TOAR shows present-day global ozone distribution and trends relevant to health; public database

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Ozone levels across much of North America and Europe dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. Even so, during 2010-2014, people in parts of California, Arizona, Colorado, Texas, the Midwest and the Middle Atlantic still experienced more than 15 days a year in which ozone levels exceeded the US health-based air quality standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb) averaged over eight hours. Source: University of Leicester. Source: University of Leicester.

2018 211

Study finds pollution emitted near equator has biggest impact on global ozone

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Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the University of Colorado, Boulder and their colleagues have now shown that this changing global emissions map is creating more total tropospheric ozone worldwide compared to the amount of pollution being emitted, signaling an effect that could be difficult to reign in without strategic policy planning. Emissions are growing in places where there is a much greater effect on the formation of ozone.

2016 194
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CARB, NOAA, NASA and San Jose State University scientists team up to study ozone transported across Pacific

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As California continues to reduce local sources of ozone, ozone entering the state from the Pacific makes up a larger fraction of measured ozone levels. Current ozone levels in the San Joaquin Valley are predominantly caused by local emissions, but as air quality standards become lower, any contribution from global ozone levels needs to be understood.

China study connects ozone pollution to cardiovascular health

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Exposure to ozone, long associated with impaired lung function, is also connected to health changes that can cause cardiovascular disease such as heart attack, high blood pressure and stroke, according to a new study of Chinese adults. The findings associated ozone exposure with markers of platelet activation and increased blood pressure. They monitored indoor and outdoor ozone levels, along with other pollutants. The 24-hour ozone exposure concentrations ranged from 1.4

2017 163

Study: ozone levels higher across China than in other countries tracking the air pollutant

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In China, people breathe ozone-laden air two to six times more often than people in the United States, Europe, Japan, or South Korea, according to a new international study published in Environmental Science & Technology Letters. By one metric—total number of days with daily maximum average ozone values (8-hour average) greater than 70 ppb—China had twice as many high ozone days as Japan and South Korea, three times more than the United States, and six times more than Europe.

2018 183

Satellite method provides insight into ozone-NOx-VOCs sensitivity for different locations

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Ozone pollution near Earth’s surface is one of the main ingredients of summertime smog. It is also not directly measurable from space due to the abundance of ozone higher in the atmosphere, which obscures measurements of surface ozone. New NASA-funded research has devised a way to use satellite measurements of the precursor gases that contribute to ozone formation to differentiate among three different sets of conditions that lead to its production.

2017 150

Study finds that unregulated VSLS efficient at influencing climate through depletion of stratospheric ozone

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Although halogens released from long-lived anthropogenic substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), are the principal cause of the recent depletion of stratospheric ozone, recent observations show that very short-lived substances (VSLS), with lifetimes generally under six months, are also an important source of stratospheric halogens. At present, naturally-emitted VSLS account for around 90% of the total ozone loss caused by VSLS in the lower stratosphere.

2015 191

Fluorescent Probes for Ozone Detection

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Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have developed a fluorescent molecular probe that can selectively detect ozone—in preference to other reactive oxygen species—in both atmospheric and biological samples. Ground-level ozone exposure is a growing global health problem, especially in urban areas. Ground-level ozone is toxic and can damage the respiratory tract.

Ozone 150

Study finds rising temperatures increase risk of unhealthy ozone levels absent sharp cuts in precursors

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Ozone pollution across the continental United States will become far more difficult to keep in check as temperatures rise, according to new work led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The study shows that Americans face the risk of a 70% increase in unhealthy summertime ozone levels by 2050, assuming continued greenhouse gas emissions with resultant significant warming (IPCC Scenario A2 and RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5.). Ozone formation.

2014 174

Researchers identify four new man-made gases contributing to destruction of ozone layer

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A study by an international team led by scientists at the University of East Anglia have identified four new man-made gases in the atmosphere, all of which are contributing to the destruction of the ozone layer. CFCs are the main cause of the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. This has resulted in successfully reducing the production of many of these compounds on a global scale.

2014 205

Duke/York study finds long-term exposure to ozone has significant impacts on human health, but lower than prior modeling results

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A team from Duke University in the US and University of York in the UK have utilized a novel method to estimate long-term ozone exposure and previously reported epidemiological results to quantify the health burden from long-term ozone exposure in three major regions of the world. Global estimates of O 3 exposure are often made using chemical transport models (CTMs).

2018 183

Study Links Springtime Ozone Increases Above Western North America to Emissions in Asia

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Springtime ozone distributions for 1984, 1995–2008 in the mid-troposphere (3.0–8.0 Springtime ozone levels above western North America are rising primarily due to air flowing eastward from the Pacific Ocean, a trend that is largest when the air originates in Asia. These increases in ozone could make it more difficult for the United States to meet Clean Air Act standards for ozone pollution at ground level, according to a new international study.

Toyota develops tropospheric ozone-concentration simulator for South and East Asia

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have developed a simulator able to predict tropospheric ozone concentrations across the whole of South and East Asia. The project was carried out in collaboration with Tsinghua University in China, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in India, and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Austria. Tropospheric ozone is the main cause of photochemical smog, an atmospheric pollutant harmful to human health and plant growth.

Asia 174

Report: Rising temperatures to increase ozone levels

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A new report released by the California Air Resources Board (ARB) has sent a stark warning on the effects of climate change on ozone levels in the state’s major air basins. According to scientists from the University of California at Davis and Berkeley, rising temperatures will increase ozone levels while peak concentrations of dangerous airborne [.].

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Ozone concentrations can impair healthy lungs

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In case you thought car makers were striving to produce greener alternatives simply to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels, then the University of California has issued a reminder about what these efforts are really all about. The US Environmental Protection Agency established a primary eight-hour standard for ozone of 0.075 parts per million in March 2008.

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Study Concludes that Rocket Launches May Need Regulation to Prevent Ozone Depletion

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The global market for rocket launches may require more stringent regulation in order to prevent significant damage to Earth’s stratospheric ozone layer in the decades to come, according to a new study by researchers in California and Colorado. The paper by Ross, Manfred Peinemann of The Aerospace Corporation, CU-Boulder’s Darin Toohey and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University’s Patrick Ross appeared online in March in the journal Astropolitics. “If

2009 150

Study Finds Ozone, Nitrogen Change the Way Rising CO2 Affects Earths Water

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Through a recent modeling experiment, a team of NASA-funded researchers have found that future concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone in the atmosphere and of nitrogen in the soil are likely to have an important but overlooked effect on the cycling of water from sky to land to waterways. Runoff may be as much as 17% higher in forests of the eastern United States when models account for changes in soil nitrogen levels and atmospheric ozone exposure.

2009 167

Study identifies Bakken Formation alone as responsible for ~2% of global ethane emissions

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The Bakken Formation, a shale oil and gas field in North Dakota and Montana, is emitting roughly 2% (about 250,000 tons per year) of the globe’s ethane, according to new study led by researchers at the University of Michigan. Ethane reacts with sunlight and other molecules in the atmosphere to form ozone, which at the surface can cause respiratory problems, eye irritation and other ailments and damage crops. Hydrocarbons react with NO x and sunlight to produce ozone.

2016 195

Study Concludes Warming Climate Will Increase Ozone Levels in Major California Air Basins; Climate Change and Regional Air Quality Are Intertwined Problems

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Illustration of projected ozone changes in the South Coast region due to climate change in 2050. Areas in orange and red could see ozone concentrations elevated by 9 to 18 parts per billion. In a new report released by the California Air Resources Board, scientists from the University of California at Davis and Berkeley estimate that rising temperatures from climate change will increase ozone levels in California’s major air basins.

Study finds anthropogenic PM and dust undercutting global solar energy production

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According to a new study led by a team at Duke University, airborne particulate matter and dust are cutting solar photovoltaic energy output by more than 25% in certain parts of the world, with roughly equal contributions from ambient PM and PM deposited on photovoltaic surfaces. For that half of the sun-blocking equation, Bergin turned to Drew Shindell, professor of climate sciences at Duke and an expert in using the NASA GISS Global Climate Model.

2017 195

Study finds fleet switch from PFI to GDI engines will result in net reduction in global warming

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Thus, the researchers concluded, switching from PFI to GDI vehicles will likely lead to a reduction in net global warming. The study, by a team of researchers from Carnegie Mellon University, University of Georgia, Aerodyne Research, California Air Resources Board (ARB), Ohio State University, UC Berkeley, and UC San Diego is published in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology. We estimate ozone and SOA formation potential.

2017 180

Study findings suggest that switching from coal to natural gas would do little for global climate

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Although the burning of natural gas emits far less carbon dioxide than coal, a new study by Tom Wigley, a senior research associate at the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and an adjunct professor at the University of Adelaide in Australia, concludes that a greater reliance on natural gas would fail to significantly slow down climate change. But in a high leakage rate scenario of 10% , global warming would not be reduced until 2140.

2011 263

Low-lying and other vulnerable countries calling for fast action on non-CO2 global warming pollutants

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Led by the tiny Pacific island of the Federated States of Micronesia, a growing group of low-lying islands and other vulnerable countries are calling for fast action on the approximately 50% of global warming that is caused by pollutants other than carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Among the non-CO 2 pollutants are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), methane, tropospheric ozone, and black carbon soot. Reducing tropospheric ozone can improve public health as well as agricultural productivity.

2010 174

Study finds global rivers and streams emitting 3x IPCC estimates of the GHG N2O

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This new global emission estimate is startling. Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and stratospheric ozone destruction. —Jake Beaulieu of the University of Notre Dame and the US EPA, and lead author of the PNAS paper. The global warming potential of nitrous oxide is 300-fold greater than carbon dioxide; nitrous oxide accounts for some 6% of human-induced climate change, scientists estimate.

2010 174

Study Finds Controlling Soot May Be Fastest Method to Reduce Arctic Ice Loss and Global Warming; Second-Leading Cause of Global Warming After CO2

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Controlling soot from fossil fuels and solid biofuels may be a faster method of reducing Arctic ice loss and global warming than other options, including controlling CH 4 or CO 2 , although all controls are needed, according to a new study by Dr. Mark Z. Jacobson at Stanford University. Results of the study suggest that soot is second only to carbon dioxide in contributing to global warming. These three gases are all greenhouse gases, and ozone is a surface air pollutant.

2010 194

UCI-led study finds California’s strict air quality regulations have helped farmers

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Researchers at the University of California, Irvine and other institutions have conducted a statistical analysis of pollution exposure and yields from 1980 to 2015 on a key sector making up about 38% of the state’s total agricultural output: perennial crops such as almonds, grapes, nectarines, peaches, strawberries and walnuts. They found that reductions in ground ozone during this 35-year period resulted in $600 million in increased production annually by the early 2010s.

2020 167

International study finds air pollution leads to millions of hospital visits for asthma attacks worldwide

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Air pollution—specifically PM 2.5 , ozone and NO 2 —could be to blame for up to 33 million emergency asthma attack visits to hospital a year, according to a new open-access study published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. The researchers aimed to estimate the number of asthma emergency room visits and new onset asthma cases globally attributable to PM 2.5 , ozone, and NO 2 concentrations. 37% and 73% of ozone and PM 2.5

2018 180

Study links air pollution to increased emergency department visits for heart and lung disease

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New research by George Mason University found that exposure to certain air pollutants is linked to increased emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Mason Assistant Professor of Global and Community Health Dr. Jenna Krall led the research with colleagues from Emory University, Georgia Institute of Technology, and the University of Pittsburgh.

2018 285

Northwestern/Princeton study explores air quality impacts of aggressive conversion to EVs

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Researchers from Northwestern University and Princeton University have explored the impact on US air quality from an aggressive conversion of internal combustion vehicles to battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs). The exponentially increasing global market share of EVs has prompted research on their efficacy in reducing greenhouse gases, but comparatively little effort has focused on their impact on air quality.

2019 229

Study first to quantify amount of US pollution resulting from Chinese manufacturing for exports

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China is responsible for only a small percentage of the annual pollution in the US, but powerful global winds known as “westerlies” can push airborne chemicals across the ocean in days, particularly during the spring, causing dangerous spikes in contaminants. Dust, ozone and carbon can accumulate in valleys and basins in California and other Western states. Jintai Lin of Beijing’s Peking University is the paper’s lead author.

2014 252

Emissions of potent GHG HFC-23 have grown, contradicting reports of huge reductions

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Despite reports that global emissions of the potent greenhouse gas, HFC-23, were almost eliminated in 2017, an international team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, has found atmospheric levels growing at record values. In response to these measures, scientists were expecting to see global emissions drop by almost 90% between 2015 and 2017, which should have seen growth in atmospheric levels grind to a halt.

2020 174

CU Boulder study: routine household activities generate air quality on par with major polluted city

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Cooking, cleaning and other routine household activities generate significant levels of volatile and particulate chemicals inside the average home, leading to indoor air quality levels on par with a polluted major city, according to a study by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder. Ozone and fine particulates are monitored by the EPA, but data for airborne toxins like formaldehyde and benzene and compounds like alcohols and ketones that originate from the home are very sparse.

2019 183

HEI: 95%+ of world’s population live in areas of unhealthy air

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Seven billion people, more than 95% of the world’s population, lived in areas exceeding the WHO Guideline for healthy air in 2016, according to a new global study. Air pollution is the leading environmental cause of death worldwide according to the State of Global Air 2018 , the annual report and interactive website published by the Health Effects Institute (HEI). State of Global Air 2018. Population-weighted seasonal average ozone concentrations in 2016.

2018 195

MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

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The research was a collaboration between MIT’s Laboratory for Aviation and the Environment and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. and/or ozone.

2020 260

Study finds US air pollution deaths nearly halved between 1990 and 2010

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A new study led by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has found that deaths related to air pollution in the US were nearly halved between 1990 and 2010. and ozone from a 21-year computer simulation of air pollution across the US. and ozone to the geographical areas in which people live and the causes of death in those areas, using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to estimate deaths from air pollution during the period.

2018 221

Study estimates ~4M children worldwide develop asthma each year because of NO2 air pollution

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About 4 million children worldwide develop asthma each year because of inhaling nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) air pollution, according to an open-access study published in The Lancet Planetary Health by researchers at the George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH). Two-thirds of traffic pollution-related asthma cases occurred in urban centres globally, and when suburbs were included this proportion increased to 90% of cases.

2019 290

ICCT study finds that transitioning to low-GWP MAC refrigerants in China could avoid up to US$150B in costs

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A new study from the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) assesses the feasibility, benefits, and costs of phasing out HFC-134a as the refrigerant in mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in the Chinese LDV fleet, focusing on three alternatives with lower global warming potential (GWP) most likely to be adopted by automakers with a global supply chain: HFO-1234yf, HFC-152a, and CO 2. Cambridge University Press.

2016 186

HALO research aircraft measuring the emissions of megacities in EmeRGe project

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The University of Bremen is the scientific base of the international project known as EMeRGe (Effect of Megacities on the transport and transformation of pollutants on the Regional and Global scales). The transport and transformation of plumes from selected European and Asian major population centers (MPCs) will now be investigated with special focus on the rate of formation of ozone and aerosols. Chou, as well as the National Taiwan University, especially Po-Hsiung Lin.

2018 221

Test of Planet-Cooling Scheme Could Start in 2022

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Up there, 10 to 50 kilometers above the Earth’s surface, ozone molecules absorb the sun’s ultraviolet light, protecting life far below. One of those scientists is Harvard University’s. Scientists warn that global warming is likely to hit 1.5 °C

Ozone 108

DISCOVER-AQ project to begin flights to enhance measurement of ground-level air-quality from space

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These sites will supplemented by additional instrumentation provided by NASA, EPA, Howard University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Maryland-Baltimore County, and Millersville University in Pennsylvania. In the air, NASA investigators will be joined by colleagues from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the University of California-Berkeley, and the University of Innsbruck in Austria.

2011 167

New international study finds lab testing of diesel NOx emissions underestimates real-world levels by up to 50%

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in collaboration with scientists at the University of York’s Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI); University of Colorado; and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, assessed 30 studies of vehicle emissions under real-world driving conditions in 11 major vehicle markets representing 80% of new diesel vehicle sales in 2015.

2017 199

Study finds warming caused by synthetic greenhouse gases could outweigh climate benefits from phasing down CFCs

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)—commonly used in refrigerators and air conditioners—play a role in creating a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. As these chemicals were phased-down due to international agreements limiting their use, they were replaced by other synthesized gases that can still be harmful to the ozone layer—and are also greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change.

2014 174

Tohoku team finds swirling ammonia in combustion chambers can help reduce NO emissions

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Researchers at Tohoku University in Japan have identified a way to reduce harmful NO emissions produced by ammonia fuel during combustion. Although the space and time-averaged emission (STAE) of NO was found to decrease with increase in the global equivalence ratio (global ?) Zones of high NO concentration were identified near the combustor wall boundaries, whereas there was almost nil NO in the combustor centre, irrespective of the global ?.

2018 246