Columbia team organizes available scientific evidence on the effects of air pollution on children’s health

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Researchers at Columbia University, with colleagues at Boston University and Abt Associates, have identified concentration-response (C-R) functions for a number of adverse health outcomes in children associated with air pollutants largely from fossil fuel combustion. The study, led by researchers at the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH), organized the available scientific evidence on the effects of air pollution on children’s health.

2018 85

University of Kentucky chemist receives NSF grant to study atmospheric reactions of pollution

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University of Kentucky Chemistry Professor Marcelo Guzman has received a three-year grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) for research, education and outreach efforts in the field of environmental and atmospheric chemistry. The $461,000-project, titled “Heterogeneous Aging Mechanisms of Combustion and Biomass Burning Emissions,” will focus on how gases, such as ozone, react with pollutants emitted from power plants and forest fires.

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AQLI: new data reveals little progress globally in reducing air pollution over the last two decades

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Particulate air pollution continues to cut global life expectancy by nearly two years as progress in some countries counterbalances worsening air quality in others, according to the Air Quality Life Index (AQLI). China began a “war against pollution” in 2013.

2020 90

Study finds significant link between PM2.5 pollution and neurological disorders in US

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pollution was significantly associated with an increased risk of hospital admissions for several neurological disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and other dementias, in a long-term study of more than 63 million older US adults, led by researchers at Harvard T.H. The researchers leveraged an unparalleled amount of data compared to any previous study of air pollution and neurological disorders.

2020 75

Harvard/Nanjing study: China’s war on PM2.5 pollution is causing more severe ozone pollution

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In early 2013, the Chinese government declared a war on air pollution and began instituting stringent policies to regulate the emissions of PM 2.5. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and the Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), found that while PM 2.5 pollution is falling, harmful ground-level ozone pollution is on the rise, especially in large cities.

2019 89

Rice University study of lung cells suggests anthropogenic carbon nanotubes are common pollutants

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Rice University scientists, working with colleagues in France, have detected the presence of anthropogenic carbon nanotubes (CBTs) in cells extracted from the airways of Parisian children under routine treatment for asthma. Since CNTs from anthropogenic sources may be present in indoor and outdoor air, and since air pollutants may be transported via the atmosphere, we expect that humans routinely breathe such carbon nanoparticles.

2015 83

Study finds half of the world’s population exposed to increasing air pollution

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A team of researchers, led by Professor Gavin Shaddick at the University of Exeter, has shown that, despite global efforts to improve air quality, half of the world’s population is exposed to increasing air pollution. The study, carried out with the World Health Organization, suggests that air pollution constitutes a major, and in many areas increasing, threat to public health. Credit: Professor Gavin Shaddick/University of Exeter.

2020 73

IBM and Stanford University Developing New Organic Catalysts for New Types of Biodegradeable, Biocompatible Plastics

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Scientists from IBM and Stanford University are developing organic molecules for use as catalysts (organocatalysis) that could lead to the development of new types of biodegradable, biocompatible plastics. In a Perspective published in the ACS journal Macromolecules , they highlight the opportunities and challenges in the use of organic molecules as catalysts for polymerization reactions.

2010 73

Study: air pollution causes 800,000 extra deaths a year in Europe and 8.8 million worldwide

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Air pollution could be causing double the number of excess deaths a year in Europe than has been estimated previously, according to a study published in the European Heart Journal. Using a new method of modeling the effects of various sources of outdoor air pollution on death rates, the researchers found that it caused an estimated 790,000 extra deaths in the whole of Europe in 2015 and 659,000 deaths in the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU-28).

2019 94

Study finds that current approach to limiting wintertime pollution may initially backfire

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The processes that create ozone pollution in the summer can also trigger the formation of wintertime air pollution, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder and NOAA, in partnership with the University of Utah. The team’s unexpected finding, published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters , suggests that in the US West and elsewhere, certain efforts to reduce harmful wintertime air pollution could backfire.

2019 79

UB study reveals effect of pollution in humans at level of metabolites

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A new University at Buffalo (UB) study based on levels before, during and after the Beijing Olympics has shown how air pollution affects the human body at the level of metabolites. Metabolites are small molecules that are the end products of environmental exposures, such as air pollution, and body metabolism. The researchers found that 69 metabolites changed significantly when air pollution changed. Furong Deng of Peking University is also a co-author.

2019 81

Study links PM2.5 pollution to increased risk of diabetes; even low levels pose risk

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A study by a team from Washington University School of Medicine in St. The open-access findings, published in the journal The Lancet Planetary Health , raise the possibility that reducing particulate pollution may lead to a drop in diabetes cases in heavily polluted countries such as India and less polluted ones such as the United States. Our research shows a significant link between air pollution and diabetes globally.

2018 87

Crowdsourcing air pollution measurements: iSPEX-EU 2015

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A collaboration led by researchers at Leiden University in The Netherlands has launched a Europe-wide citizen campaign— iSPEX-EU 2015 —to use a smartphone add-on and app to measure atmospheric aerosols (tiny particles), resulting in a broad-based data set with high spatio-temporal resolution. The iSPEX-EU team, led by Leiden Observatory, is working closely with local partners in all cities, including research organizations and environmental protection agencies.

2015 89

EPIC index finds air pollution reduces global life expectancy by 1.8 years; single greatest threat to human health

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Fossil fuel-driven particulate air pollution cuts global average life expectancy by 1.8 years per person, according to a new pollution index and accompanying report produced by the Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago (EPIC). But the way this risk is communicated is very often opaque and confusing, translating air pollution concentrations into colors, like red, brown, orange, and green.

2018 102

Study: PM2.5 pollution reduces global life expectancy by more than one year

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pollution shortens human lives by more than a year, according to a new open-access study from a team of environmental engineers and public health researchers published in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology Letters. The researchers looked at outdoor air pollution from particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 pollution comes from power plants, cars and trucks, fires, agriculture and industrial emissions.

2018 80

Kanazawa University-led researchers recycle rare-earth elements from spent fluorescent lamps by chemical/mechanical treatment

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A team led by Kanazawa University in Japan has developed a cleaner method for the recycling of several rare earths (REs) such as yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) used as phosphors in fluorescent lamps (FLs). End-of-life FLs are a potentially huge source of REs, but harsh and polluting processes are needed currently to extract these metals from the spent phosphors. Chelators—organic compounds containing elements such as N or O—bond to metals through electron donation.

2018 88

CU Boulder study: routine household activities generate air quality on par with major polluted city

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Cooking, cleaning and other routine household activities generate significant levels of volatile and particulate chemicals inside the average home, leading to indoor air quality levels on par with a polluted major city, according to a study by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder. Homes have never been considered an important source of outdoor air pollution and the moment is right to start exploring that.

2019 75

Study: consumer products overtake transportation as largest source of VOCs air pollution in cities

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Consumer products such as shampoo, cleaning products and paint now contribute as much to emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cities as tailpipe emissions from vehicles, according to a new study led by NOAA. Volatile organic compounds are precursors for the formation, via oxidation, of secondary organic aerosols (SOA)—a major component of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in cities around the world. Contributors to ambient air pollution in Los Angeles. (A

2018 90

Auburn University leads $2M DOE Co-Optima project to evaluate renewable butyl acetate as diesel fuel additive

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Auburn University researchers are leading a $2-million US Department of Energy Co-Optima project ( earlier post ) that will evaluate renewable butyl acetate (BA) as a bio-based fuel additive that can be blended with diesel fuel to reduce soot and greenhouse gas emissions and yield cleaner engine operation in cold-weather conditions. Joining as collaborators in the research are Cornell University, the University of Alabama, Virginia Tech and corporate partners Microvi Biotech Inc.

2018 85

China study connects ozone pollution to cardiovascular health

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The study, by a team from Duke University, Tsinghua University, Duke Kunshan University and Peking University, appears in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine. Ozone is formed through a chemical reaction that occurs when sunlight interacts with nitrogen oxides and other organic compounds that are generated by coal-burning, vehicle exhaust and some natural sources. They monitored indoor and outdoor ozone levels, along with other pollutants.

Ozone 65

Study: ozone levels higher across China than in other countries tracking the air pollutant

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—Lin Zhang of Peking University, lead author. Many countries regulate ozone because of the damage the pollutant does to plants and people. Ground level ozone is most commonly formed when volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight. The burning of fossil fuels and biomass burning (from crop clearing or forest fires) are major sources of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides.

2018 73

University of Alberta Researchers Find That Oil Sands Industry Is Releasing More Pollutants Into Athabasca River System Than Previously Estimated

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New research from a team at the University of Alberta, Canada, finds that Alberta’s oilsands industry is releasing more pollutants into the Athabasca River, its tributaries and its watershed than previously estimated. Contrary to claims made by industry and government in the popular press, the oil sands industry substantially increases loadings of toxic PPE [priority pollutants] to the AR and its tributaries via air and water pathways.

UC Irvine study finds organic constituents of UFP play important role in heart disease; suggestions for more effective emission control

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Results of a study funded and released by the California Air Resources Board (ARB) suggest that the organic constituents of ultrafine PM (UFP, particles ? technology for the removal of the organic constituents as well as the reduction of the number of particles. PM comprises solid, liquid, and semi-volatile organic components. Numerous studies have found that exposure to PM air pollution may contribute to both disease and death. Particle scale.

2013 80

New study finds asthma morbidity in children is enhanced in areas with high traffic-related air pollution near the home

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Results from a new study by researchers at the University of California Irvine support a growing body of scientific literature indicating that sensitive populations, including children, certain ethnic groups and people of lower socioeconomic status, are more vulnerable to the effects of high exposures to traffic-related air pollution. The UC Irvine study, which examined the effect of chronic exposure in asthmatic children living in homes near traffic pollution, was led by Ralph J.

2015 115

Bluesky and University of Leicester form joint venture for air quality monitoring

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Aerial mapping company Bluesky and the University of Leicester are forming a new joint venture—EarthSense Systems—focused on air quality monitoring. Building on more than four years of collaboration between the two organisations, the new company will initially deliver static sensors, data modelling and derived datasets to UK local and central government organizations.

2016 69

U Toronto studies find traffic emissions spread farther than thought; 25% of cars causing 90% of pollution

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A trio of recently published studies from a team of University of Toronto engineers has found that air pollution could be spreading up to three times farther than thought, contributing to varying levels of air quality across cities. Past research on tailpipe criteria pollutants has shown poor air quality anywhere between 100 to 250 meters of major roadways. We used to think that living near a major road meant that you lived near a lot of air pollution.

2015 116

Study finds farms a major source of fine-particulate air pollution

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Emissions from farms outweigh all other human sources of fine-particulate air pollution in much of the United States, Europe, Russia and China, according a new study published in Geophysical Research Letters , a journal of the American Geophysical Union. However, if combustion emissions decline in coming decades, as most projections indicate, fine-particle pollution will go down even if fertilizer use doubles as expected.

2016 84

Lancet Commission report estimates pollution responsible for 9 million premature deaths globally in 2015; 16% of deaths

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Pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and premature death in the world today, according to the newly released report detailing the adverse effects of pollution on global health by the The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health. In the most severely affected countries, pollution-related disease is responsible for more than one death in four. Pollution is costly. Chemical pollution is a great and growing global problem.

2017 69

Coming HEI study suggests air pollution regulations likely contributors to improvements in air quality and children’s health

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The Health Effects Institute ( HEI ) will soon publish a study by Frank Gilliland and his colleagues at the University of Southern California the findings of which suggest that US and California regulations directed at reducing emissions of mobile-source pollutants were likely contributors to improvements in air quality between 1985 and 2012 that were in turn associated with improvements in children’s respiratory health.

2016 80

Air pollution may shorten survival of patients with lung cancer

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Air pollution may shorten the survival of patients with lung cancer, suggests a population-based study by a team from the University of Southern California published in the journal Thorax. Air pollution has been linked to a higher incidence of lung cancer and death, but little is known about its potential impact on an individual’s chances of survival after diagnosis. The most recent figures from the World Health Organization estimate that 1.8

2016 60

USC study associates PM2.5 air pollution with poor survival in liver cancer patients

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A study by researchers at the University of Southern California (USC) has significantly associated exposure to particulate air pollution after being diagnosed with liver cancer with an increased risk of premature death. Particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposure has been associated with cancer incidence and mortality especially with lung cancer. The liver is another organ possibly affected by PM due to its role in detoxifying xenobiotics absorbed from PM.

2017 65

Researchers Suggest Organic Computing Approach to Traffic Light Control

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An organic computing-based approach to traffic light control, might help solve the problem of controlling road traffic in congested areas and avoid traffic jams and gridlock, according to research published this month in the International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems. The authors are members of the Organic Traffic Control Collaborative (OTC 2 ), a joint project between the two universities. Organic Traffic Control Collaborative.

2009 65

Study finds black carbon pollution directly affects bacteria; altering effectiveness of antibiotics, increasing the potential for infection

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Researchers from the University of Leicester (UK) have shown for the first time that black carbon, a major component of air pollution, directly affects bacteria that cause respiratory infections— Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus —thereby increasing the potential for infection and changing the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. This work increases our understanding of how air pollution affects human health.

2017 65

Pollutant emitted by biomass burning found to cause DNA damage and lung cell death; the role of retene

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A new study by a team from Brazil, with colleagues in the US, has shown that particulate pollution biomass burning in the Amazon induced inflammation, oxidative stress and severe DNA damage in human lung cells. Most of the overwhelming amount of research on exposure to air pollution is focused on urban centers and on the role of fossil fuels as the most important source of atmospheric pollutants.

2017 65

Two new studies of road air pollution in London find detrimental effects on over-60s and unborn babies

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Exposure to air pollution on city streets is enough to counter the beneficial health effects of exercise in adults over 60, according to new research led by Imperial College London and Duke University. These findings, published in as open-access paper in The Lancet , show that short term exposure to air pollution in built-up areas such as London’s busy Oxford Street can prevent the positive effects on the heart and lungs that can be gained from walking.

2017 60

Study finds single exposure to roadway PM induces transient pulmonary stress; possible need to regulate non-tailpipe-related pollution

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The effect of near roadway air pollution on human health is especially significant in major cities, and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are mostly implicated in response to continued/repeated exposure to air pollution. In an effort to limit roadway-related air pollution, the common regulations have focused on reducing tailpipe emissions.

2015 78

Study finds household and outdoor air pollution contributes to more than 5.5 million premature deaths worldwide per year

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New research shows that household (indoor) and outdoor air pollution contribute to more than 5.5 In the context of the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study ( earlier post ), researchers from Canada, the United States, China and India quantified air pollution levels and attributable health impacts for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013. of all global deaths) caused by outdoor fine particulate air pollution and an additional 215,000 deaths from exposure to ozone.

2016 60

Researchers present new explanation for the long-range transport of PAH pollutants

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When airborne particles (green) form before PAHs adhere, both the pollutants and particles dissipate quickly, as shown in the top row. But when the particles form in the presence of pollutants, which is what likely happens in nature, the longer-lasting particles enable the long-range transport of the pollutants (bottom). Pollution from fossil fuel burning and forest fires reaches all the way to the Arctic, even though it should decay long before it travels that far.

2012 85

Study uncovers role of longer-chain unburned hydrocarbon emissions from diesels in London air pollution; calls for regulatory shift

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Researchers at the University of York (UK) have found that longer-chain unburned hydrocarbons released from diesel—which are not currently explicitly considered as part of air quality control strategies—represent only 20–30% of the total atmospheric hydrocarbon mixing ratio but contribute more than 50% of the total atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in London—and by extension to other developed megacities.

2015 83

Algae could cut power plant pollution while making car fuel

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We’ve already seen this week how algae can help clean sewage waste while at the same time producing fuel cars, but now we’re discovering how these microscopic organisms can also help clean up pollution from other forms of power production. According to new research from University of Delaware, one[.].

Scooter pollution worse than trucks, new study finds

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Scooters can produce thousands of times more pollution than even large lorries, according to a new study from the Paul Scherrer Institute. Even idling scooters can emit huge quantities of smog-causing ‘organic aerosols’ according to the researchers, including some from the University of Cambridge,[.]. Green credentials

2014 46

Algae species shows promise in reducing power plant pollution and making biofuel

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University of Delaware researchers have identified an algae— Heterosigma akashiwo —that grows rapidly on a gas mixture that has the same carbon dioxide and nitric oxide (NO) content as emissions released from a power plant. The findings could have industrial applications as a cost-effective way to cut greenhouse gas pollution when paired with biofuel production.

2013 78

Vattenfall and Aalborg University Partner with SCF Technologies on Near Supercritical Bio-oil Process

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Vattenfall and Aalborg University are partnering with Danish startup SCF Technologies in a two-year project to design a demonstration plant based on SCF’s CatLiq process—an application of the firm’s supercritical fluid technology in the catalytic production of bio-oil from organic waste. CatLiq converts biomass and organic wastes in water at near or supercritical conditions (280-350 °C and 180-250 bar). Overview of the CatLiq process. Source: SCF Technologies.

2009 78