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EIA: trends in downsized engine design leading to increased demand for higher-octane gasoline

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Since 2013, the share of premium gasoline in total motor gasoline sales in the US has steadily increased to 11.3% This trend of increasing demand for higher octane gasoline is likely driven by changes in fuel requirements for light-duty vehicles (LDV) in response to increasing fuel economy standards, which will have widespread implications for future gasoline markets, according to EIA analysts. One significant trend is engine downsizing coupled with turbocharging.

2016 163

Cummins progressing with lightweight downsized T2B2 diesel for pickup; 40% improvement in fuel economy over gasoline V8

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Cummins reports that it, along with partners Johnson Matthey and Nissan, is on plan in a 4-year, $30-million ($15 million from the US Department of Energy) research project to deliver a light-duty diesel engine with fuel economy 40% improved over that of baseline gasoline V8 engine for a half-ton pickup truck while also meeting the requirements of US Tier2 Bin2 tailpipe emissions. Cost of the new engine relative to gasoline baseline. Exhaust system configuration.

2014 286
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Split injection Miller cycle with boost decreases knock tendency and increases torque in downsized engine

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Researchers at Tianjin University in China report that combing split injection to the Miller cycle with boost pressure can effectively decrease the knock tendency and increase the engine torque in a downsized spark-ignition engine. A low effective CR can reduce the end-gas temperature and, consequently, the Miller cycle can suppress knock.

2018 174

Achates OPGCI project targeting 50% fuel efficiency gains over downsized GDI engine at reduced cost

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Achates Power will work with Delphi Automotive and Argonne National Laboratory on its ARPA-E-funded project to develop an innovative opposed-piston, gasoline compression ignition (OPGCI) engine. The engine should yield fuel efficiency gains of more than 50% compared to a downsized, turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine, while reducing the overall cost of the powertrain system, said Fabien Redon, Vice President, Technology Development at Achates Power.

2015 163

Hyundai showcasing new downsized turbo engines and 7-speed dual-clutch transmission; i40 48V Hybrid, i30 CNG

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Hyundai Motor is showcasing two new turbocharged gasoline direct injected (T-GDI) engines at the Paris Motor Show 2014. In addition, Hyundai is premiering at the Paris show its first 7-speed dual-clutch transmission, fitted into the i30 CNG natural gas concept car, which contributes to improved fuel efficiency. The new Kappa 1.0-liter T-GDI is the first of a new generation of small turbocharged gasoline engines, offering enhanced performance, driving pleasure and efficiency.

2014 205

DENSO Develops Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor With Improved Temperature Detection Accuracy

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DENSO Corporation has improved the temperature detection accuracy of its newly developed diesel exhaust temperature sensor. To improve the sensor’s temperature accuracy, DENSO increased the probe length to almost twice that of the conventional product and extended the sensing tip into the exhaust pipe. In addition, DENSO also expects an increase in gasoline-powered vehicles with turbochargers to meet the demand for higher engine power as downsizing progresses.

2009 179

New Delphi Technologies 500+ bar GDi system cuts gasoline particulate emissions by up to 50%, reduces fuel consumption

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Reducing the number of exhaust gas particulates, including those smaller than 23 nm, will help manufacturers meet increasingly stringent future global emissions standards. At the end of 2016, Delphi Technologies entered production with its industry first 350 bar GDi system, which reduces exhaust particulates by up to 70% compared with industry-standard 200 bar systems. —Walter Piock, chief engineer, Gasoline Systems, Delphi Technologies.

2019 218

Volkswagen introduces new 1L, 3-cylinder gasoline Golf; 54.7 mpg

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mpg US) (99 g/km CO 2 )—more efficient than any previous Golf with a gasoline engine. The new TSI engine also offers the highest specific torque of any large-scale production series gasoline engines: 200 N·m per liter displacement. Despite its efficiency, the Golf TSI BlueMotion with the 85 kW / 114 hp downsized 999 cc EA211-series engine reaches 100 km/h in 9.7 Until now, the Golf BlueMotion was only available in diesel (TDI) and natural gas (TGI) versions.

2015 228

Bosch leading Direct4Gas consortium to develop direct injection for monovalent natural gas engines

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Bosch is leading a consortium in a German government-funded project to develop a direct injection system for monovalent natural gas engines—i.e., Compared with present systems that use manifold gas injection, a direct injection system for natural gas could deliver as much as 60% more torque at low rpm, and offer the prospect of an even more dynamic driving experience in the CNG cars of the future. Emissions Engines Natural Gas

2015 224

Controlled Power Technologies Packages Its Switched Reluctance Systems in ‘RegEnBoost’ System for Enhanced Support for Downsizing

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CPT says that the RegEnBoost system enables a typical family-sized car to achieve less than 100 g/km CO 2 with a 1-liter gasoline engine, but when required can offer the same lively performance and in-gear acceleration of a 2-liter naturally aspirated powertrain. Power for the battery and VTES electric supercharger is not only supplied by the SpeedStart ISG but also the TIGERS exhaust driven turbo-generator. The three components of the RegEnBoost system. Click to enlarge.

2009 175

Westport unveils proprietary enhanced spark-ignited natural gas system; up to 10% improvement in power and torque over diesel

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unveiled the first generation of its new, proprietary enhanced spark-ignited (ESI) natural gas system. The new approach to natural gas combustion technology is designed to provide vehicle and engine original manufacturers (OEMs) with a “downsized” natural gas solution that is cost competitive while providing similar levels of power, torque, and fuel economy to a larger diesel engine. mono-fuel gas engine. Diesel Engines Natural Gas

2014 219

DENSO develops compact EGR cooler for gasoline engines; applied in Prius c

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DENSO Corporation has developed its first EGR cooler for gasoline engines. The newly developed EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) cooler is 30% smaller than the smallest one currently available on the market, while offering equal performance. DENSO plans to offer this product worldwide as a solution to meet tighter fuel-efficiency and exhaust regulations. DENSO EGR cooler. Click to enlarge.

2012 200

PSA to commercialize SwRI-developed Dedicated-EGR technology in high-efficiency gasoline engines by 2018

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During its recent Innovation Day presentations ( earlier post ), PSA Peugeot Citroën announced that it will commercialize high-efficiency gasoline engines featuring dedicated exhaust gas recirculation (D-EGR), derived from a collaborative program with SwRI in the US. In the inaugural study reported in an SAE paper in 2009 (2009-01-0694), SwRI ran a 4-cylinder engine with cylinder 1 exhausting directly to the intake manifold, leading to a constant 25% EGR level.

2013 225

Opel presents new midsize gasoline engine at Aachen Colloquium; fuel consumption down 13%, torque and power up 33%

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Opel revealed more details about its new mid-size gasoline engine family at the Aachen Colloquium in Germany. For mass reduction the midsize gasoline engine features a two-piece crankcase design, supported at the lower end by a die-cast aluminum bedplate. Achieving these goals enabled vehicle integration that can tune primary engine orders in the induction and exhaust systems to meet specific vehicle objectives. New 1.6L SIDI engine. Click to enlarge.

2012 280

Brunel engineers optimizing CAI combustion in 2-stroke camless gasoline DI engine

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Operating range of 2-stroke CAI fueled with gasoline, E10 and E85. Researchers at Brunel University in the UK, led by Professor Hua Zhao, Head of Mechanical Engineering and Director, Centre for Advanced Powertrain and Fuels (CAPF), are investigating optimizing the performance of controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion in a four-valve camless gasoline direct injection engine running in a two-stroke cycle. Zhang et al. 2013a) Click to enlarge.

2014 170

Study explores impact of alcohol-gasoline blends with early inlet valve closing at low and moderate loads on EGR tolerance

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A team from Brunel University, MAHLE Powertrain and University College London studied the combined effects of different inlet valve operating strategies on combustion, performance and emissions with different ethanol and 1-butanol blends with gasoline in a single-cylinder spark-ignition research engine equipped with a fully variable valvetrain. Variable valve timing is an established technique for improving the fuel economy of a gasoline engine via several mechanisms.

2013 196

ADEPT project to apply gasoline engine HyBoost system to diesel; 48V architecture; full hybrid fuel economy at much lower cost

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The developers of the successful gasoline-engine HyBoost project ( earlier post )—Ricardo, Ford Motor Company, Control Power Technologies (CPT) and the European Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (EALABC)—will be joined by Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies UK Ltd and University of Nottingham to apply the intelligent electrification concept for the first time to a diesel vehicle (a Ford Focus).

2013 205

Mazdas new SKYACTIV gasoline and diesel engines are steps on the road to its Ideal Engine; focus on compression ratio

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However, while Mazda plans to offer hybrid vehicles in the medium-term, its engineers are pushing hard to increase the efficiencies of both the gasoline and diesel platforms, moving toward what they call “the ideal Internal Combustion Engine.” ” The initial SKYACTIV-G (gasoline) and SKYACTIV-D (diesel) engines that are being applied into new vehicles this year and next show Mazda’s approach to the goal. Extreme compression ratio rather than downsizing.

2011 262

Citroën introduces first members of new 3-cylinder gasoline engine family; 1.0L and 1.2L PureTech reduce fuel consumption about 25%

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Citroën is introducing the first members of its new PureTech family of three-cylinder gasoline engines on the C3, DS3 and C-Elysée (for international markets) ranges. The PureTech engines offer equivalent or better power compared with the previous generation powerplants, combined with significantly lower fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, down by roughly 25%. PureTech 3-cylinder engine. Click to enlarge.

2012 235

ACCESS project targeting 30% improvement in fuel economy and SULEV emissions in light-duty gasoline engine; multi-mode SI/HCCI combustion

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Robert Bosch LLC and a consortium including AVL, Emitec, University of Michigan and Stanford University are working on a four-year, $24-million US Department of Energy (DOE)-supported project to achieve up to 30% fuel economy improvement in a gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle without compromising performance while also meeting SULEV emission standards. Two-stage boost—a small supercharger for HCCI, and a regular turbocharger for downsizing.

2011 191

Advanced Turbocharged, Direct Injected Gasoline Engines Poised to Take on Diesels in US and in Europe for Reduced Fuel Consumption and Emissions

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A confluence of technology developments, future emissions regulations and economic conditions will not only allow advanced light-duty spark-ignited gasoline engines to keep diesels at bay in the US market, but may also allow the gasoline units to push into the diesel-dominated medium-duty commercial truck and off-highway segments in the US, according to several presentations at the US Department of Energy’s 2009 Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) conference last week.

2009 150

Study: splash blended ethanol fuels with higher ethanol percentage enable higher thermal efficiency in SI engine

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In a paper published in the journal Fuel , the researchers report that at the knock-limited engine loads, splash-blended ethanol fuels with a higher ethanol percentage enabled higher engine thermal efficiency through allowing more advanced combustion phasing and less fuel enrichment for limiting the exhaust gas temperature under the upper limit of 850 °C, which was due to the synergic effects of higher RON and octane sensitivity, as well as better charge cooling.

2017 150

Ricardo’s “deep” Miller cycle concept: Magma

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In its new report on downsized and boosted gasoline engine technologies ( earlier post ) the ICCT highlighted Ricardo’s work on an “extreme” Miller cycle concept with high (13:1) compression ratio (CR) and central direct injection in a downsized boosted engine. The basic architecture of “Magma” concept is a boosted four-stroke gasoline engine with four valves per cylinder. A long exhaust stroke then extracts maximum efficiency.

2016 179

Volkswagen Group introducing Modular Transverse Matrix this year; new engine families, lighter weight construction, powertrain flexibility

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Two systems integrated in the MQB strategy which play a key role here are the modular gasoline engine system (MOB) with the new EA211 engine series (40 kW / 54 hp to 110 kW / 148 hp). In addition to standardizing conventional internal combustion engines, the MQB also enables an identical mounting position for all current alternative drive concepts without limitations, from natural gas and hybrid versions to the pure electric drive. EA211 series gasoline engines.

2012 242

Pierburg GmbH electric compressor for turbos

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Pierburg GmbH, part of the KSPG Group, has developed an electric compressor for spontaneously boosting the charge pressure of engines fitted with an exhaust-gas turbocharger. This component allows pressure to be increased regardless of the exhaust-gas energy availability. The compressor is compatible with both gasoline and diesel engines. The electric compressor fits in well and without any constraints with the proven strategy of downsizing, the company said.

2016 150

Fiat introducing new 2-cylinder 0.9L Turbo TwinAir in 2014 MiTo mini

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The gasoline engine delivers 105 hp (72 kW) at 5500 rpm and maximum torque of 145 N·m (107 lb-ft) at 2000 rpm/min, with combined cycle fuel consumption of 4.2 This is the lowest consumption of any of the gasoline or diesel MiTo engines, while power delivery and torque are the second-highest of the MiTo gasoline range. At launch, the MiTo offered ( earlier post ) two gasoline engines (78 bhp 1.4-liter and 155 bhp 1.4-liter turbo) and one turbodiesel (120 bhp 1.6

2013 245

Optimizing a CNG-Fueled Spark Injection Engine for a Parallel Hybrid Powertrain

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At the recent SAE 2010 World Congress, researchers from the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) University of Stuttgart and FKFS (Forschungsinstitut für Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart) presented a paper describing the optimization of a natural-gas engine used in a parallel hybrid powertrain through the use of EGR and an oversized turbocharger with active waste gate (WG) control. By adding an exhaust gas turbocharger to the base 1.0L

2010 161

Continental introducing innovative annular catalytic converter for near-complete NOx reduction to meet RDE and SULEV 30 standards

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Continental will present an innovative close-coupled annular catalytic converter that supports near-complete NO x conversion in downsized turbocharged gasoline engines at the 37 th Vienna Motor Symposium next week. Close-coupled annular catalytic converter developed by Continental supports near-complete NO x conversion in turbocharged gasoline engines. Markus Distelhoff, Executive Vice President Fuel & Exhaust Management Business Unit in Continental’s Powertrain Division.

2016 150

Porsche takes top two spots at Le Mans, Audi third

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Porsche retained the basic concept of its Class 1 Le Mans Prototype (LMP1) for the second generation: a downsized turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine and two different energy recovery systems. Porsche increased the combustion efficiency of the now lighter and more rigid 2-liter V4 turbocharged gasoline engine for its second season.

2015 219

Ford Selects BorgWarner for Turbocharger for 4-Cylinder EcoBoost Engines

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The direct-injected 1.6-liter and 2.0-liter gasoline engines combine turbocharging and fuel injection technology to deliver greater fuel economy. Ford expects up to 90% of its nameplates sold in North America will be available with downsized direct-injected turbocharged engines by 2013. Ford selected BorgWarner to supply the turbocharger technology for its new four-cylinder EcoBoost engine, scheduled to make its global debut early in 2010.

2010 204

Ford / AVL study concludes mid-level ethanol blend attractive as a long-term future fuel for use in optimized engines in US

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The study by the Ford / AVL team provides an overview of the effects of such a future ethanol-gasoline blend in such an engine. (As In their paper, Robert Stein from AVL and James Anderson and Tim Wallington from Ford begin by reviewing properties of ethanol and gasoline blends. These include: Lower energy content than that of gasoline. The net heating value (NHV) of ethanol is approximately 33% less than that of gasoline on a volumetric basis. Downsizing/downspeeding.

2013 217

Porsche presents more efficient Gen 2 919 Hybrid LMP1 racer for 2015

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Although the basic concept of the Class 1 Le Mans Prototype (LMP1)— a downsized turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine and two different energy recovery systems—was retained in the second generation, virtually every component was refined. Liters gasoline. The combustion efficiency of the now lighter and more rigid 2-liter V4 turbocharged gasoline engine has been increased.

2015 216

New 4-cylinder 2.3L EcoBoost on Lincoln MKC small SUV; future EcoBoost prospects

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The all-new 2015 Lincoln MKC small premium utility, unveiled last week, offers an all-new engine—a 2.3-liter EcoBoost gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) four-cylinder unit. Two pivotal factors are the three-port integrated exhaust manifold cylinder head and a twin-scroll turbocharger. The three-port IEM design is the key driver for performance because it improves airflow and optimizes exhaust energy pulses through the turbocharger.

2013 237

Study finds highly-turbocharged alcohol-fueled DISI engines could be more efficient than diesels

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Alcohol fuels can also be produced from natural gas or coal. These extreme downsizing indicates the potential of a SI, knock-free engine, operating at the same peak pressure as the diesel engine and higher engine speeds. However this aggressive downsizing may not be practical because other constraints (durability, exhaust temperatures). More modest downsizing up to 5 liters could offer a practical solution.

2010 191

Revised Nissan Juke offers 1.2 DIG-T turbocharged engine

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Three engines are available for new Juke, with changes to the two gasoline options: one is new and the other extensively revised. DIG-T gasoline unit has been further improved to deliver lower end torque below 2,000 rpm. 1), improved low friction technologies and cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation. Nissan introduced a significantly revised Nissan Juke compact crossover at the Geneva Motor Show.

2014 216

Study finds fleet switch from PFI to GDI engines will result in net reduction in global warming

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A new study quantifying emissions from a fleet of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and port fuel injection (PFI) engines finds that the measured decrease in CO 2 emissions from GDIs is much greater than the potential climate forcing associated with higher black carbon emissions from GDI engines. Gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines have higher fuel economy compared to the more widely used port fuel injection (PFI) engines.

2017 184

Simulation study suggests ORC waste heat recovery system could deliver potential 7% improvement in fuel consumption in a PHEV on highway

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Internal combustion engines have been significantly improving in the past decade, after the adoption of technologies such as Gasoline Direct Injection, mild electrification, downsizing and turbocharging. On the other hand, it is well known that in an internal combustion engine up to 35% of the energy developed by the fuel combustion is dissipated in the exhaust gases. The OSU EcoCAR prototype vehicle features an extended-range electric architecture with a downsized 1.8L

2012 256

Ricardo to display functional integration prototype of ADEPT 48V “intelligent electrification” diesel

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Based on a Ford Focus, this ADEPT prototype incorporates a 48V electrical architecture, a SpeedStart 10kW (later to be upgraded to 12.5kW) belt integrated starter generator and TIGERS turbine integrated exhaust gas energy recovery system, both switched reluctance machines supplied by CPT, and an advanced lead carbon battery pack provided by EALABC. An effective limitation on downsizing, however, is the delivery of acceptable driveability characteristics and launch performance.

2014 200

Toyota introduces the B-segment Yaris Hybrid at Geneva; anticipating 20% of Yaris model range sales in first year

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The new Yaris Hybrid, which is equipped with a version of the downsized hybrid powertrain featured in the Prius c/Aqua ( earlier post ), is a major step in the company’s full hybrid European roll-out strategy. The downsized full hybrid system combines the new 1NZ-FXE 1.5-liter gasoline engine with a lighter, more compact electric motor, transaxle, inverter and battery pack. The 1.5-liter Atkinson Cycle gasoline engine is 16.5 Yaris Hybrid powertrain. Click to enlarge.

2012 207

CPT/AVL Study: New Generation of Micro-Hybrid Technologies Can Enable More than 25% Reduction in Fuel Consumption at Lower Cost Than Full Hybrid Drive Systems

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Reductions in fuel consumption and CO 2 from base 2.0-liter ELC-Hybrid to downsized 1.4L VTES + SpeedStart. CPT and AVL’s most recent work assesses the potential of a VTES equipped downsized ELC-Hybrid vehicle in combination with the CPT SpeedStart Integrated Starter Generator ( earlier post ) and the UltraBattery. In effect, AVL has developed a gasoline engine with diesel-like fuel efficiency.

2010 185

Ford moving to vehicle testing with advanced 2.3L MiGTDI engine research project; Tier 3 SULEV30 target with 25% fuel economy improvement

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Ford’s approach to the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies, including: Aggressive engine downsizing in a mid-sized sedan from a large V-6 to a small I-4. 1, and the engine is designed to run on 98 RON gasoline. Split, parallel, cross-flow cooling with integrated exhaust manifold. Weaver (2014) “Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development” DOE 2014 Annual Merit Review, Project ACE065.

2014 210

Hard parts supplier Rheinmetall Automotive expects electrification to account for more than half of sales in 2020

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Rheinmetall Automotive is of course continuing its development of its more conventional “efficiency” products, designed to support present and future combustion engined drive systems through lightweight engineering, thermal management, friction and emission reduction, downsizing and turbo-charging—as well as the electrification of auxiliary units. Another part of this year’s show presentation was devoted to exhaust-gas recirculation on gasoline engines.

2017 204

ICCT: 2025 target average of 70 g/km CO2 for new cars in EU feasible and economical; more so with electric drive

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The FEV data are combined with supplemental data to generate CO 2 cost curves for ten EU vehicle classes (diesel B, C, D, E, SUV, and LCV classes and gasoline B, C, D, and E classes). Switching sooner from conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles to plug-in or battery electric vehicles would reduce compliance costs.

2016 237