Global study links daily exposure to ozone pollution to increased risk of death

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Daily exposure to ground level ozone in cities worldwide is associated with an increased risk of death, according to the largest study of its kind, published in an open-access paper in The BMJ.

2020 227

TOAR shows present-day global ozone distribution and trends relevant to health; public database

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Ozone levels across much of North America and Europe dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. Even so, during 2010-2014, people in parts of California, Arizona, Colorado, Texas, the Midwest and the Middle Atlantic still experienced more than 15 days a year in which ozone levels exceeded the US health-based air quality standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb) averaged over eight hours. Trends in daily maximum ozone levels (known as 4MDA8) at urban and non-urban sites.

2018 220
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Using ozone injection to control HCCI combustion

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In-cylinder pressure (on the left) and heat release rate (on the right) as a function of the CAD and ozone concentration injected in the intake of the engine for PRF40. The results show that ozone seeding improves combustion and advances phasing. Now, researchers in France have added to that body of work by showing that ozone seeding in the intake of an HCCI engine can control HCCI combustion. Ozone was produced with an ozone generator.

Ozone 223

Study: ozone levels higher across China than in other countries tracking the air pollutant

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In China, people breathe ozone-laden air two to six times more often than people in the United States, Europe, Japan, or South Korea, according to a new international study published in Environmental Science & Technology Letters. Urban surface ozone level trends in China (red), Japan (purple), Europe (orange), and the United States (blue) from 1980?2017 2017 for one ozone metric. The inset shows ozone trends in Beijing (red) and Los Angeles (blue).

2018 183

China study connects ozone pollution to cardiovascular health

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Exposure to ozone, long associated with impaired lung function, is also connected to health changes that can cause cardiovascular disease such as heart attack, high blood pressure and stroke, according to a new study of Chinese adults. The findings associated ozone exposure with markers of platelet activation and increased blood pressure. They monitored indoor and outdoor ozone levels, along with other pollutants. The 24-hour ozone exposure concentrations ranged from 1.4

2017 163

Study finds rising emissions of ozone-depleting CFC-11, banned by Montreal Protocol

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Emissions of one of the chemicals most responsible for the Antarctic ozone hole are on the rise, despite an international treaty that required an end to its production in 2010, a new study by researchers at NOAA and their colleagues shows. Trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) is the second-most abundant ozone-depleting gas in the atmosphere and a member of the family of chemicals most responsible for the giant hole in the ozone layer that forms over Antarctica each September.

2018 163

Study associates ozone exposure at birth to increased risk of developing asthma

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A long-term study of the health of Canadian children has found that exposure to ozone (O 3 ) at birth was associated with an 82% increased risk of developing asthma by age three. The study, which was a 10-year follow-up to the 2006 Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire (T-CHEQ), was presented at the 2018 American Thoracic Society International Conference in San Diego.

2018 174

San José International deploys 10 Proterra electric buses in airport fleet

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Mineta San José International Airport’s (SJC) has deployed a fleet of 10 Proterra battery-electric buses that will transport passengers and their luggage between SJC’s parking lots, rental car center, and terminals. The electric bus fleet is anticipated to reduce ozone emissions by 1.1 million passengers annually, with 450 peak daily departures and arrivals on 13 international and domestic carriers to 50+ nonstop destinations.

2019 268

Study: surface ozone in India in 2005 damaged 6M tonnes of crops, enough to feed 94M people in poverty

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Ozone, the main component of smog, is a plant-damaging pollutant formed by emissions from vehicles, cooking stoves and other sources. New research shows that ozone pollution damaged millions of tons of wheat, rice, soybean and cotton crops in India in 2005. Surface ozone pollution in India damaged 6 million metric tons (6.7 Rising emissions are causing severe ozone pollution in some of India’s most populated regions. Smog in India.

2014 209

Researchers identify four new man-made gases contributing to destruction of ozone layer

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A study by an international team led by scientists at the University of East Anglia have identified four new man-made gases in the atmosphere, all of which are contributing to the destruction of the ozone layer. CFCs are the main cause of the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. The identification of these four new gases is very worrying as they will contribute to the destruction of the ozone layer.

2014 214

Study finds some refrigerants less damaging to ozone layer can degrade to long-lived GHG CF4

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Some of the substitutes for ozone-damaging chemicals that being phased out worldwide under international agreements are themselves potent greenhouse gases and contribute to warming.

2015 188

International study finds air pollution leads to millions of hospital visits for asthma attacks worldwide

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Air pollution—specifically PM 2.5 , ozone and NO 2 —could be to blame for up to 33 million emergency asthma attack visits to hospital a year, according to a new open-access study published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. The researchers aimed to estimate the number of asthma emergency room visits and new onset asthma cases globally attributable to PM 2.5 , ozone, and NO 2 concentrations. 37% and 73% of ozone and PM 2.5

2018 188

NASA-led study identifies unprecedented depletion of stratospheric ozone layer above Arctic

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A NASA-led study has documented an unprecedented depletion of Earth’s protective ozone layer above the Arctic last winter and spring caused by an unusually prolonged period of extremely low temperatures in the stratosphere. The study, published online Sunday in the journal Nature , finds the amount of ozone destroyed in the Arctic in 2011 was comparable to that seen in some years in the Antarctic, where an ozone “hole” has formed each spring since the mid 1980s.

2011 174

Study Links Springtime Ozone Increases Above Western North America to Emissions in Asia

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Springtime ozone distributions for 1984, 1995–2008 in the mid-troposphere (3.0–8.0 Springtime ozone levels above western North America are rising primarily due to air flowing eastward from the Pacific Ocean, a trend that is largest when the air originates in Asia. These increases in ozone could make it more difficult for the United States to meet Clean Air Act standards for ozone pollution at ground level, according to a new international study.

Toyota develops tropospheric ozone-concentration simulator for South and East Asia

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have developed a simulator able to predict tropospheric ozone concentrations across the whole of South and East Asia. The project was carried out in collaboration with Tsinghua University in China, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in India, and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Austria. Tropospheric ozone is the main cause of photochemical smog, an atmospheric pollutant harmful to human health and plant growth.

Asia 183

Toyota Central R&D Labs develops new ferrihydrite material that effectively removes ozone from air

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Japan) report in the journal Angewandte Chemie the development of a mesoporous two-line ferrihydrite (2LFh)—ferrihydrite is a widespread mineral composed of iron, oxygen, and water—that could lead to a new generation of ozone filters in electrostatic devices and aircraft applications. In ozone processes for water cleaning and odor removal, e.g. smoke from vehicle interiors, it could catch the unreacted O 3. Such isolated iron oxide units absorb ozone especially well.

2011 195

Are Asian emissions to blame for US ozone levels?

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A new international study suggests that springtime ozone levels above western North America are rising mainly because of air flowing eastward from the Pacific Ocean – a trend at its largest when the air originates in Asia. This could even make it difficult for the US to meet Clean Air Act standards for ozone pollution.

Ozone 37

Fast action on black carbon, ozone and methane could help limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees C

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Fast action on pollutants such as black carbon, ground-level ozone and methane may help limit near term global temperature rise and significantly increase the chances of keeping temperature rise below 2 °C (3.6 °F)—and The proposed measures for reducing black carbon, methane and ozone levels in the atmosphere significantly increase our chances to keep global warming below dangerous levels during this century.

2011 195

UNEP study: small number of measures targeting black carbon and tropospheric ozone could yield immediate climate benefits

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A small number of emissions reduction measures targeting black carbon (BC) and tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) could immediately begin to protect climate, public health, water and food security, and ecosystems, according to a study, Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone , newly released by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Black carbon and tropospheric ozone are harmful air pollutants that also contribute to climate change.

2011 195

New international study finds lab testing of diesel NOx emissions underestimates real-world levels by up to 50%

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A new international study has found that laboratory tests of nitrogen oxide emissions from diesel vehicles significantly underestimate the real-world emissions by as much as 50%. The research, led by the International Council on Clean Transportation and Environmental Health Analytics, LLC., —Josh Miller, researcher at the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT).

2017 203

Study Finds Ozone, Nitrogen Change the Way Rising CO2 Affects Earths Water

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Through a recent modeling experiment, a team of NASA-funded researchers have found that future concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone in the atmosphere and of nitrogen in the soil are likely to have an important but overlooked effect on the cycling of water from sky to land to waterways. Runoff may be as much as 17% higher in forests of the eastern United States when models account for changes in soil nitrogen levels and atmospheric ozone exposure.

2009 174

NOAA Study Identifies Nitrous Oxide as Top Ozone-Depleting Emission in 21st Century

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Currently, anthropogenic N 2 O emissions represent the largest contribution to ozone depletion. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) has become the most important ozone-depleting substance (ODS) emitted through human activities, and is expected to remain the largest throughout the 21 st century, according to a new study by scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

2009 150

North American Countries Target “Super” Greenhouse Gases Through Strengthened Ozone Treaty

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The US, Canada, and Mexico have submitted a proposal to strengthen climate protection under the Montreal Protocol— the international treaty that phases out the production of a number of substances responsible for ozone depletion. The Multilateral Fund also agreed to pay a 25% premium for climate benefits when phasing out HCFCs, above and beyond the ozone-only cost-effective thresholds, where the project will provide climate benefits.

2010 163

International study of role of soots impact on Arctic climate

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The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO) highlighted the multiple benefits from cutting black carbon and another local air pollutant, tropospheric ozone, in its February “ Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision Makers ” Brief

2011 183

New international Climate and Clean Air Coalition to focus on reduction of short-lived climate pollutants

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Fast action on pollutants such as black carbon, ground-level ozone and methane may help limit near-term global temperature rise and significantly increase the chances of keeping temperature rise below 2 °C (3.6 °F), The United States is already actively engaged in efforts to reduce these pollutants on the national and international levels. Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision Makers.

2012 190

International study identifies 14 key measures to reduce methane and black carbon emissions; reduction in projected global mean warming of ~0.5 °C by 2050

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A study by an international team of researchers, led by Drew Shindell of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York City, has identified 14 measures targeting methane and black carbon (BC) emissions that could reduce projected global mean warming ~0.5°C Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and an important precursor to ground-level ozone. Ozone, a key component of smog and also a greenhouse gas, damages crops and human health.

2012 221

MECA emissions inventory & air quality modeling shows potential benefits of national cleaner trucks initiative at CARB limits

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The modeled 2028 base year 8-hour ozone design values were found to be above the 70 ppb NAAQS for 75 monitoring locations. By 2035, 46 states will be in attainment with the 2015 ozone NAAQS of 70 ppb (only counties in California and Utah remain in nonattainment).

2020 227

WHO issues new, lower Global Air Quality Guidelines for classical pollutants

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When action is taken on these classical pollutants—particulate matter (PM), ozone (O?), In 2013, outdoor air pollution and particulate matter were classified as carcinogenic by WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

EPA dissolves boards of pollution scientists

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The EPA has dismissed two panels of outside scientists that advised the agency on particulate matter and ground-level ozone, which have been linked to smog and respiratory problems. Under acting administrator Andrew Wheeler, a former coal-industry lobbyist, analyzing those pollutants will be left to the EPA's internal Clean Air Scientific Advisory.

2018 86

Study links air pollution to increased emergency department visits for heart and lung disease

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They found that exposure to pollutants such as ground-level ozone and nitrogen oxides, which are created from burning fossil fuels, led to increased ED visits. The study is published in the journal Environment International. ozone and sulfate) origin and cardiorespiratory emergency department (ED) visits for 8 specific outcomes in five U.S.

2018 285

EPA researchers find deaths from air pollution falling over time, but many sectors continue to pose a risk

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Number of premature PM 2.5 - and ozone-related deaths attributable to seven broad classes of sectors in 2016 (thousands of premature deaths). and ozone air quality levels, population exposure and health burden to 23 industrial point, area, mobile and international emission sectors in the Continental US in 2005 and 2016. and ozone are improving, many sectors continue to pose a considerable burden to public health. and ozone-related deaths in the future.

2013 195

PM2.5, O3 pollution associated with development of Alzheimer’s disease; new study identifies evolving axonal damage

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and ozone at or above the current standards have been linked to neuroinflammation and high risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). suggesting long-term exposure to PM 2.5 , as well as ozone above the current US EPA standards, are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Exposures to concentrations of PM 2.5 A 2015 study found a 138% risk of increase of AD per increase of 4.34 ?g/m g/m 3 in PM 2.5

2018 262

Maersk calls for EU enforcement of reefer legislation, pushes its Supotec foam

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Maersk Container Industry (MCI) is calling for tougher enforcement of European environmental legislation designed to protect the Earth’s ozone layer and help prevent climate change. Current EU legislation bans the “import” or “placing on the market” of reefer containers with significant potential to damage the climate and ozone layer. And SuPoTec causes no harm to the Earth’s ozone layer, unlike HCFC141b.

2013 200

Study: 87% of world’s population in 2013 lived in areas exceeding WHO PM2.5 guidelines

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annual average), according to a major international study published in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology. Additionally, the study found that the population-weighted mean concentrations of ozone increased globally by 8.9% An additional 217,000 deaths were attributable to long-term ozone exposure. and ozone (O 3 ). We incorporated improvements in satellite-based estimation of PM 2.5 , internally consistent emissions inventories spanning 2.5

2015 183

Northwestern/Princeton study explores air quality impacts of aggressive conversion to EVs

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Researchers from Northwestern University and Princeton University have explored the impact on US air quality from an aggressive conversion of internal combustion vehicles to battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs). Among the findings: Summer surface ozone (O 3 ) decreases in most locations due to widespread reductions of traffic NO x emissions. Across scenarios, we found the more cars that transitioned to electric power, the better for summertime ozone levels.

2019 237

UN report projects that increasing use of HFCs likely to have a significant climate impact by 2050; equivalent to current total annual emissions from transport

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The decrease in CO 2 equivalent emissions of ODSs (ozone-depleting substances: CFCs, halons, HCFCs, and others) may be offset by the projected increase in their non-ozone depleting substitutes (HFCs) (lines designated as HFC scenarios). Used in products such as air conditioners, refrigerators, firefighting equipment and insulation foams, HFCs are becoming popular as replacements for those phased-out or being phased-out to protect the ozone layer. Climate and the Ozone Layer.

2011 241

Emissions of potent GHG HFC-23 have grown, contradicting reports of huge reductions

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Despite reports that global emissions of the potent greenhouse gas, HFC-23, were almost eliminated in 2017, an international team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, has found atmospheric levels growing at record values. Now, an international team of researchers have shown, in an open-access paper published in the journal Nature Communications , that concentrations were increasing at an all-time record by 2018.

2020 183

Study: curbing diesel emissions could reduce mortality rates in big cities

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US cities could see a decline in mortality rates and an improved economy through midcentury if federal and local governments maintain stringent air pollution policies and diminish concentrations of diesel freight truck exhaust, according to a new study published in Environment International by researchers at Cornell University, the University of Houston and Changsha University of Science and Technology, China.

2019 240

WHO links 7 million premature deaths annually to air pollution; 12.5% of total global deaths

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A 2013 assessment by WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that outdoor air pollution is carcinogenic to humans, with the particulate matter component of air pollution most closely associated with increased cancer incidence, especially cancer of the lung. Ozone. Ozone is a major factor in asthma morbidity and mortality. As a result, the highest levels of ozone pollution occur during periods of sunny weather.

2014 288

Indo-US task force to study HFC phase-down

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HFCs are chemicals are potential substitutes for ozone-depleting and climate-warming CFCs and HCFCs currently being phased out under the Montreal Protocol treaty to protect the ozone layer. Although they don’t harm the ozone layer, HFCs are powerful climate warming gases and their emissions are expected to rise sharply over the next few decades without aggressive action, significantly contributing to climate change.

2011 174

Study finds significant slowdown in decrease of NOx emissions in US; implications for air quality management

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NO x emissions have not been decreasing as expected in recent years (2011–2015) when comparing top-down estimates from satellites and surface NO 2 measurements to the trends predicted from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s emission inventory data, according to a new study by an international team of researchers. These results show that meeting future air quality standards for ozone pollution will be more challenging than previously thought.

2018 150

Study first to quantify amount of US pollution resulting from Chinese manufacturing for exports

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Dust, ozone and carbon can accumulate in valleys and basins in California and other Western states. Los Angeles experiences at least one extra day a year of smog that exceeds federal ozone limits because of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emitted by Chinese factories making goods for export, the analysis found. China’s huge ramp-up of industrial activity in recent years, combined with poor pollution controls, has unleashed often fierce international debates.

2014 262

HEI: 95%+ of world’s population live in areas of unhealthy air

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Ozone, another important component of outdoor air pollution, whose levels are on the rise around the world, contributed to 234,000 deaths from chronic lung disease. Population-weighted seasonal average ozone concentrations in 2016. Its results are published each year in the international medical journal, The Lancet. The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) leads an international team of more than 2000 scientists from 130 countries in conducting the analysis.

2018 195