Study finds COVID-19 lockdown in China brought only slight reduction in PM2.5 and ozone

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and ozone were only slightly reduced or barely affected. Ozone can irritate breathing, affect lung function and worsen lung conditions such as asthma. We found almost no change in ozone concentrations because of the pandemic control measures.

2020 88

Harvard/Nanjing study: China’s war on PM2.5 pollution is causing more severe ozone pollution

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Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and the Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), found that while PM 2.5 pollution is falling, harmful ground-level ozone pollution is on the rise, especially in large cities. Ozone is the main ingredient in smog and has been studied since it began choking cities in the US in the early 1950s. There was so much particulate matter in Chinese cities that it stunted the ozone production.

2019 88

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TOAR shows present-day global ozone distribution and trends relevant to health; public database

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Ozone levels across much of North America and Europe dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. Even so, during 2010-2014, people in parts of California, Arizona, Colorado, Texas, the Midwest and the Middle Atlantic still experienced more than 15 days a year in which ozone levels exceeded the US health-based air quality standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb) averaged over eight hours. Source: University of Leicester. Source: University of Leicester.

2018 86

Study: ozone levels higher across China than in other countries tracking the air pollutant

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In China, people breathe ozone-laden air two to six times more often than people in the United States, Europe, Japan, or South Korea, according to a new international study published in Environmental Science & Technology Letters. By one metric—total number of days with daily maximum average ozone values (8-hour average) greater than 70 ppb—China had twice as many high ozone days as Japan and South Korea, three times more than the United States, and six times more than Europe.

2018 73

China study connects ozone pollution to cardiovascular health

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Exposure to ozone, long associated with impaired lung function, is also connected to health changes that can cause cardiovascular disease such as heart attack, high blood pressure and stroke, according to a new study of Chinese adults. The findings associated ozone exposure with markers of platelet activation and increased blood pressure. They monitored indoor and outdoor ozone levels, along with other pollutants. The 24-hour ozone exposure concentrations ranged from 1.4

Ozone 65

Satellite method provides insight into ozone-NOx-VOCs sensitivity for different locations

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Ozone pollution near Earth’s surface is one of the main ingredients of summertime smog. It is also not directly measurable from space due to the abundance of ozone higher in the atmosphere, which obscures measurements of surface ozone. New NASA-funded research has devised a way to use satellite measurements of the precursor gases that contribute to ozone formation to differentiate among three different sets of conditions that lead to its production.

2017 60

Study quantifies impact of oil and gas emissions on Denver’s ozone problem

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The first peer-reviewed study to directly quantify how emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) activities influence summertime tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution in the Colorado Front Range confirms that chemical vapors from oil and gas activities are a significant contributor to the region’s chronic ozone problem. em>That allows us to look at how oil and gas emissions are influencing ozone production ,” said McDuffie.

Study: surface ozone in India in 2005 damaged 6M tonnes of crops, enough to feed 94M people in poverty

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Ozone, the main component of smog, is a plant-damaging pollutant formed by emissions from vehicles, cooking stoves and other sources. New research shows that ozone pollution damaged millions of tons of wheat, rice, soybean and cotton crops in India in 2005. Surface ozone pollution in India damaged 6 million metric tons (6.7 Rising emissions are causing severe ozone pollution in some of India’s most populated regions. Smog in India.

2005 82

University of Kentucky chemist receives NSF grant to study atmospheric reactions of pollution

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University of Kentucky Chemistry Professor Marcelo Guzman has received a three-year grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) for research, education and outreach efforts in the field of environmental and atmospheric chemistry. The $461,000-project, titled “Heterogeneous Aging Mechanisms of Combustion and Biomass Burning Emissions,” will focus on how gases, such as ozone, react with pollutants emitted from power plants and forest fires.

Airborne measurements show ozone-forming VOCs emissions from ethanol plant higher than government estimates

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The measurements also show emissions of all volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which include ethanol, were five times higher than government numbers, which estimate emissions based on manufacturing information. VOCs and nitrogen oxides react with sunlight to form ground-level ozone, the main component of smog. Obviously, this was just one refinery that we looked at, so we’d like to do more and see if these findings are more universal or if this plant was just exceptional.

2015 71

Study Links Springtime Ozone Increases Above Western North America to Emissions in Asia

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Springtime ozone distributions for 1984, 1995–2008 in the mid-troposphere (3.0–8.0 Springtime ozone levels above western North America are rising primarily due to air flowing eastward from the Pacific Ocean, a trend that is largest when the air originates in Asia. These increases in ozone could make it more difficult for the United States to meet Clean Air Act standards for ozone pollution at ground level, according to a new international study.

Toyota develops tropospheric ozone-concentration simulator for South and East Asia

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have developed a simulator able to predict tropospheric ozone concentrations across the whole of South and East Asia. The project was carried out in collaboration with Tsinghua University in China, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in India, and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Austria. Tropospheric ozone is the main cause of photochemical smog, an atmospheric pollutant harmful to human health and plant growth.

Asia 71

Using Ozone-Generated Bubbles to Remove Oil Sheen and Contaminants from Water

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A University of Utah engineer has developed an inexpensive new method to remove oil sheen by repeatedly pressurizing and depressurizing ozone gas, creating microscopic bubbles that attack the oil so it can be removed by sand filters. Instead of ozone, air and metal-grabbing chelating agents would be pressurized with a slurry of the contaminated material. Hong conducted the study with two University of Utah doctoral students—Zhixiong Cha, who has earned his Ph.D.,

2009 71

Study Finds Ozone Concentrations at Current Clean Air Standards Levels Can Impair Even Healthy Lungs

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Exposure to ozone at levels currently deemed safe by the NAAQS clean air standards can have a significant and negative effect on lung function, according to researchers at the University of California, Davis. In March 2008, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established a new primary 8-hour standard for ozone of 0.075 parts per million (ppm), and a new secondary standard set at a form and level identical to the new primary standard. EPA Ground-Level Ozone website.

2009 69

Researchers fully characterize reaction that affects ground-level ozone formation; a small but significant impact on predictive models

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The two combine in the atmosphere to make either nitric acid or peroxynitrous acid; the so-called branching ratio of these two chemicals is important in models of ozone production. When applied to Los Angeles, the laboratory results suggest that, on the most polluted days and in the most polluted parts of LA, current models are underestimating ozone levels by 5 to 10%. However, any increase in expected ozone levels will be important to regulators.

2010 74

Researchers Discover New Chemistry for Ozone Formation; Not Yet Monitored or Incorporated into Atmospheric Models

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A) shows the base case peak concentrations for O 3 (ozone), ClNO and HCl in parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). (B) Researchers at UC Irvine have determined that oxides of nitrogen emitted by the burning of fossil fuels reacts with gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl)—ubiquitous in both indoor and outdoor air, and generated from a variety of sources—on surfaces such as roads, buildings and air-borne particles to form highly reactive chlorine atoms that can speed up ozone formation.

2009 60

EPA awards $6M in research funding to improve air quality models

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced $5,959,842 million in research funding to nine institutions to improve air quality models used to simulate ozone, particulate matter (PM), regional haze, air toxics, and emerging pollutants. Columbia University to develop tools that will improve the computational efficiency of chemical mechanisms for use in air quality models.

2020 73

UCI-led study finds California’s strict air quality regulations have helped farmers

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Researchers at the University of California, Irvine and other institutions have conducted a statistical analysis of pollution exposure and yields from 1980 to 2015 on a key sector making up about 38% of the state’s total agricultural output: perennial crops such as almonds, grapes, nectarines, peaches, strawberries and walnuts. They found that reductions in ground ozone during this 35-year period resulted in $600 million in increased production annually by the early 2010s.

2020 68

Study finds that current approach to limiting wintertime pollution may initially backfire

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The processes that create ozone pollution in the summer can also trigger the formation of wintertime air pollution, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder and NOAA, in partnership with the University of Utah. pollution is ammonium nitrate aerosol, which forms from emissions of nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia.

2019 78

Air quality suffers as biofuels grow, study finds

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Levels of a chemical linked to ground-level ozone could actually worsen by producing more biofuels and cause almost 1,400 premature deaths a year in Europe by 2020, a new study suggests. Studying the effects of growing trees to produce wood fuel, scientists at Lancaster University found that it increases emissions of a volatile organic compound [.].

Ozone 57

CU Boulder study: routine household activities generate air quality on par with major polluted city

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Cooking, cleaning and other routine household activities generate significant levels of volatile and particulate chemicals inside the average home, leading to indoor air quality levels on par with a polluted major city, according to a study by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder. Ozone and fine particulates are monitored by the EPA, but data for airborne toxins like formaldehyde and benzene and compounds like alcohols and ketones that originate from the home are very sparse.

2019 74

Study: consumer products overtake transportation as largest source of VOCs air pollution in cities

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Consumer products such as shampoo, cleaning products and paint now contribute as much to emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cities as tailpipe emissions from vehicles, according to a new study led by NOAA. The results, published in an open-access paper in the journal Science , suggest that the focus of efforts to mitigate ozone formation and toxic chemical burdens need to be adjusted, the authors suggested.

2018 90

Study finds fleet switch from PFI to GDI engines will result in net reduction in global warming

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The study, by a team of researchers from Carnegie Mellon University, University of Georgia, Aerodyne Research, California Air Resources Board (ARB), Ohio State University, UC Berkeley, and UC San Diego is published in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology. Recent studies have compared emissions of PFI and GDI vehicles, including particle number and mass, gaseous pollutants, and nonmethane organic gas (NMOG) composition for a limited number of compounds.

2017 73

Study estimates ~4M children worldwide develop asthma each year because of NO2 air pollution

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About 4 million children worldwide develop asthma each year because of inhaling nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) air pollution, according to an open-access study published in The Lancet Planetary Health by researchers at the George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH). The World Health Organization calls air pollution a major environmental risk to health and has established Air Quality Guidelines for NO 2 and other air pollutants.

2019 116

Coming HEI study suggests air pollution regulations likely contributors to improvements in air quality and children’s health

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The Health Effects Institute ( HEI ) will soon publish a study by Frank Gilliland and his colleagues at the University of Southern California the findings of which suggest that US and California regulations directed at reducing emissions of mobile-source pollutants were likely contributors to improvements in air quality between 1985 and 2012 that were in turn associated with improvements in children’s respiratory health.

2016 78

Study uncovers role of longer-chain unburned hydrocarbon emissions from diesels in London air pollution; calls for regulatory shift

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Researchers at the University of York (UK) have found that longer-chain unburned hydrocarbons released from diesel—which are not currently explicitly considered as part of air quality control strategies—represent only 20–30% of the total atmospheric hydrocarbon mixing ratio but contribute more than 50% of the total atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in London—and by extension to other developed megacities.

2015 82

HALO research aircraft measuring the emissions of megacities in EmeRGe project

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The University of Bremen is the scientific base of the international project known as EMeRGe (Effect of Megacities on the transport and transformation of pollutants on the Regional and Global scales). The transport and transformation of plumes from selected European and Asian major population centers (MPCs) will now be investigated with special focus on the rate of formation of ozone and aerosols. Chou, as well as the National Taiwan University, especially Po-Hsiung Lin.

2018 90

NOAA, partners find about 98% decline in VOCs concentrations in LA Basin over last 50 years despite 3x increase in use of gasoline and diesel

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In California’s Los Angeles Basin, levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutants have decreased by about 98% since the 1960s, even as area residents now burn approximately three times as much gasoline and diesel fuel. VOCs, primarily emitted from the tailpipes of vehicles, are a key ingredient in the formation of ground-level ozone which, at high levels, can harm people’s lungs and damage crops and other plants.

2012 94

Study: Urban grime releases NOx when exposed to sunlight

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Researchers at the University of Toronto have found that natural sunlight triggers the release of smog-forming NO x compounds from the grime that typically coats buildings, statues and other outdoor surfaces in urban areas. When in the air, these compounds may combine with volatile organic compounds to produce ozone, the main component of smog.

2015 81

Reduction in diesel carbonyl emissions using F-T fuel from coal

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Researchers from Tianjin University and Xiangfan Da An Automobile Test Center report in a paper in the journal Fuel that while the profiles of total carbonyl compounds (CBCs) emitted by conventional diesel (DF) and Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel produced from coal (CFT) show no significant differences, the use of CFT resulted in significant reductions of total and individual CBCs.

2014 74

DISCOVER-AQ project to begin flights to enhance measurement of ground-level air-quality from space

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These sites will supplemented by additional instrumentation provided by NASA, EPA, Howard University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Maryland-Baltimore County, and Millersville University in Pennsylvania. In the air, NASA investigators will be joined by colleagues from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the University of California-Berkeley, and the University of Innsbruck in Austria.

2011 68

Study: air pollution causes 800,000 extra deaths a year in Europe and 8.8 million worldwide

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To put this into perspective, this means that air pollution causes more extra deaths a year than tobacco smoking, which the World Health Organization estimates was responsible for an extra 7.2 —Co-author Professor Thomas Münzel, of the Department of Cardiology of the University Medical Centre Mainz. and ozone.

2019 94

New study finds asthma morbidity in children is enhanced in areas with high traffic-related air pollution near the home

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Results from a new study by researchers at the University of California Irvine support a growing body of scientific literature indicating that sensitive populations, including children, certain ethnic groups and people of lower socioeconomic status, are more vulnerable to the effects of high exposures to traffic-related air pollution. The UC Irvine study consisted of four tasks: To estimate exposures for children with asthma to primary and secondary organic aerosols.

2015 114

UMD-led study finds China’s SO2 emissions down 75% since 2007, India’s up 50%; India may now be the top SO2 emitter

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Although China and India remain the world’s largest consumers of coal, a new University of Maryland-led study found that China’s sulfur dioxide emissions fell by 75% since 2007, while India’s emissions increased by 50%. Two maps compare total annual sulfur dioxide amounts for India and China during 2005 (left) and 2016 based on Ozone Monitoring Instrument measurements. The content of this article does not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations.

India 65

Study projects net cooling of climate from ship emissions through 2050

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The team from Center for International Climate and Environmental Research—Oslo (CICERO); Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR); University of Hawaii at Manoa; and Manchester Metropolitan University (UK) estimated the global-mean radiative forcing (RF) and total net surface temperature change from the shipping sector for a range of emission scenarios using a simple climate model (SCM).

2012 83

Cummins CTO John Wall receives California’s premier air quality award

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The two other recipients are: Dr. Donald Blake, professor of chemistry, University of California Irvine. Dr. Blake has carried out measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds that have provided critical insights into their roles in air pollution and climate change. Smith, professor of global environmental health, University of California Berkeley. John Wall, Vice President and Chief Technical Officer of diesel engine manufacturer Cummins Inc.,

2015 77

US and UK researchers report direct measurement of key atmospheric reactant; more rapid formation of secondary aerosols

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Now, researchers from Sandia National Laboratory’s Combustion Research Facility, the University of Manchester and the University of Bristol report in a paper in Science the first direct kinetics measurements made of reactions of any gas-phase Criegee intermediate, in this case formaldehyde oxide (CH 2 OO). —Professor Dudley Shallcross, Professor in Atmospheric Chemistry at The University of Bristol.

2012 90

Life cycle analysis of three battery chemistries for PHEVs and BEVs; environmental impacts higher than expected

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Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) have performed life cycle assessments (LCA) of three batteries for plug-in hybrid (PHEV) and full performance battery electric (BEV) vehicles. On a per-storage basis, the team found that the NiMH technology was found to have the highest environmental impact, followed by NCM and then LFP, for all categories considered except ozone depletion potential.

2011 108

NC State Researchers Developing Ozonolysis Pretreatment for Energy Grass Feedstocks

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Researchers at North Carolina State University are developing an ozone-based pre-treatment technique (ozonolysis) to release sugars from the energy grass miscanthus for production into renewable fuels or chemicals with minimal generation of chemical waste streams and degradation of the carbohydrate components. Ozone is highly reactive towards compounds incorporating conjugated double bonds and functional groups with high electron densities. Ozone.

2010 64

Study finds household and outdoor air pollution contributes to more than 5.5 million premature deaths worldwide per year

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of all global deaths) caused by outdoor fine particulate air pollution and an additional 215,000 deaths from exposure to ozone. —Michael Brauer, a professor at the University of British Columbia’s School of Population and Public Health. Qiao Ma, a PhD student at the School of Environment, Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, found that outdoor air pollution from coal alone caused an estimated 366,000 deaths in China in 2013.

2016 60

International study of role of soots impact on Arctic climate

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Among the participating institutions and research centers are the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, the Alfred Wegner Institute, the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the Italian National Research Council, the Chemistry Department of Florence University, the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, the Northern Research Institute, the Norwegian Institute for Polar Research, and the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences.

2011 71

Study finds air quality models significantly underestimate traffic as source of NOx in Europe

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Traffic contributes more to NO x emissions in Europe than previously thought, according to a new study by a team at the University of Innsbruck. The team of physicists headed by Thomas Karl from the Institute of Atmospheric and Cryospheric Sciences at the University of Innsbruck has expanded on earlier work that has used urban flux measurement for energy and CO 2 by simultaneously measuring NO x , selected tracer NMVOCs, CO and CO 2.

2017 60

Study Finds Controlling Soot May Be Fastest Method to Reduce Arctic Ice Loss and Global Warming; Second-Leading Cause of Global Warming After CO2

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Jacobson at Stanford University. 1990; Anisimov, 2007] and chemical production of ozone in already-polluted locations [Jacobson, 2008b]. These three gases are all greenhouse gases, and ozone is a surface air pollutant. Warmer temperatures due to soot and other components also increase emissions of ozone and particulate matter precursors, including biogenic organic gases [e.g.,

2010 79