Study finds high sodium bicarbonate concentrations in water from coal-bed natural gas production harms aquatic life; water treatment can mitigate effects

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Produced water from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production may contain sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) at concentrations that can harm aquatic life, according to a new study by the US Geological Survey; Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks; the Bureau of Land Management and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Salts such as sodium bicarbonate are found naturally in the water along the coal-bed natural gas seams.

2012 196

German team produces hydrocarbons from thermal degradation of free fatty acids and animal fat in water and sodium carbonate; ultimately 43% diesel-range and 14% gasoline-range fractions

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Researchers in Germany have produced a hydrocarbon-based bio-crude and non-condensable gases from the thermal degradation of free fatty acids and animal fat in the presence of water and sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 , a sodium salt of carbonic acid commonly used as a water softener). The process was carried out in a moving bed of sodium carbonate at 5 wt% water at 430± 20 °C at a pilot-scale plant.

2011 196

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Ceramatec licensing molten sodium technology for heavy oil upgrading; removing the need for diluent for bitumen

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Flowchart of Molten Sodium Upgrading process. A new company, Field Upgrading (Calgary, Alberta), has been formed dedicated to developing and commercializing the Molten Sodium Upgrading (MSU) technology. The MSU process involves mixing elemental molten sodium and small quantities of hydrogen or methane to reduce significantly the levels of sulphur, metals, TAN (total acid number) and asphaltenes in heavy oil feedstocks, including oil sands bitumen.

2013 184

Researchers Develop New Lower-Cost, Efficient Catalyst for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

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A team of researchers from Tufts University, the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Harvard University report that alkali ions (sodium or potassium) added in small amounts activate platinum adsorbed on alumina or silica for the low-temperature water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (H 2 O+CO→ H 2 +CO 2 ) used for producing hydrogen. They also found that the sodium or potassium ions helped to stabilize the catalytic site.

2010 164

Nouryon, Tata Steel, Port of Amsterdam to study feasibility of largest green H2 cluster in Europe; 100 MW water electrolysis facility

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As a first step, the parties will study the feasibility of a 100 megawatt water electrolysis facility to produce up to 15,000 tons of hydrogen per year as well as oxygen at Tata Steel’s IJmuiden site, near Amsterdam. Green hydrogen is a realistic alternative for fossil-based raw materials and enables new forms of green chemistry, such as using steel mill gas, CO 2 , or waste to make plastics and move to new, circular value chains.

2018 164

Caltech engineers devise new thermochemical cycle for water splitting for H2; recyclable, non-toxic, non-corrosive and at lower temperatures

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Providing a possible new route to hydrogen-gas production, researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have devised a new manganese-based thermochemical cycle with a highest operating temperature of 850?°C Research on thermochemical water splitting cycles largely began in the 1960s and 1970s and involved nuclear reactors and solar collectors as the energy sources, the team notes in their paper.

2012 190

Researchers Develop Lithium-Water Electrochemical Cell for the Controlled Generation of H2 and Electricity

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Schematic representation and operating principles of the lithium–water electrochemical cell used for hydrogen generation: (1) external circuit and (2) inside of lithium–water electrochemical cell. Scientists from the Energy Technology Research Institute, AIST in Tsukuba, Japan, have developed a lithium-water electrochemical cell for the controlled generation of hydrogen and electricity. Simultaneously, hydrogen gas is generated on the cathode.

2010 175

MIT and Moscow State collaborating on advanced batteries, metal-air batteries and reversible fuel/electrolysis cells

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Other work focuses on sodium as an earth-abundant alternative to lithium, but while it could lower cost, sodium ions also carry just a single charge. High-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells and solid-oxide electrolysis cells have potential over the intermediate term to double energy efficiency from fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as over the long-term to enable the shift to renewable energy sources such as solar and wind.

2015 218

DOE awards Cummins $5M for automation of electrolyzer cell and stack assembly

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To dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions and meet ambitious climate goals, we must invest now in scaling electrolyzer manufacturing and green hydrogen production to create a viable zero-emissions ecosystem. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers use a solid polymer electrolyte, and alkaline electrolyzers use an electrolyte solution, such as potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide mixed with water.

Sodium 272

New mesoporous crystalline Si exhibits increased rate of H2 production; potential use in Li-ion batteries also

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The nanosized crystalline primary particles and high surface areas enable an increased rate of photocatalytic hydrogen production from water and extended working life. They then treat the material with a sodium potassium alloy. Micrograph of mesoporous silicon with sodium chloride and potassium chloride salts embedded in the matrix. The material is then heat-treated and washed in water to dissolve the salt, leaving pores that range from 5 to 15 nanometers.

2014 196

Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks Made from Food-Grade Natural Products; Edible MOFs for Gas Storage and Other Applications

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CD with salt substitute (KCl) or potassium benzoate (food additive E212) in bottled water and Everclear grain spirit (EtOH) yields porous frameworks which constitute edible MOFs. Suitable candidates include ordinary table salt (sodium chloride), the common salt substitute potassium chloride, or potassium benzoate, an approved preservative. These ingredients are dissolved in water and then crystallized by vapor diffusion with an alcohol. A rendering of an element of a CD-MOF.

2010 175

Researchers convert atmospheric CO2 to carbon nanofibers and nanotubes for use as anodes in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries

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Researchers from George Washington University and Vanderbilt University have demonstrated the conversion of atmospheric CO 2 into carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for use as high-performance anodes in both lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. STEP is an efficient solar chemical process, based on a synergy of solar thermal and endothermic electrolyses, designed to convert greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into a useful carbon commodity.

2016 190

Tuning electrode surfaces to optimize solar fuel production

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Scientists have demonstrated that modifying the topmost layer of atoms on the surface of electrodes can have a remarkable impact on the activity of solar water splitting. This photocurrent drives the chemical reactions that split water into oxygen and hydrogen. Bismuth vanadate is a promising electrode material for solar water splitting because it strongly absorbs sunlight across a range of wavelengths and remains relatively stable in water.

Solar 175

Physicists Spin Up Quantum Tornadoes

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Now comes a report on a quantum gas, called a Bose-Einstein condensate, which scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology first stretched into a skinny rod, then rotated until it broke up. We know what direction we’re pushing, and we see the gas getting longer,” he says.

MIT 87

DOE awards $3.5M for advanced nuclear reactor projects

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million for four advanced nuclear reactor projects that go beyond traditional light water designs. Westinghouse’s project will conduct analysis on sodium thermal hydraulics to support advanced nuclear reactor design. The project will provide analytical tools to help quantify heat exchanger performance and improve component engineering for sodium-cooled reactor designs. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is awarding $3.5

2013 197

Western Hydrogen produces first hydrogen from Molten Salt Gasification pilot plant

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The MSG process, under license from Idaho National Laboratory, uses a combination of molten sodium salts (sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide) to convert a carbon feedstock and water into hydrogen. The MSG process occurs in a single high-pressure reactor in which a carbon-based feedstock and water react with a molten salt bath. If required, the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio can be adjusted by conducting a water gas shift reaction prior to the FT reactor.

NSF to award $13M to projects focused on electrochemical and organic photovoltaic systems

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Processes for sustainable energy production must be environmentally benign, reduce greenhouse gas production, and utilize renewable resources. Advanced systems such as lithium-air, sodium-ion, as well as lithium-ion electrochemical energy storage are appropriate. Photocatalytic or photoelectrochemical processes for the splitting of water into H 2 gas, or for the reduction of CO 2 to liquid or gaseous fuels are appropriate.

2017 164

MAN Diesel & Turbo delivers 1st IMO-certified two-stroke with Tier III NOx control, EGR systems

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two-stroke main-engines that feature integrated Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems. EGR is a NO x emissions-control technology that works by recirculating a portion of an engine’s exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. A part of the exhaust gas is drawn through a scrubber, cooler, and water mist catcher by suction created from an electrically-driven, specially designed blower.

2016 150

CalSEED awards $4.2M to early-stage clean energy innovations

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Cyclonatix, Inc is developing an industrial-sized motor/controller to operate with either DC or AC power sources, for applications in electric vehicles, solar-powered pumps, HVAC&R, gas compressors, and other commercial and industrial machines which require high efficiency, variable speed/torque, and low cost. EV Life, LLC is building the first online platform that gives drivers everything they need to switch from gas to an electric car.

2020 297

CU-Boulder technique finds major class of fracking chemicals no more toxic than common household substances; “fingerprinting”

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EO28), were identified in hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water using a new application of the Kendrick mass defect and liquid chromatography/ quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The Kendrick mass defect differentiates the proton, ammonium, and sodium adducts in both singly and doubly charged forms. For example, over 500 accurate mass assignments are made in a few seconds of computer time, which then is used as a fingerprint chromatogram of the water samples.

2014 200

NSF to award $13M for fundamental engineering research on production of electricity and fuels

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Processes for sustainable energy production must be environmentally benign, reduce greenhouse gas production, and utilize renewable resources. Advanced systems such as lithium-air, sodium-ion, as well as lithium-ion electrochemical energy storage are appropriate.

2015 189

Novel single-site gold WGS catalysts may offer pathway to lower-cost production of hydrogen, fuels and chemicals

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A team of researchers from universities and national laboratories led by Tufts University has developed catalysts composed of a unique structure of single gold atoms bound by oxygen to several sodium or potassium atoms and supported on non-reactive silica materials. The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (CO + H 2 O = CO 2 + H 2 ) is an important reaction for hydrogen upgrading during fuel gas processing.

2014 184

Pedego Electric Bikes and SiGNa Chemistry Demonstrate Battery-Fuel Cell Solution for Electric Bicycles

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A key innovation is the use of sodium silicide to liberate hydrogen from water as needed by the hybrid fuel cell. These products are fundamental components used for general synthesis in the pharmaceutical, petrochemical, specialty chemical and environmental remediation industries as well as provide the ability to enable portable fuel cells by producing pure low-pressure hydrogen gas on demand from a safe, stable dry powder at room temperature.

2010 210

3 MIT-led teams win DOE NEUP funding for next-gen nuclear technologies

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The FHR is a new reactor concept that combines high-temperature graphite-matrix-coated particle fuel developed for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors; liquid salt coolant developed for molten salt reactors; and safety systems originating with sodium fast reactors. Three MIT-led research teams have won awards from the Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy University Programs ( NEUP ) initiative to support research and development on the next generation of nuclear technologies.

2014 190

Jervois to acquire SMP nickel & cobalt refinery in Brazil; concentrate from Idaho for refining, cobalt metal back to US

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Jervois Mining Limited will acquire 100% of the Sao Miguel Paulista nickel and cobalt refinery (SMP Refinery) in the Brazilian State of Sao Paulo from Companhia Brasileira de Alumínio (CBA) (an investee company of Votorantim, one of the largest industrial conglomerates in Latin America).

2020 239

DOE awarding >$24M to 77 projects through Technology Commercialization Fund

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Concentric Ring Gas Atomization Die Design for Optimized Particle Production, $150,000 Praxair, Indianapolis, Ind. Low Cost Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing of Reusable Sorbents for Energy and Water Industries, $150,000 Qualification of SAS4A/SASSYS-1 for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Authorization and Licensing, $674,484 Advanced Reactor Concepts LLC, Chevy Chase, Md.

2019 215

Alberta Innovates & NRCan awarding $26.2M to three oil sands clean tech projects; industry kicking in $43.3M

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This announcement is a result of NRCan’s Oil and Gas Clean Tech Program. million in commercial demonstration in the three projects intended to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of bitumen production and upgrading. Among other things, the demonstration project will evaluate the reduction in steam requirements with the goal to develop a technology that can potentially significantly lower the cumulative steam-to-oil ratio and water treatment costs associated with steam generation.

NSF to award up to $13M for fundamental work on sustainable production of electricity and transportation fuels

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Processes for sustainable energy production must be environmentally benign, reduce greenhouse gas production, and utilize renewable resources. Advanced systems such as lithium-air, sodium-ion, as well as lithium-ion with new cathode chemistries are appropriate.

2013 207

PARC building cleantech portfolio; co-extrusion printing of novel battery electrodes and carbon-neutral renewable liquid fuels from atmospheric CO2

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Dr. Scott Elrod, VP and Director of PARC’s Hardware Systems Laboratory (HSL) research organization also directs the Cleantech Innovation Program at PARC, which develops solutions for delivering affordable solar energy, increasing solar cell efficiency, purifying water, managing energy utilization, and producing renewable fuels. PARC is developing a non-biological approach for producing liquid fuels from renewable energy, air, CO 2 and water.

2011 207

Researchers develop new catalysts for a direct Fischer-Tropsch to olefins (FTO) process

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Researchers in the Netherlands have demonstrated the direct conversion of synthesis gas through a Fischer-Tropsch process to C 2 through C 4 light olefins with selectivity up to 60 wt.% using catalysts that constitute iron nanoparticles (promoted by sulfur plus sodium) homogeneously dispersed on weakly interactive ?-alumina The FTO process represents a strong alternative route for the sustainable production of lower olefins from biomass-derived synthesis gas.

2012 237

Stanford study quantifies energetic costs of grid-scale energy storage over time; current batteries the worst performers; the need to improve cycle life by 3-10x

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Only about 3% currently is generated from wind, solar, hydroelectric and other renewable sources, with most of the electricity produced in the United States currently coming from coal- and natural gas-fired power plants, followed by nuclear according to data from the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). What little capacity there is comes from pumped hydroelectric storage, which works by pumping water to a reservoir behind a dam when electricity demand is low.

2013 253

IEA/OECD Report Concludes Nuclear Power Could Provide 24% of Global Electricity by 2050

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Almost one-quarter of global electricity could be generated from nuclear power by 2050, making a major contribution to cutting greenhouse gas emissions, according to the Nuclear Energy Technology Roadmap, published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Westinghouse AP-1000, advanced pressured water reactor (APWR, about 1,200MW capacity. GE Hitachi ABWR (advanced boiling water reactor), 1,300-1,600MW.

2010 190

ARPA-E awards $55M to 18 projects in two new programs: TERRA for transportation energy and GENSETS for distributed generation

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The program will encourage systems that couple large-scale physical and genetic characterization with advanced algorithms in order to accelerate the year-over-year yield gains of traditional plant breeding and the discovery of crop traits that improve water productivity, nutrient use and our ability to mitigate greenhouse gases. By making CHP affordable for home use, this heat can be used for water and home heating, reducing the residents’ energy costs.

2015 197

Jeep introduces 2018 Wrangler with mild hybrid, diesel options; plug-in hybrid version in 2020

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The 2.0-liter turbocharged I-4 engine is part of the Global Medium Engine architecture family and features Double Overhead Camshafts (DOHC), dual independent camshaft timing, and a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (C-EGR) system. A water-cooled, integrated exhaust manifold helps reduce turbo inlet temperatures while providing increased engine reliability. Sodium-filled exhaust valves and plasma-coated piston rings also help extend the engine’s life and bolster durability.

2017 190

Hyperion Unveils Design of its Small Modular Nuclear Reactor, the Hyperion Power Module

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Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor. A gas plenum is at one end of the 2-3m long fuel pins. The hot (500 °C) coolant transfers its heat through an intermediate heat exchanger to another lead-bismuth loop, through another intermediate heat exchanger to a tertiary circuit with an undisclosed fluid, and then through a third heat exchanger to water (at about 200 °C).

2009 227

DOE Awarding $620M for Smart Grid Demonstration and Energy Storage Projects

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Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (MA). New York State Electric & Gas Corporation. Pacific Gas & Electric Company (CA). The technology utilizes isothermal gas cycling coupled with staged hydraulic compression and expansion to deliver an efficient and cost-effective energy storage solution. Demonstration of Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level Applications.

2009 230

ARPA-E Awards $151M to 37 Projects for Transformative Energy Research

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Water (1 project). Eagle Picher, in partnership with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, will develop a new generation of high energy, low cost planar liquid sodium beta batteries for grid scale electrical power storage applications. The technology seeks to combine pyrolysis oil production, stabilization, and upgrading into one process, creating the potential to reduce the demand for imported oil and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by displacing fossil fuels with biofuels.

2009 204

Powertrains for the New Opel Astra

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Cam phasing is also an effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions, managing valve overlap at optimum levels to eliminate the need for a separate exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. The fuel injection system also features port deactivation under part load for improved exhaust gas recirculation, giving lower emissions and improved fuel consumption. Improved Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The 1.3-liter diesel CDTI for the Astra. Click to enlarge.

2009 184

Strong Global Sales for Chevrolet Cruze Prior to US Introduction; More Details on Its New Small-Displacement Engines

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Oil-water cooler. Sodium-filled exhaust valves are designed for the higher combustion temperatures of the turbo system. Cam phasing also eliminates the need for conventional exhaust gas recirculation, by optimizing the amount of exhaust gas in the combustion chamber. Oil-water heat exchanger. 2011 Ecotec 1.4L I-4 VVT Turbo (LUJ) for Chevrolet Cruze. Click to enlarge.

2010 217

US DOE Issues Request for Information on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Market Development; Reports to Congress on Program

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Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis has the potential to be a useful means of storing excess electricity generated using wind, solar, and other intermittent renewable energy. Biogas, including anaerobic digester gas, can be reformed to produce hydrogen and used in a fuel cell to produce significant amounts of electricity and heat. Approximately 90% of hydrogen in the United States is currently produced from natural gas via steam methane reforming.

2009 150

Japanese carmakers still ‘most sustainable’

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It provides a full account of the societal impacts of car production, including issues such as the volume of greenhouse gas emissions from production facilities and the number of work accidents recorded by a company. But GM‘s value contributions from carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sodium oxide emissions as well as waste generation are very negative during the period 1999 to 2007.

2009 34