Ethanol and Ozone

Plugs and Cars

We need to prioritize clean electricity generation and plug-in battery cars to utilize that energy efficiently. ozone There are so many reasons ethanol shouldn't be priority #1 in America's quest for petroleum replacement. I blogged about this previously here. Yet another reason to think again about the ethanol craze in an article in today's LA Times.

2007 100

Texas study finds PHEV use could increase ozone at night, decrease ozone during the day

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A study by researchers at the University of Texas found that in general, use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. In addition, the study, published in the IOP journal Environmental Research Letters , found that charging plug-in vehicles at night could slightly reduce, on average, ozone.

Ozone 76

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Modelling the Impact of PHEVs on Ozone in Denver

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Denver represents an interesting case study for exploring potential PHEV impacts because it violates the federal air quality standard for ozone and because several large EGUs [electricity generating units] are located in or near the urbanized area. The ozone response to PHEV penetration was modeled under a wide range of meteorological conditions, as experienced during July 2006. Ozone concentration increases were modeled for small areas near central Denver.

Life cycle analysis of three battery chemistries for PHEVs and BEVs; environmental impacts higher than expected

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Flow diagram of the battery system, defined by the functional unit of 50 MJ stored and delivered to the powertrain. The battery systems were investigated with a functional unit based on energy storage, and environmental impacts were analyzed using midpoint indicators.

2011 141

U Maryland team devises new method to stabilize high-capacity Si anodes for Li-ion batteries: interfacial oxygen

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High-capacity electrode materials are inherently accompanied by large volume changes that pose a significant, multifaceted challenge to their functions in rechargeable batteries. 10 times that of graphite anodes used in lithium ion batteries. Batteries

San José International deploys 10 Proterra electric buses in airport fleet

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Mineta San José International Airport’s (SJC) has deployed a fleet of 10 Proterra battery-electric buses that will transport passengers and their luggage between SJC’s parking lots, rental car center, and terminals. The electric bus fleet is anticipated to reduce ozone emissions by 1.1

2019 137

Lifecycle study finds that environmental impacts of silicon-anode Li-ion battery could be roughly comparable with conventional Li-ion battery

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A lifecycle assessment (LCA) of silicon nanowire (SiNW) anodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee has concluded that a LIB pack using SiNW anodes from metal-assisted chemical etching could have environmental impacts comparable with those of a conventional Li-ion battery pack, while significantly increasing the battery energy storage. kWh battery system comprising 12 modules with each module containing 12 LIB prismatic cells.

2014 89

Houston-Galveston area to deploy 30 battery-electric delivery trucks

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DOE selected this project to improve local air quality in the Houston-Galveston area, which is currently designated as a National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 8-hour ozone non-attainment area. The Smith Newton trucks include the company’s proprietary Smith Power, with variable 40-120 kWh battery pack options; Smith Drive, and Smith Link, an onboard system for monitoring the vehicle’s vital statistics.

Northwestern/Princeton study explores air quality impacts of aggressive conversion to EVs

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Researchers from Northwestern University and Princeton University have explored the impact on US air quality from an aggressive conversion of internal combustion vehicles to battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs). Electric (Battery) Emissions

2019 121

DOE HPC4Mfg program funds 13 projects to advance US manufacturing; welding, Li-S batteries among projects

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Another one of the 13 projects is led by Sepion Technologies, which will partner with LBNL to make new membranes to increase the lifetime of Li-S batteries for hybrid airplanes. Efforts to commercialize light-weight, energy-dense lithium-sulfur secondary batteries (2510 Wh kg –1 ) have been stalled by ongoing problems with the battery’s membrane, which limits cycle-life. Batteries High Performance Computing Li-Sulfur Manufacturing Weight reduction

2016 60

DOE funds a fifth round of projects pairing manufacturing, high performance computing; KeraCel and solid-state batteries

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The 13 new projects include: KeraCel will partner with LLNL to optimize manufacturing of robust solid-state batteries in a project titled “A Commercially Viable Approach to Manufacturing All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Battery”. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded nearly $3.8

2018 65

CARB approves $423M plan to mitigate harm from Volkswagen defeat devices; significant investments in heavy-duty vehicles and equipment sectors

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his allocation will provide funding to help purchase, install, operate, and maintain new charging stations for battery electric vehicles. Excess NO x emissions are a major public health concern in California, because they are a key ingredient in formation of ozone (smog), CARB notes.

2018 118

Renault makes public its lifecycle study of Fluence ICE vs Fluence EV

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Renault recently made public the findings of an internal study, published first in October 2011, detailing and comparing the lifecycle assessments (LCAs) of the battery-electric and two internal combustion engined versions (gasoline and diesel) of the Renault Fluence.

2013 151

PSI team develops web tool for consumers to compare environmental impact of passenger cars in detail

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Deterioration of the ozone layer [kg CFC-11-eq.]. The program guides the interested layperson through a selection of parameters: which type of engine should be used, gasoline-burning or diesel, for example, or one powered by natural gas, a fuel cell, or a battery.

2020 119

California ARB moves forward with climate and air quality actions

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For passenger vehicles, the State SIP Strategy includes actions to increase the penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and ZEVs, including battery-electric and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles.

2017 95

FTA to award up to $24.9M to low- or no-emissions transit bus projects

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An Eligible Area for the awards is either: Designated as a non-attainment area for ozone or carbon monoxide under section 107(d) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. A maintenance area, as defined in section 5303, for ozone or carbon monoxide. A battery-electric bus qualifies as a zero-emission transit bus. Electric (Battery) Emissions Fleets Fuel Cells Heavy-duty Hydrogen Policy The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announced the availability of $24.9

2014 89

California ARB announces $24M grant solicitation for zero-emission truck and bus pilot commercial deployment projects

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microns or less (PM 2.5 ); and NO x emissions that lead to ozone and secondary PM. Electric (Battery) Fleets Fuel Cells Heavy-duty Hydrogen Plug-insThe California Air Resources Board (ARB) announced a grant solicitation for Zero-Emission Truck and Bus Pilot Commercial Deployment Projects. Up to $23,658,000 is available for this project from FY 2014-15 funds.

2015 104

ARB posts discussion draft of new proposed mobile-source emissions reduction strategy through 2030; Advanced Clean Cars 2 regulation

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ARB staff developed this strategy using a multi-pollutant scenario planning tool ( Vision 2.0 ) that quantifies changes in ozone and PM 2.5 Diesel Electric (Battery) Emissions Engines Fuel Cells Fuels Hydrogen Regulations

2015 103

EPRI-NRDC report finds widespread vehicle electrification and a cleaner grid could lead to substantial cuts in GHG by 2050

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The electrification case assumes that the overall fraction of vehicle miles traveled by the US vehicle fleet using electricity stored in batteries is 17% for light-duty vehicles and 8% for medium-duty vehicles. Considering the electric power sector and transportation sectors together, net emissions of pollutants leading to atmospheric ozone and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) decrease in the electrification scenario. Electric (Battery) Emissions Forecasts Lifecycle analysis

2015 84

Up close and personal with Volkswagen’s e-Golf carbon offset project: Garcia River Forest

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For the lithium-ion batteries, Volkswagen developed an in-house model in cooperation with suppliers on the basis of the current state of the art as of 2012. Volkswagen assumed that the service life of the battery will correspond to that of the vehicle. ozone depletion potential (ODP).

2015 139

ARB issues solicitation for zero-emission off-road equipment projects

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Off-road equipment is a significant source of diesel PM, as well as NO x emissions that lead to ozone and secondary PM, ARB noted. In addition to hydrogen-based zero-emission technologies—and zero-emission transport refrigeration systems using fuel-cell, battery systems and cold plate technology to replace conventional diesel-fueled TRUs—recent advancements have been made in the electrification of equipment used in freight transport, ARB also notes.

2012 83

California to award $23.6M for zero-emission drayage trucks at seaports; BYD, Kenworth, Peterbilt, Volvo

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The South Coast air district is teaming up with air districts in the Bay Area, Sacramento, San Diego and San Joaquin Valley to make the project a statewide demonstration of 43 zero-emission battery electric and plug-in hybrid drayage trucks built by the four manufacturers serving major California ports. Full battery-electric trucks will be developed by BYD and a team consisting of Peterbilt and California start-up TransPower. The State of California is awarding $23.6

DOE to award up to $10M to promote zero emission cargo transport (ZECT) vehicles

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Applicants will be expected to collect data under real world cargo transport conditions in the prime applicant’s 8-hour ozone non-attainment area. Electric (Battery) Fleets Fuel Cells Heavy-dutyEnergy Secretary Steven Chu announced up to $10 million is available ( DE-FOA-0000669 ) this year to demonstrate and deploy electric transportation technologies for cargo vehicles, such as trucks, locomotives and forklifts.

2012 80

Automakers agree on common plug to recharge electric vehicles

Tony Karrer Delicious EVdriven

The benefit of a higher voltage connector has nothing to do with the speed at which the battery will charge it has to do with the conductor size.

The importance of considering non-exhaust traffic emissions; the role of EVs

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While battery electric vehicles have the obvious advantage of zero tail-pipe emissions, they are not equally advantaged when it comes to non-exhaust emissions. Specifically, they proposed a method to assess the contribution of EVs to urban air quality in Belgium, compared to conventional vehicles of the same weight class; they modeled the effect on human toxicity (HT), photochemical ozone formation (POF) and particulate matter formation (PMF).

2016 94

Calif. ARB releases GHG scoping plan update; more ZEVs, “LEV IV”, MD and HD regulations; ZEV for trucks; more LCFS

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Many of the strategies employed to reduce GHG emissions will also work to meet the national ambient air quality standard for ozone in 2032. However, to achieve the needed transportation GHG reductions and the corresponding 2032 ozone standards, the market uptake of advanced technologies will need to be accelerated. California currently has 60,000 ZEVs (primarily light-duty vehicles, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles) on its roadways.

2014 91

California Energy Commission adopts $100M investment plan for 2013-2014 for green vehicles and fuels

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The program is an important component of California’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, as required by AB 32; decrease petroleum fuel use to 15% below 2003 levels by 2020; increase the use of alternative fuels to 26% of all fuel consumed by 2022; and reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides to 80% of 2010 levels by 2023 to help meet federal ozone standards in areas of California such as the San Joaquin Valley and South Coast air basins.

2013 98

MECA report finds additional NOx emission reductions from new heavy-duty trucks achievable and cost-effective

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NO x is a precursor for both ground level ozone and secondary PM 2.5

2020 101

Report argues advanced HD natural gas vehicles foundational for California to hit air and climate goals; near zero-emission potential

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Compared to the 2010 “Business as Usual” scenario—which includes all adopted emission control measures for the South Coast—NO x levels must be reduced by 65% and by 75% to meet the 2023 and 2032 ozone standards, respectively.

2014 113

Portable sensors enable monitoring of pollution on smart phones; inferring pollution maps with greater granularity

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A view of the inside of the CitiSense sensor: the three cylindrical components detect ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. The CitiSense sensors detect ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, the most common pollutants emitted by cars and trucks.

2012 106

California Air Resources Board Unveils $3.7M in Rebates for Plug-in Hybrid and Zero-Emission Vehicles

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battery electric or fuel cell) and plug-in hybrid light-duty vehicles and up to $20,000 for the purchase of ARB-certified or approved zero-emission commercial vehicles on a first-come, first-served basis. Cars and trucks account for over half of the emissions that contribute to ozone and particulate matter as well as about 30% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in California. The California Air Resources Board announced $3.7

2010 78

Study Highlights the Importance of Considering Climate Effects of Non-CO2 Emissions from Transport in Mitigation Strategies and Policies

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The on-road transportation (ORT) and power generation (PG) sectors are major contributors to CO 2 emissions and a host of short-lived radiatively-active air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone and fine aerosol particles, that exert complex influences on global climate.

2009 78

ARB Outfits Two Electric Vehicles to Measure Ground-Level GHG

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The California Air Resources Board has equipped two battery-powered electric vehicles to take ground level readings of greenhouse gases throughout the state. The two vehicles, working together to gather upwind and downwind readings of sources, will monitor for methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, halocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, carbon monoxide, ozone and particulate elemental carbon; as well as particulate matter size and distribution.

2009 60

NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 reaches orbit

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A 35 Ah nickel-hydrogen battery will provide power when the sun is eclipsed from the spacecraft. by Jack Rosebro.

2014 108

National Academies release third review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership

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California’s and, potentially, EPA’s move toward further heavy-duty NO x reductions to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone will be critical. The National Academies have released a third review of the 21 st Century Truck Partnership (21CTP); the review follows the Phase 1 and Phase 2 reviews by the National Research Council in 2008 and 2012 ( earlier post ) and assesses the progress the partnership has made.

2015 73

National Academies Report Examines Hidden Cost of Energy Production and Use in US; Estimates $120B in 2005

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The committee that wrote the report focused on monetizing the damage of major air pollutants—sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and particulate matter—on human health, grain crops and timber yields, buildings, and recreation.

2005 109

House Chairmen Waxman, Markey Release Draft of Energy and Climate Legislation; Among the Many Provisions Are Cap-and-Trade, Harmonization of CAFE and California Vehicle Regulations, and Low Carbon Fuel Standard

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The bill requires electric utilities to draw up plans to implement a charging infrastructure for plug-in vehicles (that can include battery swapping, fast charging and other services). The draft adds HFCs to the list of similar substances that EPA currently regulates because they deplete the ozone layer. Chairman Henry A. Waxman of the Energy and Commerce Committee and Chairman Edward J.

2009 69