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Study: air pollution caused 1.1M deaths across Africa in 2019, toll from outdoor pollution rising

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Deaths attributable to household air pollution and ambient particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution in Ethiopia, Ghana, Rwanda, and overall in Africa, 1990–2019. Cities are expanding, economies are growing, and life expectancy has almost doubled. billion in Ghana (0.95% of GDP), and $349 million in Rwanda (1.19% of GDP).

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