EIA: trends in downsized engine design leading to increased demand for higher-octane gasoline

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Since 2013, the share of premium gasoline in total motor gasoline sales in the US has steadily increased to 11.3% Turbochargers work by using a turbine driven off the exhaust gas to pressurize the intake air. of new gasoline-fueled LDV sales.

Saudi Aramco team finds dual-fuel Octane-on-Demand concept can outperform E30 gasoline

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The concept of using a second, high octane fuel on demand to augment the performance of a standard gasoline fuel reaches back to the 1940s, with a recent resurgence in interest generated by the need to increase engine efficiency.

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Study finds gasoline exhaust contributes more to formation of secondary organic aerosols than diesel

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Contrary to expectations, exhaust from gasoline vehicles contributes more to the production of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) than exhaust from diesel vehicles, according to a new study by scientists from the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and other colleagues. This suggests future research aimed at understanding ways to reduce gasoline emissions would be valuable.

WHO IARC classifies diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1)

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After a week-long meeting of an expert working group, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO), classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence that exposure is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer. In 1988, IARC classified diesel exhaust as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). and reductions in emissions through exhaust control technology.

Volkswagen introduces new 1L, 3-cylinder gasoline Golf; 54.7 mpg

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mpg US) (99 g/km CO 2 )—more efficient than any previous Golf with a gasoline engine. The new TSI engine also offers the highest specific torque of any large-scale production series gasoline engines: 200 N·m per liter displacement. The exhaust manifold of the 1.0

MPG 28

New 7th-generation Hyundai Sonata updates design, tweaks powertrain

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design language, stiffer body structure, better ride quality, reduced noise, vibration and harshness and advanced safety and convenience features. Hyundai introduced the Theta II GDI, its first Gasoline Direct Injection engine, in 2009. Further performance gains were made possible by incorporating Dual Continuously Variable Valve Timing (DCVVT) which improves engine breathing on the intake and exhaust sides for better fuel economy and lower emissions. 2015 Sonata 2.0T

2014 18

Corning expands light-duty vehicle exhaust filter capacity in Germany

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Corning Incorporated has boosted its light-duty vehicle filter capacity at its manufacturing facility in Kaiserslautern, Germany for both gasoline and diesel engined vehicles. For gasoline vehicles, direct injection (GDI) engines are growing in popularity as drivers demand more fuel efficiency and engine power. In response, Corning has developed unique filter products to capture gasoline particulates without sacrificing engine performance.

Cummins progressing with lightweight downsized T2B2 diesel for pickup; 40% improvement in fuel economy over gasoline V8

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Cost of the new engine relative to gasoline baseline. The approach that Cummins and partners have taken features: Replacing the aluminium V8 gasoline engine and emission control system with smaller diesel (2.8-liter) and its emission control system (ECS) without a weight penalty.

Exploring gasoline-range naphtha as a low-soot, low-NOx alternative compression ignition fuel

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Gautam Kalghatgi and his colleagues at Saudi Aramco and other organization such as FEV, RWTH Aachen University, and Shell Global Solutions, have been investigating the potential use of naphtha as an alternative compression-ignition (CI) fuel that offers a number of benefits, including efficient combustion; low soot and NO x emissions resulting in a less complicated aftertreatment system to meet modern emissions standards; and a fuel that is simpler to make than current gasoline or diesel fuels.

2013 26

Researchers propose low-temperature SOFC unit for reducing NOx and oxidizing HCs in lean-burn engine exhaust

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Their SOFC system can be operated without consuming the anode fuel (a reductant) at temperatures near that of the engine exhaust to eliminate the need for reductant refilling and extra heating. The NO x concentration in the exhaust of an automotive gasoline engine with spark ignition can be as high as 4000 ppm. Urea-based ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising methods for NO x removal from diesel engine exhaust.

Details on Nissan’s I3 1.2L supercharged direct-injection gasoline engine

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In 2011, Nissan launched a version of the Micra city car equipped with a new supercharged gasoline direct-injection engine (HR12DDR). The 1.2-liter, inline three-cylinder Direct Injection Gasoline-Supercharger (DIG-S) engine, assisted with a stop-start system, produces 72 kW (97 hp) and 142 N·m (105 lb-ft), while CO 2 emissions are 95 g/km for the manual version (115 g/km for the CVT version). Supercharged Gasoline Engine (SAE 2012-01-0415 ).

2012 21

Reaction Design to add advanced soot particle-size prediction capability to FORTÉ

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Reaction Design, a leading developer of combustion simulation software, is adding the ability to accurately simulate soot particle size distributions, as well as total particulate-matter emissions to the FORTÉ computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package for realistic 3D modeling of fuel effects in internal combustion engines. Founded in 2005 by Reaction Design, the MFC is an industry-led project for the development of cleaner burning, higher-mileage vehicles.

2012 13

UC Riverside team wins EPA design contest with lawnmower exhaust aftertreatment device

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A team of University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering students have won an EPA student design contest for developing an exhaust aftertreatment device that cuts CO, NO x and PM emissions from lawnmowers.

PSA to commercialize SwRI-developed Dedicated-EGR technology in high-efficiency gasoline engines by 2018

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During its recent Innovation Day presentations ( earlier post ), PSA Peugeot Citroën announced that it will commercialize high-efficiency gasoline engines featuring dedicated exhaust gas recirculation (D-EGR), derived from a collaborative program with SwRI in the US.

2013 12

Model Fuels Consortium and Reaction Design developing predictive modeling software for soot particle size and number

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The Model Fuels Consortium (MFC) II ( earlier post ), led by Reaction Design, a leading developer of combustion simulation software, is developing software that its members can use to simulate accurately the formation of soot particulates. A particle number emission limit for gasoline vehicles—spurred by the adoption of gasoline direct injection engines—is to be defined by 1 September 2014.

2011 11

NRC Canada team investigates effect of gasoline particulate filter on PM from light-duty GDI engine

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A team led by researchers from the National Research Council Canada has investigated the effect of the use of a gasoline particulate filter on the size and morphology of PM emitted from a light-duty gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) vehicle over the FTP-75 and US06 transient drive cycles.

Delphi advancing Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition engine concept; new two-stage supercharger/turbocharger boost system

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At SAE World Congress next week in Detroit, Delphi Automotive will present two technical papers describing its ongoing progress with the Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition (GDCI) engine concept. Piston design requirements for GDCI are different than for diesel, they noted.

2013 12

IAV develops new close-coupled diesel exhaust gas aftertreatment system for improved emissions reduction

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IAV has developed a particularly closed-coupled diesel exhaust gas aftertreatment (EAT) system. A key contribution to this performance must come from the exhaust gas aftertreatment system—across the entire speed and load range.

EPS advancing diesel engine for general aviation applications; 30-50% lower fuel consumption than gasoline

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The diesel combustion process, together with the design freedom provided by high strength CGI coupled with steel pistons, enable the lowered fuel consumption and emissions.

Environment Canada/MECA team assesses black carbon emissions in GDI engine exhaust; evaluation of prototype gasoline particulate filter

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This may result in the need for new emissions control strategies—such as a gasoline particulate filter (GPF)—to enable compliance with California LEV III and US EPA Tier 3 particulate emissions standards.

VW new Touareg with new design and new technologies; focus on diesel

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With SCR, the amount of NO x in the exhaust is significantly reduced. In the case of the ''Terrain Tech'' version—the Touareg with special off-road applications and a four-wheel drive system with low range set of gear ratios, designed among things for particularly demanding off-road conditions – there is an improvement from 7.3 Volkswagen has given its Touareg SUV a sharper look and enhanced it technically in all areas.

ACCESS project targeting 30% improvement in fuel economy and SULEV emissions in light-duty gasoline engine; multi-mode SI/HCCI combustion

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Hakan Yilmaz, Global Technology Management, Gasoline Systems, for Bosch presented an overview of and update on the project at the 2011 DEER conference in Detroit in October. Emitec is heading up the work on aftertreatment design and improvements.

2011 12

Delphi and partners advancing with high-efficiency, low-emission gasoline compression-ignition combustion

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A key strategy for achieving the project goals is the further development of a new low-temperature combustion system: gasoline direct-injection compression-ignition (GDCI). The most advanced injector design did not require swirl to achieve very low smoke and NO x levels.

New Volkswagen Polo BlueGT with cylinder deactivation offers gasoline engine fuel economy of up to 52 mpg US

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The system was realized with the new 1.4-liter gasoline-fueled TSI of the Polo BlueGT. These gasoline engines and the EA288 series diesel engines, which are also new, are technological pillars of the future Modular Transverse Matrix (MQB). To further reduce emission and fuel consumption values and improve torque in the lower engine speed range, the intake camshaft was designed to be adjustable over a range of 50 degree crank angle on all EA211 engines; in the 1.4 Polo BlueGT.

2012 11

Opel presents new midsize gasoline engine at Aachen Colloquium; fuel consumption down 13%, torque and power up 33%

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Opel revealed more details about its new mid-size gasoline engine family at the Aachen Colloquium in Germany. The structural design considers the engine’s use in a variety of vehicle applications, allowing minimum integration effort and consistent part interchangeability. New 1.6L

New Mercedes C-Class Estate offers new 1.6L diesel, diesel hybrid options; gasoline plug-in hybrid model coming

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The powertrain range for the Estate, which includes diesel, gasoline and hybrid options, features a new 1.6-liter 4-cylinder diesel (OM 626) produced by Renault. The new Estate’s gasoline and diesel engines with ECO start/stop function comply with the Euro 6 emissions standards.

Mazda introducing 1.3L direct injection gasoline engine as first SKYACTIV-G unit

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direct-injection 1.3-liter gasoline engine. features a high compression ratio (for a regular gasoline mass production automobile engine) of 14.0:1 It will be the first 1.3-liter direct-injection gasoline engine to be equipped in a compact car manufactured in Japan. SKYACTIV-G.

Birmingham study finds butanol-gasoline blend reduces GDI engine-out carbonaceous emissions; similar NOx

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Gasoline direct injection engines offer better fuel efficiency from their increased compression ratio, lower pumping losses, higher volumetric efficiency and more accurate injection control.

Study concludes a shift from gasoline to diesel engines is consistent with long-term climate mitigation efforts

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Global-mean temperature change caused by car exhaust emitted from gasoline and diesel engines specified in the previous and upcoming European vehicle emission standards (EURO 3, 4, 5, and 6). smaller than that from gasoline cars in the case of EURO 3; and 17.7%

Infiniti introducing new advanced 3.0L V6 twin-turbo engines for 2016 Q50; up to 6.7% improvement in fuel efficiency

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Also available in late winter 2016 is the Q50 Hybrid, featuring a 3.5-liter gasoline-electric hybrid system with a net 360 horsepower rating. The combination of a new turbine speed sensor and an optimized turbine blade design realize greater performance with more immediate response.

Study finds modern diesel cars emit fewer carbonaceous particulates than gasoline cars

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A new study by an international team led by researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland has found that modern diesel passenger cars equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) emit fewer carbonaceous particulates than gasoline-powered vehicles.

New mixed-oxide catalysts shown as viable substitute for platinum catalysts for diesel exhaust aftertreatment

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Under laboratory-simulated diesel exhaust conditions, this mixed-phase oxide material was superior to Pt in terms of cost, thermal durability, and catalytic activity for NO oxidation. Diesel engines are attractive because of their higher fuel efficiency than gasoline engines.

Achates Power building 2.7L opposed-piston light-duty engine; exceeding CAFE 2025, Tier 3 targets at lower cost

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six-piston) light-duty version of its opposed piston engine (OPE) in both diesel- and gasoline-fueled versions. The 30-50% improvement metric encompasses both gasoline and diesel variants of the OP engine. A high trapped temperature results in high exhaust gas temperatures.

Light 46

DARPA awards LiquidPiston $2.5M to advance further X4 rotary engine prototype

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LiquidPiston will be developing its X4 test rig: a prototype 30 kW diesel X-engine, with targeted brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 186 g/kWh (better fuel efficiency than heavy duty truck engines, and twice the fuel economy of a gasoline engine over a typical drive cycle).

Study of emissions from CNG- and gasoline-fueled autorickshaws suggests measurements and data, not assumptions, should drive policy

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Of the four-stroke vehicles, a subset also has functioning backup gasoline fuel systems.) Replacing the remaining 2-stroke auto-rickshaws in Delhi would have nearly the same effect as switching from gasoline to CNG in 10 times as many four-stroke vehicles.

Jaguar adds two new smaller forced induction gasoline engines to 2013 XF and XJ lineup; 8-speed automatic and start-stop

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For the 2013 XF and XJ lineup, Jaguar is adding two new downsized forced induction gasoline powerplants: 3.0-liter V6 Supercharged and 2.0-liter i4 Turbocharged units. These join the existing line-up of 2.2-liter i4 Turbodiesel, 3.0-liter V6 Turbodiesel and both naturally-aspirated and Supercharged 5.0-liter V8 gasoline units. Eight-speed ZF automatic transmissions are now fitted to all gasoline and diesel XJ and XF variants as standard for greater efficiency and performance.

Recent on-road real-world emission testing in India highlights disparity between cycles, gasoline and diesel

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The results highlight the disparity between test-cycles and real-world emissions as well as the large disparity between gasoline and diesel vehicles. gNO x /km for gasoline; and 0.25 On-road testing was performed using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) under two different trip design conditions: one following the driving conditions as defined under the European Real Driving Emissions (RDE) protocol and another following proper Indian driving conditions.

Mercedes-Benz investing ~€3B in new engine technology; new diesel family, particulate filters for gasoline engines

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billion) in engine technology to ensure further improvements in fuel consumption and emissions in gasoline and diesel engines in current as well as current vehicles, according to Prof. Exhaust aftertreatment systems. Gasoline engines with particulate filters in the future.

Researchers Exploring On-Board Exhaust Gas Reforming to Improve Combustion and Recover Waste Heat

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Professor Stan Golunski, Deputy Director of the newly established Cardiff Catalysis Institute , in collaboration with engineers at Brunel and Birmingham Universities, is investigating the feasibility of an on-board exhaust gas reforming system to improve combustion and recover waste heat. Initially the research will focus on diesel engines but the potential of exhaust gas reforming to achieve benefits in gasoline engines will also be evaluated.

PowerDriver simulations predict thermoelectric exhaust waste heat recovery output of 300W, -2.5% in fuel consumption; prototyping begins

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The European Union-funded PowerDriver project—a two-year, €3-million (US$4-million) research project initiated in February 2012 to turn exhaust gas waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric generator (TGEN) technology—has completed simulation work on on a potential automotive application. This is not least due to the fact that the TGEN is located within the exhaust line and is subject to significant thermal cycling.