Severe drought influences ozone pollution

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Drought conditions can have complicated effects on ozone air quality, so to better understand the process, researchers have analyzed data from two ozone-polluted cities before, during and after the California drought. Although ozone in the stratosphere protects the earth from ultraviolet radiation, at ground level the molecule is a harmful air pollutant to humans, animals and plants.

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Study finds COVID-19 lockdown in China brought only slight reduction in PM2.5 and ozone

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and ozone were only slightly reduced or barely affected. Ozone can irritate breathing, affect lung function and worsen lung conditions such as asthma. We found almost no change in ozone concentrations because of the pandemic control measures.

2020 90

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Studies find global COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced PM2.5 and NO2 pollution, but ozone up

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However, the drop in nitrogen dioxide pollution has caused an increase in surface ozone levels in China, according to one of the new studies. Ozone is a secondary pollutant formed when sunlight and high temperature catalyze chemical reactions in the lower atmosphere. Ozone is harmful to humans at ground-level, causing pulmonary and heart disease. It means that by just reducing the [nitrogen dioxide] and the particles, you won’t solve the ozone problem.

2020 79

Global study links daily exposure to ozone pollution to increased risk of death

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Daily exposure to ground level ozone in cities worldwide is associated with an increased risk of death, according to the largest study of its kind, published in an open-access paper in The BMJ. Ground level ozone is a highly reactive gas commonly found in urban and suburban environments, formed when pollutants react in sunlight. No excess mortality associated with ozone was found in Australia, as daily ozone levels were below the maximum background level of 70 µg/m 3 ).

2020 69

Harvard/Nanjing study: China’s war on PM2.5 pollution is causing more severe ozone pollution

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pollution is falling, harmful ground-level ozone pollution is on the rise, especially in large cities. Ozone is the main ingredient in smog and has been studied since it began choking cities in the US in the early 1950s. Ozone is formed through a series of chemical reactions, starting with the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). There was so much particulate matter in Chinese cities that it stunted the ozone production.

2019 89

TOAR shows present-day global ozone distribution and trends relevant to health; public database

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Ozone levels across much of North America and Europe dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. Even so, during 2010-2014, people in parts of California, Arizona, Colorado, Texas, the Midwest and the Middle Atlantic still experienced more than 15 days a year in which ozone levels exceeded the US health-based air quality standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb) averaged over eight hours. Trends in daily maximum ozone levels (known as 4MDA8) at urban and non-urban sites.

2018 88

Study: ozone levels higher across China than in other countries tracking the air pollutant

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In China, people breathe ozone-laden air two to six times more often than people in the United States, Europe, Japan, or South Korea, according to a new international study published in Environmental Science & Technology Letters. By one metric—total number of days with daily maximum average ozone values (8-hour average) greater than 70 ppb—China had twice as many high ozone days as Japan and South Korea, three times more than the United States, and six times more than Europe.

2018 73

China study connects ozone pollution to cardiovascular health

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Exposure to ozone, long associated with impaired lung function, is also connected to health changes that can cause cardiovascular disease such as heart attack, high blood pressure and stroke, according to a new study of Chinese adults. The findings associated ozone exposure with markers of platelet activation and increased blood pressure. They monitored indoor and outdoor ozone levels, along with other pollutants. The 24-hour ozone exposure concentrations ranged from 1.4

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EPA tightens ground-level ozone standard to 70 ppb

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issued its final rule revising the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone to 70 parts per billion (ppb) from 75 ppb to protect public health. Ground-level ozone forms when nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the air. EPA examined nearly 2,300 studies in this review of the ozone standards including more than 1,000 new studies published since the last review of the standards in 2008.

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Satellite method provides insight into ozone-NOx-VOCs sensitivity for different locations

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Ozone pollution near Earth’s surface is one of the main ingredients of summertime smog. It is also not directly measurable from space due to the abundance of ozone higher in the atmosphere, which obscures measurements of surface ozone. New NASA-funded research has devised a way to use satellite measurements of the precursor gases that contribute to ozone formation to differentiate among three different sets of conditions that lead to its production.

2017 60

Study associates ozone exposure at birth to increased risk of developing asthma

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A long-term study of the health of Canadian children has found that exposure to ozone (O 3 ) at birth was associated with an 82% increased risk of developing asthma by age three. Our findings show that the hazard ratios for ozone measured at birth as a single pollutant showed statistically significant higher risks for development of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema.

2018 69

EPA proposes tightening primary ozone standards to range of 65-70 ppb; final rule by October 2015

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Counties where measured ozone is above proposed range of standards, based on 2011-2013 monitoring data. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing tightening the ground-level 8-hour ozone (O 3 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to within a range of 65 to 70 parts per billion (ppb), while taking comments on a level as low as 60 ppb. EPA will issue final ozone standards by 1 October 2015.

2014 92

Study quantifies impact of oil and gas emissions on Denver’s ozone problem

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The first peer-reviewed study to directly quantify how emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) activities influence summertime tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution in the Colorado Front Range confirms that chemical vapors from oil and gas activities are a significant contributor to the region’s chronic ozone problem. em>That allows us to look at how oil and gas emissions are influencing ozone production ,” said McDuffie.

Study finds rising temperatures increase risk of unhealthy ozone levels absent sharp cuts in precursors

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Ozone pollution across the continental United States will become far more difficult to keep in check as temperatures rise, according to new work led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The study shows that Americans face the risk of a 70% increase in unhealthy summertime ozone levels by 2050, assuming continued greenhouse gas emissions with resultant significant warming (IPCC Scenario A2 and RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5.). Ozone formation.

2014 73

BASF launches next-generation PremAir NXT catalytic coating technology for direct ozone reduction

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BASF announced the commercial launch of PremAir NXT, a next-generation direct ozone reduction (DOR) catalytic coating technology for heat exchange surfaces such as radiators that can help automakers meet new US Tier 3 and California LEV III emissions reduction requirements. it converts ground-level ozone already in the air. 19 milligrams/kilometer) of Non-Methane Organic Gases (NMOG) + Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) emissions by 2025.

2015 81

Study: surface ozone in India in 2005 damaged 6M tonnes of crops, enough to feed 94M people in poverty

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Ozone, the main component of smog, is a plant-damaging pollutant formed by emissions from vehicles, cooking stoves and other sources. New research shows that ozone pollution damaged millions of tons of wheat, rice, soybean and cotton crops in India in 2005. Surface ozone pollution in India damaged 6 million metric tons (6.7 Rising emissions are causing severe ozone pollution in some of India’s most populated regions. Smog in India.

2005 83

US EPA proposes San Joaquin Valley, South Coast, Southeast Desert as failing to meet one hour ozone air standard

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The US Environmental Protection Agency announced that it is proposing to find that the San Joaquin Valley, and California’s South Coast and the Southeast Desert have failed to meet the 1-hour ozone standard by their required deadlines. Children and the elderly are most impacted by ozone pollution. The 1-hour ozone standard was superseded in 2005 by the health-based 8-hour ozone standard. In 1997, the EPA first established the 8-hour ozone standard (0.08

2011 69

US EPA proposes to retain existing NAAQS for ozone

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to retain, without changes, the existing, more stringent 2015 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The standards, established in 2015, are currently set at 70 parts per billion (ppb), in terms of a 3-year average of the annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone concentrations. From 2017 to 2019, ozone concentrations fell 4%.

2020 69

Airborne measurements show ozone-forming VOCs emissions from ethanol plant higher than government estimates

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The measurements also show emissions of all volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which include ethanol, were five times higher than government numbers, which estimate emissions based on manufacturing information. VOCs and nitrogen oxides react with sunlight to form ground-level ozone, the main component of smog.

2015 73

Study Links Springtime Ozone Increases Above Western North America to Emissions in Asia

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Springtime ozone distributions for 1984, 1995–2008 in the mid-troposphere (3.0–8.0 Springtime ozone levels above western North America are rising primarily due to air flowing eastward from the Pacific Ocean, a trend that is largest when the air originates in Asia. These increases in ozone could make it more difficult for the United States to meet Clean Air Act standards for ozone pollution at ground level, according to a new international study.

Toyota Central R&D Labs develops new ferrihydrite material that effectively removes ozone from air

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Japan) report in the journal Angewandte Chemie the development of a mesoporous two-line ferrihydrite (2LFh)—ferrihydrite is a widespread mineral composed of iron, oxygen, and water—that could lead to a new generation of ozone filters in electrostatic devices and aircraft applications. In ozone processes for water cleaning and odor removal, e.g. smoke from vehicle interiors, it could catch the unreacted O 3. Such isolated iron oxide units absorb ozone especially well.

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Toyota develops tropospheric ozone-concentration simulator for South and East Asia

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have developed a simulator able to predict tropospheric ozone concentrations across the whole of South and East Asia. Tropospheric ozone is the main cause of photochemical smog, an atmospheric pollutant harmful to human health and plant growth. As these photochemical reaction pathways are very complex, reduction of NO x and VOC emissions may not necessarily be effective in reducing tropospheric ozone concentrations. Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) and Toyota Central R&D Labs.,

Asia 73

Berkeley study identifies diesel as main source of vehicular secondary organic aerosols

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A study led by researchers at UC Berkeley has found that diesel exhaust forms about seven times more secondary organic aerosols (SOA) than gasoline exhaust for the same mass of unburned fuel emissions and, given emission factors, can be expected to form 15 times more SOA than gasoline per liter of fuel burned. Organic aerosol (OA) in the atmosphere is detrimental to human health and represents a highly uncertain forcing of climate change.

2012 94

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. Ground level or tropospheric ozone (different than the stratospheric ozone that blocks the sun’s UV rays) is formed by ozone precursor gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, methane, and other hydrocarbons.

EPA proposes approval of new ozone plans for the two of the worst Air Quality Zones in US: California’s San Joaquin Valley and South Coast

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US EPA Region 9 8-hour ozone trends, 1979-2000. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to approve the 8-hour ozone air quality plans—which include their attainment demonstrations, enforceable commitments and reductions from new technologies—for California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and South Coast (SC) areas, two of the worst air quality areas left in the country. Children and the elderly are most impacted by ozone pollution.

2011 83

Using Ozone-Generated Bubbles to Remove Oil Sheen and Contaminants from Water

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A University of Utah engineer has developed an inexpensive new method to remove oil sheen by repeatedly pressurizing and depressurizing ozone gas, creating microscopic bubbles that attack the oil so it can be removed by sand filters. Instead of ozone, air and metal-grabbing chelating agents would be pressurized with a slurry of the contaminated material. The ozone in the bubble attacks certain pollutants because it is a strong oxidant.

2009 73

Study Finds Ozone Concentrations at Current Clean Air Standards Levels Can Impair Even Healthy Lungs

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Exposure to ozone at levels currently deemed safe by the NAAQS clean air standards can have a significant and negative effect on lung function, according to researchers at the University of California, Davis. In March 2008, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established a new primary 8-hour standard for ozone of 0.075 parts per million (ppm), and a new secondary standard set at a form and level identical to the new primary standard. EPA Ground-Level Ozone website.

2009 69

Fast action on black carbon, ozone and methane could help limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees C

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Fast action on pollutants such as black carbon, ground-level ozone and methane may help limit near term global temperature rise and significantly increase the chances of keeping temperature rise below 2 °C (3.6 °F)—and The proposed measures for reducing black carbon, methane and ozone levels in the atmosphere significantly increase our chances to keep global warming below dangerous levels during this century.

2011 78

Researchers fully characterize reaction that affects ground-level ozone formation; a small but significant impact on predictive models

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The two combine in the atmosphere to make either nitric acid or peroxynitrous acid; the so-called branching ratio of these two chemicals is important in models of ozone production. When applied to Los Angeles, the laboratory results suggest that, on the most polluted days and in the most polluted parts of LA, current models are underestimating ozone levels by 5 to 10%. However, any increase in expected ozone levels will be important to regulators.

2010 76

Harvard team finds that the phase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects chemical aging; may require revision of regional and global climate models

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Atmospheric chemists at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have found that the phase of secondary organic materials (SOM) in the atmosphere—solid, semisolid, or liquid—can effect their chemical reactivity (chemical aging) in the atmosphere. Secondary organic materials (SOM) are airborne particles that have begun to react with gases in the atmosphere.

2012 87

Researchers Discover New Chemistry for Ozone Formation; Not Yet Monitored or Incorporated into Atmospheric Models

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A) shows the base case peak concentrations for O 3 (ozone), ClNO and HCl in parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). (B) Researchers at UC Irvine have determined that oxides of nitrogen emitted by the burning of fossil fuels reacts with gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl)—ubiquitous in both indoor and outdoor air, and generated from a variety of sources—on surfaces such as roads, buildings and air-borne particles to form highly reactive chlorine atoms that can speed up ozone formation.

2009 60

Plug-in Hybrid Study: Electricity Better

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Environmental organization and utilities have long known the benefits of electric transportation, but have been cowed by the auto makers' unwillingness to make grid-connected product. Tags: air pollution union of concerned scientists environmental organizations dan becker air quality epri NRDC Sierra Club

2007 100

Study suggests future climate changes to worsen air quality for >85% of China’s population; ~20k+ additional deaths each year

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55% of land area) by the middle of the century, and would increase by 3% and 4% the population-weighted average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone, respectively. and ozone exposure, respectively. and ozone in 2050 by factors of 1 and 3, respectively. concentrations (A) and the ozone season average of daily 1-h maximum ozone (B) over East Asia related to climate change under RCP4.5 C) and ozone (D) exposure are shown.

EPA awards $6M in research funding to improve air quality models

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced $5,959,842 million in research funding to nine institutions to improve air quality models used to simulate ozone, particulate matter (PM), regional haze, air toxics, and emerging pollutants. Massachusetts Institute of Technology to develop a systematic approach towards developing chemical mechanisms for formation of particulate matter from complex organic compounds by using state-of-the science laboratory data.

2020 75

UCI-led study finds California’s strict air quality regulations have helped farmers

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They found that reductions in ground ozone during this 35-year period resulted in $600 million in increased production annually by the early 2010s. The researchers also projected yield changes up to 2050 under various scenarios, determining that expected declines in ambient ozone will result in a 5% boost in wine grapes, an 8% climb in nectarines and a 20% jump in table grapes. 2020) “Impacts of ozone and climate change on yields of perennial crops in California.”

2020 69

Yale study finds asphalt a significant source of air pollution, especially on hot, sunny days

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Yale researchers found that common road and roofing asphalts produced complex mixtures of organic compounds, including hazardous pollutants, in a range of typical temperature and solar conditions. These can lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a major contributor of PM 2.5

2020 106

Volvo Trucks awarded $21.7M from US EPA and South Coast AQMD to deploy 70 Class 8 VNR Electric trucks

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Volvo Trucks will leverage best practices learned from the Volvo LIGHTS (Low Impact Green Heavy Transport Solutions) project, its collaboration with South Coast AQMD and 13 other organizations to develop an end-to-end blueprint to successfully introduce battery-electric trucks and equipment into the market at scale. Volvo Trucks North America was awarded $21.7 million in grants to deploy 70 VNR Electric trucks in Southern California for regional freight distribution and drayage.

2020 69

Fraunhofer IFF team designing hydrogen factory of the future

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They are employing a special microbial fermentation process similar to biogas production to produce hydrogen directly from organic waste. Since systemically integrated hydrogen production is important to the researchers, they will not only be using the hydrogen produced during electrolysis but also the oxygen—for welding processes or for ozonation in sewage treatment plants, for example.

2020 102

Study finds that current approach to limiting wintertime pollution may initially backfire

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The processes that create ozone pollution in the summer can also trigger the formation of wintertime air pollution, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder and NOAA, in partnership with the University of Utah. pollution is ammonium nitrate aerosol, which forms from emissions of nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia.

2019 79

EPA issues ANPR on Clean Trucks Initiative, seeking input from public and stakeholders

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This action follows on the petitions from more than 20 organizations, including state and local air agencies, to revise and promulgate more stringent NO x standards. However, 100 million people live in areas of nonattainment for ozone and particulate matter (PM), and according to EPA estimates, heavy-duty vehicles will continue to be one of the largest contributors to NO x emissions—a precursor of ozone and PM formation—from the transportation sector in 2025.

2020 60

Air quality suffers as biofuels grow, study finds

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Levels of a chemical linked to ground-level ozone could actually worsen by producing more biofuels and cause almost 1,400 premature deaths a year in Europe by 2020, a new study suggests. Studying the effects of growing trees to produce wood fuel, scientists at Lancaster University found that it increases emissions of a volatile organic compound [.].

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University of Kentucky chemist receives NSF grant to study atmospheric reactions of pollution

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The $461,000-project, titled “Heterogeneous Aging Mechanisms of Combustion and Biomass Burning Emissions,” will focus on how gases, such as ozone, react with pollutants emitted from power plants and forest fires. My work with environmental chemistry focuses on the interaction of gases with organic compounds present in low water activity environments such as the atmospheric aerosol, clouds and fog.

PSI team provides first direct proof of ongoing chemical reactions in particulates

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This is one of the volatile organic compounds in the oils of conifer trees, and it also occurs in eucalyptus and rosemary. Less pleasant is that the compound changes in the atmosphere, under the influence of radicals, into other compounds—highly oxidized organic molecules. These highly oxidized organic molecules are less volatile than the starting substance ?-pinene pinene into the chamber and caused the compound to react with ozone.

2020 108