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Study finds total PM10 emissions from EVs equal to those of modern ICEVs; role of weight and non-exhaust PM

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Non-exhaust PM factors include tire wear, brake wear, road surface wear and resuspension of road dust. For PM 2.5 Click to enlarge. as well.

2016 53

Study finds “markedly” high levels of diesel exhaust present in commuter trains powered by locomotives in pull-mode

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However, both measurements also act as proxies for the complex mixture of gases in diesel exhaust, which is an established carcinogen and associated with respiratory, cardiovascular and reproductive health effects. They also took measurements while walking along busy streets in downtown Toronto for comparison. —Greg Evans.

Study finds high exhaust temperatures within NTE operation for heavy-duty diesels with aftertreatment systems contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations

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The transient results illustrate the gradual formation of the nucleation mode particles with continuous increase in exhaust temperatures. The particle number count under those conditions increased by more than an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF-out particle concentrations. Credit: ACS, Thiruvengadam et al. Click to enlarge.

First results from HEI/ACES murine study find few biologic effects from exposure to exhaust from new technology diesel engines

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The few effects that were reported for the rats were mild hyperplasia (cell proliferation) in the lungs and slightly reduced lung function, and were most consistent with exposure to nitrogen oxides in the engine exhaust, which are being further reduced under 2010 US EPA standards now in effect. —Dan Greenbaum, President of HEI. Jacob D.

Mercedes-Benz introducing new diesel family in E 220 d this spring; new OM 654 with 13% lower fuel consumption; diesel “indispensable”

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Further, all the elements of the exhaust aftertreatment system are now configured directly on the engine itself and no longer on the vehicle.

2016 38

U Toronto study measures GDI emissions in urban near-road environment

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In comparison, average PN EFs from a PFI vehicle exhibited less spatial variability, with mean PN EFs 15 m from the roadway 17% lower than those measured 3 m from the roadway. Hence, GDI PM mass loadings and chemical composition may vary depending on the measurement environment or exhaust conditioning. m from the roadway. Resources.

2016 26

SAE Publishes Revised J1711 Standard to Measure Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Economy of Hybrids and Plug-in Hybrids

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There are two basic exhaust emissions and fuel economy tests described in J1711. Single-roll, electric dynamometer test procedures are specified to minimize the test-to-test variations inherent in track testing and to conform with standard industry practice for exhaust emissions and fuel economy measurements. Earlier post.) Mike Duoba.

Motiv Engines introduces 2nd-generation split-cycle concept; MkII Clarke-Brayton heavy-duty engine being designed for LNG

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It expands all the way to ambient pressure before the exhaust stroke. Section of the MkII Clarke-Brayton split-cycle engine. Click to enlarge.

2014 33

Study shows viability of RCCI in a two-stroke engine; higher efficiency than direct-injection spark ignition

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The process involves introduction of a low reactivity fuel into the cylinder to create a well-mixed charge of low reactivity fuel, air and recirculated exhaust gases. Earlier post.) A paper on their work is published in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering. versus 27.0% and 25.7%

Opel to begin publishing WLTP fuel consumption numbers in Q2 2016; improving SCR for NOx reductions

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A partial comparison of WLTP to NEDC. Opel said it is committed to providing the testing authorities transparency. Source: AVL. SCR technology.

2015 53

Volkswagen introduces new 1L, 3-cylinder gasoline Golf; 54.7 mpg

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Golf Comparisons. Exhaust manifold integrated in cylinder head. The exhaust manifold of the 1.0 l/100 km (54.7 l/100 km. The 1.0L

2015 28

Ricardo: achieving light-duty diesel RDE NOx compliance in urban driving is possible, at a price

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The cost comparison is with respect to a Euro 5 baseline. The SIA conference was focused on clean compression-ignition engines of the future.

BMW provides an update on waste heat recovery projects; Turbosteamer and the Thermoelectric Generator

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Research project Turbosteamer: comparison of the heat exchanger generation 1 (top) and generation 2 (bottom). Click to enlarge. Turbosteamer.

Waste 28

ICL study of 39 new Euro-6 diesels finds huge variability in NOx emissions with an average 4.5x the type approval limit

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Comparison of urban and motorway trip average NO x emissions (note: y axis varies). All but 2 exhibited higher NO x than the limit. Resources.

2016 19

SAE REX: PHEVs and REEVs could open door for advanced combustion regime engines

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the capability to adjust intake temperature, pressure, and dilution level through the use of an intake air heater, supercharger, and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rate modulation, respectively. This fuel economy improvement is reduced to 3% in comparison to a modern CI (i.e. How efficient will it be? Not the only one. and 10.3%

2016 35

GM provides technical details of the Gen 2 Voltec propulsion system used in the 2016 Volt

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Out of this, the GM team selected several systems for more intensive study and comparison with two benchmark systems from other OEMs. to 10.4L.

2015 56

Opinion: Enablers of disruption in transportation

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by Mike Millikin, editor, Green Car Congress. This post is part of the ‘Think Further’ series sponsored by Fred Alger Management. Earlier post.).

2015 31

Study shows two-stroke scooters dominant source of air pollution in many cities; asymmetric polluters

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Chemical analysis of the emissions shows that SOA is mainly produced via photo-oxidation of aromatic VOCs, present in gasoline, from the exhaust.

Study finds ethanol blending appears to reduce significantly genotoxic emissions from gasoline direct injection vehicles

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These vehicles have been introduced promising enhanced engine power and fuel efficiency and hence lower CO 2 emissions in comparison with PFI vehicles.

A closer look at the basics of Volkswagen Group’s important new 2.0L diesel MDB engine

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The EA288 2.0-liter diesel, prominently showing the closely attached exhaust aftertreatment system. The exhaust side systems. The 2.0L

Audi power-dense 2.5L TFSI engine with electric biturbo delivers 591 hp from 2,480 cc; 48V subsystem for the turbo

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By comparison: The new Ford Shelby GT 350 will feature a naturally aspirated 5.2L lb-ft), with acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h (62.1 mph) in 3.6

Wrightspeed unveils new turbine range extender for medium- and heavy-duty electric powertrains; 30% more efficient than current microturbine generators

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kg), for a power-to-weight ratio of 478 W/kg; by comparison, Wrightspeed’s new Fulcrum microturbine offers a power-to-weight ratio of 750 W/kg.

2015 33

Pinnacle 4-stroke opposed-piston SI engine shows fuel economy improvements of between 30-60% at light loads, 12-30% at medium loads over conventional

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Comparison of ISFC (@42.9 For a comparison engine, Pinnacle used a 200 cc, conventional two-valve, air-cooled, carbureted model. et al.

Study finds biodiesel from algae, yeast and bacteria can displace both petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel

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Exhaust gas temperatures were highest for diesel #2, followed by soybean, microalgae, yeast, and bacteria (in order of decreasing temperatures).

Oil 12

Panasonic and Tokyo Gas introduce home fuel cell unit for condominiums

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In comparison to detached houses, condominiums have more restrictions on the conditions for installations. Panasonic Corporation and Tokyo Gas Co., have jointly developed the first “Ene-Farm” home fuel cell system ( earlier post ) for condominiums. The new units will be sold by Tokyo Gas from 1 April 2014. Ene-Farm for condominiums specs.

CMU team identifies IVOCs emissions from on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road engines as important SOA precursors

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However, only a small fraction of SOA formed during photo-oxidation of dilute LDGV exhaust in a smog chamber is explained by single-ring aromatic compounds. SOA production from measured IVOCs was predicted and compared to that from single-ring aromatic compounds and SOA measured in photo-oxidation experiments with dilute exhaust.

New Audi paintshop at Ingolstadt; heating energy & water per car down by 20%, CO2 by 30%, VOCs by 90%; bell-bell

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This comparison helps to prevent possible production flaws in the electronic quality process, with support from an electronic quality inspection.

DOE awards ~$25M to 8 projects for CO2 capture and compression; $15M for novel Direct Fuel Cell system

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The anode exhaust contains residual hydrogen, any CO 2 from the input fuel, and the CO 2 produced as a result of the carbonate ion transfer.

Hyundai begins rollout of Ioniq Hybrid, PHEV and EV; most efficient non-plug vehicle, most efficient EV in US; powertrain discussion

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The Atkinson cycle engines features head-block split cooling with a hollow exhaust valve, a long stroke, cooled EGR, and low-friction coating.

2017 26

Hyundai begins rollout of Ioniq Hybrid, PHEV and EV; most efficient non-plug vehicle, most efficient EV in US; powertrain discussion

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The Atkinson cycle engines features head-block split cooling with a hollow exhaust valve, a long stroke, cooled EGR, and low-friction coating.

2017 26

Study finds that optimizing engine parameters for renewable diesel can reduce PM and NOx both by more than 25%

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It has been already reported that by changing the fuel from conventional EN590 diesel to HVO decreases exhaust emissions. Click to enlarge.

Independent testing finds Navistars IC Bus has up to 4.5% advantage in fluid economy over competitive buses: fuel plus urea

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Comparisons of type C buses have typically been centered on fuel economy. to conduct a head-to-head fluid economy comparison. In the comparison of fluid economy, the 2010 IC Bus CE Series with MaxxForce 7 consistently outperformed the competing buses with up to a 4.5% TRC Inc.) TRC Inc. and 1.5% Brief

FEV analysis of automotive-scale Pinnacle opposed-piston engine finds potential for significant increases in fuel economy

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FEV added two additional cylinders, piping, exhaust aftertreatment, and an air cleaner to convert the model from a 250cc single cylinder into a 750 cc three cylinder engine. As a point of baseline comparison, an unnamed production MY2009 1.5L FEV explored addition of VCT for both the intake and exhaust cams, and for intake only.

Coates setting up subsidiary in China; Coates Spherical Rotary Valve (CSRV) engine

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Comparison of CSRV and conventional poppet valves. Coates International , Ltd., —in Hong Kong. Click diagram to enlarge. Brief

Oil 7

Rotrak testing prototype variable drive supercharger in vehicle on dyno

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Initial design layout of the Rotrak system with the corresponding block diagram. Source: Stone (2010). Click to enlarge. Earlier post.) Resources.

Toyota Central R&D Labs develops new ferrihydrite material that effectively removes ozone from air

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Comparison of O 3. removal % of materials at room temperature. Mathew et al. Click to enlarge. Researchers at Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc.

Volvo’s new Electric Hybrid (PHEV) buses with overhead fast charging enter scheduled service in Hamburg for first time; Innovation Route 109

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Conventional diesel buses will also be used on the route to serve as reference vehicles in the comparison of the innovative drive concepts.

Major refresh on 2015 Honda CR-V with new Earth Dreams powertrain provides fuel economy gain of up to 12%

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With exhaust passages cast directly into the cylinder head, the need for a traditional separate exhaust manifold is eliminated. inches).

Study finds biodiesel use in HD trucks in Canada will result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits

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However, the impact of these changes in HDDV exhaust emissions on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and, more importantly, on human health outcomes across Canada have not been evaluated. exhaust emission control devices and vehicle efficiency) outweigh changes in emissions associated with the use of blends lower than B20.

Ricardo and Univ. of Brighton working on advanced combustion system for heavy-duty vehicles; CoolR features recuperated split-cycle with isothermal compression using cryogenic injection

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The recuperated engine uses isothermal compression via cryogenic injection to enable significant exhaust to compressed gas heat transfer. Recuperator to transfer heat from exhaust gas to compressed air. A recuperated combustion engine transfers exhaust heat to the working gas at the end of compression and at constant volume.