ozone 181

Ethanol and Ozone

Plugs and Cars

Of our "alternative fuel" options, only electricity can truly be made renewably (wind, solar, geothermal, small hydro), with no carbon or other noxious emissions. And only electric drive cars can operate truly zero-emission. ozone There are so many reasons ethanol shouldn't be priority #1 in America's quest for petroleum replacement. I blogged about this previously here. Yet another reason to think again about the ethanol craze in an article in today's LA Times.

2007 100

Researchers identify four new man-made gases contributing to destruction of ozone layer

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A study by an international team led by scientists at the University of East Anglia have identified four new man-made gases in the atmosphere, all of which are contributing to the destruction of the ozone layer. Emission increases of this scale have not been seen for any other CFCs since controls were introduced during the 1990s. But they are nowhere near peak CFC emissions of the 1980s which reached around a million tonnes a year.

2014 212

MECA emissions inventory & air quality modeling shows potential benefits of national cleaner trucks initiative at CARB limits

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The objective of the emission impact analysis was to respond to EPA’s request for comments as to the merits of reducing NO x emissions from heavy-duty trucks by 50 to 90% as outlined in the 6 January 2020 Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) of the CTI.

2020 224

Are Asian emissions to blame for US ozone levels?

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A new international study suggests that springtime ozone levels above western North America are rising mainly because of air flowing eastward from the Pacific Ocean – a trend at its largest when the air originates in Asia. This could even make it difficult for the US to meet Clean Air Act standards for ozone pollution.

Ozone 37

Study finds São Paulo switch from ethanol to gasoline dropped local ozone levels by 20%, increased CO and nitric oxide concentrations

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A study by a pair of researchers at Northwestern University found that when fuel prices drove residents of São Paulo, Brazil, to switch from ethanol to gasoline in their flexible-fuel vehicles, local ozone levels dropped 20%. Ozone levels are relatively high in São Paulo, with hourly concentrations above 75 and 125 µg m ?3 Previous studies mainly have consisted of computer simulations of atmospheric chemical reactions based on tailpipe emissions studies.

2014 259

Rice/EPA study finds ground-level ozone falling faster than CMAQ model predicted

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Researchers from Rice University and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report in a paper in the journal Atmospheric Chemistry that particularly in Northeastern cities, ozone levels dropped even beyond what was anticipated by cutting emissions of NO x from 2002 to 2006. The study suggests the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model significantly under-predicted the reduction in ozone.

2013 193