EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan sees likely increase in tropospheric ozone, with more difficulty in attaining NAAQS in many areas

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Among the many climate-related vulnerabilities that can impact its mission, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cites a likely increase in tropospheric ozone pollution as potentially making it more difficult to attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards ( NAAQS ) in many areas with existing ozone problems. The analysis comes in a draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan that the agency has released for public comment. Climate Change Emissions Policy

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. The piece was co-authored by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego climate and atmospheric scientist V. Besides a danger to breathe, ozone lowers crop yields.

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Study Concludes Warming Climate Will Increase Ozone Levels in Major California Air Basins; Climate Change and Regional Air Quality Are Intertwined Problems

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Illustration of projected ozone changes in the South Coast region due to climate change in 2050. Areas in orange and red could see ozone concentrations elevated by 9 to 18 parts per billion. In a new report released by the California Air Resources Board, scientists from the University of California at Davis and Berkeley estimate that rising temperatures from climate change will increase ozone levels in California’s major air basins.

Cutting Non-CO2 Pollutants Can Delay Abrupt Climate Change; The Fast Action Climate Agenda

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This would mean that the climate system is close to entering if not already within the zone of “dangerous anthropogenic interference” (DAI). “We Cutting HFCs, black carbon, tropospheric ozone, and methane can buy us about 40 years before we approach the dangerous threshold of 2°C warming. —co-author

California ARB and NOAA Collaborating in $20M Research on Interaction of Air Pollution and Climate Change; One Atmosphere Approach

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Schematic diagram of the trade-offs between the implications for regional air quality and global climate change of new policies for management of the atmosphere. The complex roles that ozone and aerosols play in the atmosphere provide examples of such trade-offs.

California ARB releases final version of proposed update to Climate Change Scoping Plan; LEV IV

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the final version of the proposed First Update to the Climate Change Scoping Plan (First Update). Continuing progress on light-duty vehicles beyond the scope of the Advanced Clean Cars program with a LEV IV standard targeted at achieving additional GHG emission reductions of about five percent per year beyond 2025 would reduce new vehicle emission standards to about 125 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per mile (gCO 2 e/mi) in 2030 and to below 100 gCO 2 e/mi by 2035.

Fast action on black carbon, ozone and methane could help limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees C

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The climate change benefit is estimated for a given year (2050) and human health and crop benefits are. °F), according to a new assessment released today in Bonn, Germany, during a meeting of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

2011 99

Emissions of potent GHG HFC-23 have grown, contradicting reports of huge reductions

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This would have been a big win for climate. That the reduction has not materialized—and that global emissions have instead risen—is a puzzle, and may have implications for the Montreal Protocol, the international treaty that was designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer. Climate Change Emissions Market Background Policy

2020 71

New international Climate and Clean Air Coalition to focus on reduction of short-lived climate pollutants

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Global benefits from full implementation of measures for reduction of short-lived climate pollutants in 2030 compared to the reference scenario. The climate change benefit is estimated for a given year (2050) and human health and crop benefits are.

California Air Resources Board posts revised draft of strategy to reduce “Super Pollutants”

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The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has posted a revised draft of California’s proposed Short-Lived Climate Pollutant (SLCP) Strategy. SLCPs may account for an estimated 40% of global warming, increasing the impacts of climate change.

2016 102

International study identifies 14 key measures to reduce methane and black carbon emissions; reduction in projected global mean warming of ~0.5 °C by 2050

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Circle areas are proportional to values for (A and B) climate change, (C and D) human health (values for population over age 30), and (E and F) agriculture. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and an important precursor to ground-level ozone.

2012 113

Air Resources Board seeks nominations for 2014 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards

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The California Air Resources Board is accepting applications for the 2014 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards. The awards are annually bestowed upon scientists, policy makers, community leaders and educators who have made outstanding contributions to the advancement of clean air and climate change science, technology and policy. The 2014 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards nomination period is between1 Oct. Past Winners of the Haagen-Smit Clean Air Award.

2014 80

MIT study finds air quality co-benefits of US carbon policies can significantly offset costs, depending upon the policy

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Air quality co-benefits are additional to climate benefits realized from reduced CO 2 emissions.). In a paper published in the journal Nature Climate Science , the MIT researchers took a systems-level approach to analyzing how climate policies influence air quality, focusing on US emissions of O 3 and PM 2.5 In 2011, 231 counties in the US exceeded the EPA’s regulatory standards for ozone, the main component of smog. Climate Change Emissions Health Policy

2014 80

EPA report to Congress finds a strong scientific and technical foundation for mitigating black carbon emissions

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has submitted its final Report to Congress on Black Carbon , in response to an October 2009 request from Congress to advance efforts to understand the role of black carbon (BC) in climate change. Effects of BC on climate, as compared to GHGs.

NASA GISS Study Finds That Methane Has an Elevated Warming Effect Due to Interactions With Aerosols

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Despite their limitations, GWPs are widely used for comparison among long-lived gases, forming the basis for worldwide political agreements on climate and carbon trading. Methane’s GWP may also change with time as air quality regulations alter the background state of tropospheric chemistry.

2009 116

US EPA proposing allowing high-octane, higher ethanol content fuels as part of Tier 3 regs; E30 as example

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Currently, the Clean Air Act limits the volatility of gasoline to 9.0 psi RVP in southern ozone non-attainment areas—but allows a 1 psi RVP waiver for E10. Climate Change Emissions Engines Fuel Efficiency Fuels High Octane Fuels Policy

2013 86

Calif. ARB releases GHG scoping plan update; more ZEVs, “LEV IV”, MD and HD regulations; ZEV for trucks; more LCFS

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The update identifies eight key sectors for ongoing action: Energy; Transportation, fuels, land use and infrastructure; Agriculture; Water; Waste management; Natural lands; Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (such as methane and black carbon); and Green Buildings. Many of the strategies employed to reduce GHG emissions will also work to meet the national ambient air quality standard for ozone in 2032.

2014 91

Study suggests cap and trade programs do not provide sufficient incentives for energy technology innovation; implications for climate policy

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Policies incentivizing the private sector to push to develop innovative “clean” technologies are likely to play a key role in achieving climate stabilization. Respectively, Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act and the Ozone Transport Commission/NO x Budget Program.). The lower-than-expected price signal did cause emissions sources to reassess their clean technology investments, however, and led to significant cancellations, Taylor reported. Climate Change Policy

2012 88

EPA Issues Proposed Endangerment Finding for Greenhouse Gases; Proposed Cause or Contribute Finding Identifies Motor Vehicles as Contributing Source

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The issuance of an endangerment finding enables the regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. The proposed cause or contribute finding concludes that that the combined emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, and HFCs from new motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines contribute to the atmospheric concentrations of these key greenhouse gases and hence to the threat of climate change. In both magnitude and probability, climate change is an enormous problem.

2009 60

California Air Resources Board adopts GHG cap-and-trade program; first auctions slated for Aug/Nov 2012

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The cap-and-trade joins a suite of other major climate program measures including standards for ultra-clean cars (Advanced Clean Cars, earlier post ), low-carbon fuels (Low Carbon Fuel Standard, earlier post ) and renewable electricity. Cap-and-trade is another important building block in California’s effort to create a clean and vibrant economy. the destruction of existing stores of ozone-depleting substances in the U.S. Climate Change Emissions Policy

2011 76

California ARB soliciting research suggestions for FY 2012-2013 plan; sustainable communities, behavior, pollutant exposure, air pollution science, GHG targets

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Sustainable Communities : The Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act of 2008 (SB 375) directs California’s metropolitan planning organizations to develop sustainable communities strategies that meet regional greenhouse gas reduction targets through integrated land use, housing and transportation planning. Behavior and Technology adoption : Strategies to improve air quality depend not only on sound technologies, but on adoption and appropriate use of clean technologies.

2011 80

US Climate Action Report to UN Projects 4% Growth in Total US GHG Emissions to 2020

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while the US GDP is projected to grow by 40%, according to the fifth National Communication on US climate change actions submitted by the US Department of State to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The submission of the document, also called the US Climate Action Report 2010, is a requirement under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. US Fifth Climate Action Report. Fifth Climate Action Report.

2010 71

Study Highlights the Importance of Considering Climate Effects of Non-CO2 Emissions from Transport in Mitigation Strategies and Policies

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The on-road transportation (ORT) and power generation (PG) sectors are major contributors to CO 2 emissions and a host of short-lived radiatively-active air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone and fine aerosol particles, that exert complex influences on global climate.

2009 78

ARB releases proposed cap-and-trade regulation for comment; transportation fuels impacted in 2015

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During the public comment period, ARB staff will continue to meet with stakeholders to refine the regulation and develop proposed changes to present at the Board hearing. The design of the California cap-and-trade program allows linkage with programs established by partner jurisdictions in the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) to create a regional market system. Tags: Climate Change Emissions Fuels Policy

2010 74

Stanford Professor Urges EPA to Include Black Carbon in Endangerment Finding

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In testimony for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) public hearing ( earlier post ) on the proposed endangerment finding for greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act ( earlier post ), Stanford Professor Mark Jacobson urged the EPA to include black carbon in the finding. Immediate GHG control is still absolutely necessary to stem short and long-term climate damage. F, with about 40% due to ozone.

2009 60

House Chairmen Waxman, Markey Release Draft of Energy and Climate Legislation; Among the Many Provisions Are Cap-and-Trade, Harmonization of CAFE and California Vehicle Regulations, and Low Carbon Fuel Standard

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Markey of the Energy and Environment Subcommittee on Tuesday released a draft of far-reaching energy and climate legislation that targets job creation, promotes renewables and energy efficiency, and places limits on emissions of greenhouse gases. The bill also modifies the Clean Air Act to require the development of greenhouse gas emissions standards for all other mobile sources—e.g., Clean Fuels and Vehicles. Clean Air Act Exemptions. Exporting Clean Technology.

2009 69

EPA, NHTSA issue One National Program Rule; EPA withdraws CA waiver for GHG and fuel economy

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For its part, EPA is withdrawing the Clean Air Act preemption waiver it granted to the State of California in January 2013 as it relates to California’s GHG and ZEV programs. California’s ability to enforce its Low Emission Vehicle program and other clean air standards to address harmful smog-forming vehicle emissions—i.e., The California waiver authority exists because California has uniquely difficult problems with ozone-forming pollutants.

2019 77

Cummins CTO John Wall receives California’s premier air quality award

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is one of the three recipients of the 2014 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards , California’s premier award recognizing individuals who have made outstanding contributions to improving air quality. Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards are given annually to individuals who have made significant lifetime contributions toward improving air quality and climate change science, technology and policy, furthering the protection of public health.

2015 77

Lancet Series Finds That Cutting Greenhouse Pollutants Will Have Major Direct Health Benefits Worldwide

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Tackling climate change by reducing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse emissions will have major direct health benefits in addition to reducing the risk of climate change, especially in low-income countries, according to a series of six papers on “Health and Climate Change” published 25 November in the British medical journal The Lancet. Also, because they are short-lived, emission controls are almost immediately reflected in changes in warming.

2009 74

Study: air pollution causes 800,000 extra deaths a year in Europe and 8.8 million worldwide

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and ozone. When we use clean, renewable energy, we are not just fulfilling the Paris Agreement to mitigate the effects of climate change, we could also reduce air pollution-related death rates in Europe by up to 55%.

2019 112

California ARB moves forward with climate and air quality actions

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On the first day of a two-day board meeting—the second day of which (Friday 24 March) will consider the Advanced Clean Cars Midterm Review—the California Air Resources Board (ARB) took a number of climate and air quality actions.

2017 95

Study finds anthropogenic PM and dust undercutting global solar energy production

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The data showed a 50% jump in efficiency each time the panels were cleaned after being left alone for several weeks. The manmade particles are also small and sticky, making them much more difficult to clean off. If cleanings take place every two months, those numbers jump to 25 or 35%.

2017 101

Study findings suggest that switching from coal to natural gas would do little for global climate

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Although the burning of natural gas emits far less carbon dioxide than coal, a new study by Tom Wigley, a senior research associate at the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and an adjunct professor at the University of Adelaide in Australia, concludes that a greater reliance on natural gas would fail to significantly slow down climate change. The study will appear next month in the peer-reviewed journal Climatic Change Letters.

2011 107

EPA Administrator Outlines Seven Key Themes for Agency in 2010 and Beyond

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The seven themes are: Taking Action on Climate Change. EPA will finalize its mobile source GHG rules under the Clean Air Act, and “ provide a framework for continued improvements in that sector.” ( Earlier post. ). In all of this, we must also recognize that climate change will affect other parts of our core mission, such as protecting air and water quality, and we must include those considerations in our future plans. Cleaning Up Communities.

2010 64

ICCT study finds that transitioning to low-GWP MAC refrigerants in China could avoid up to US$150B in costs

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A new study from the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) assesses the feasibility, benefits, and costs of phasing out HFC-134a as the refrigerant in mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in the Chinese LDV fleet, focusing on three alternatives with lower global warming potential (GWP) most likely to be adopted by automakers with a global supply chain: HFO-1234yf, HFC-152a, and CO 2.

2016 76

California Air Resources Board Unveils $3.7M in Rebates for Plug-in Hybrid and Zero-Emission Vehicles

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In October 2007, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed AB 118 which provides approximately $200 million annually through 2015 to the California Energy Commission, the Bureau of Automotive Repair and the ARB to fund air quality improvement projects that will accelerate clean engine technologies. Cars and trucks account for over half of the emissions that contribute to ozone and particulate matter as well as about 30% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in California.

2010 78

California Energy Commission adopts $100M investment plan for 2013-2014 for green vehicles and fuels

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Funding priorities through the ARFVT Program support fuel and vehicle development to help attain the state’s climate change policies. 5 million for light-duty plug-in electric vehicle rebates to meet high demand for the Clean Vehicle Rebate Program, administered by the California Air Resources Board. $5 5 million for manufacturing projects, supporting economic development and clean transportation technology. $4

2013 98

EPA issues greenhouse gas proposals

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It has been deemed by the EPA that the emissions from new motor vehicles and their engines contribute to these concentrations and threaten climate change. The analysis also looked at the impact of climate change on human health and suggests that it may lead to higher levels of ground-level ozone, a harmful pollutant. Before taking steps to reduce greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act, the EPA must conduct an appropriate process with stakeholder input.

Report argues advanced HD natural gas vehicles foundational for California to hit air and climate goals; near zero-emission potential

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Compared to the 2010 “Business as Usual” scenario—which includes all adopted emission control measures for the South Coast—NO x levels must be reduced by 65% and by 75% to meet the 2023 and 2032 ozone standards, respectively.

2014 113