Severe drought influences ozone pollution

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Drought conditions can have complicated effects on ozone air quality, so to better understand the process, researchers have analyzed data from two ozone-polluted cities before, during and after the California drought. Although ozone in the stratosphere protects the earth from ultraviolet radiation, at ground level the molecule is a harmful air pollutant to humans, animals and plants.

Ozone 188

Studies find global COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced PM2.5 and NO2 pollution, but ozone up

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Levels of two major air pollutants have been reduced significantly since lockdowns began in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, but a secondary pollutant—ground-level ozone—has increased in China, according to new research.

2020 259
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Harvard/Nanjing study: China’s war on PM2.5 pollution is causing more severe ozone pollution

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In early 2013, the Chinese government declared a war on air pollution and began instituting stringent policies to regulate the emissions of PM 2.5. Cities restricted the number of cars on the road, coal-fired power plants reduced emissions or were shuttered and replaced with natural gas. pollution is falling, harmful ground-level ozone pollution is on the rise, especially in large cities.

2019 224

Global study links daily exposure to ozone pollution to increased risk of death

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Daily exposure to ground level ozone in cities worldwide is associated with an increased risk of death, according to the largest study of its kind, published in an open-access paper in The BMJ.

2020 227

Study finds pollution emitted near equator has biggest impact on global ozone

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Since the 1980s, air pollution has increased worldwide, but it has increased at a much faster pace in regions close to the equator. They found that the increase in ozone burden due to the spatial distribution change slightly exceeds the combined influences of the increased emission magnitude and global methane. Based on their findings, they suggested that emission increases in Southeast, East and South Asia may be most important for the ozone change.

2016 203

Study quantifies impact of oil and gas emissions on Denver’s ozone problem

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The first peer-reviewed study to directly quantify how emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) activities influence summertime tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution in the Colorado Front Range confirms that chemical vapors from oil and gas activities are a significant contributor to the region’s chronic ozone problem. VOCs can come from both natural sources like trees and anthropogenic ones, like oil and gas activities. Emissions Health Natural Gas Oil

2016 150

TOAR shows present-day global ozone distribution and trends relevant to health; public database

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Ozone levels across much of North America and Europe dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. Even so, during 2010-2014, people in parts of California, Arizona, Colorado, Texas, the Midwest and the Middle Atlantic still experienced more than 15 days a year in which ozone levels exceeded the US health-based air quality standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb) averaged over eight hours. Trends in daily maximum ozone levels (known as 4MDA8) at urban and non-urban sites.

2018 220

Satellite method provides insight into ozone-NOx-VOCs sensitivity for different locations

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Ozone pollution near Earth’s surface is one of the main ingredients of summertime smog. It is also not directly measurable from space due to the abundance of ozone higher in the atmosphere, which obscures measurements of surface ozone. New NASA-funded research has devised a way to use satellite measurements of the precursor gases that contribute to ozone formation to differentiate among three different sets of conditions that lead to its production.

2017 150

Texas study finds PHEV use could increase ozone at night, decrease ozone during the day

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A study by researchers at the University of Texas found that in general, use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. In addition, the study, published in the IOP journal Environmental Research Letters , found that charging plug-in vehicles at night could slightly reduce, on average, ozone.

Ozone 195

Yale study finds asphalt a significant source of air pollution, especially on hot, sunny days

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A new study now finds that asphalt is a significant source of air pollutants in urban areas, especially on hot and sunny days. storage, paving, and use), common road and roofing asphalts produced complex mixtures of organic compounds, including hazardous pollutants.

2020 290

Study finds rising temperatures increase risk of unhealthy ozone levels absent sharp cuts in precursors

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Ozone pollution across the continental United States will become far more difficult to keep in check as temperatures rise, according to new work led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The study shows that Americans face the risk of a 70% increase in unhealthy summertime ozone levels by 2050, assuming continued greenhouse gas emissions with resultant significant warming (IPCC Scenario A2 and RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5.).

2014 183

Study estimates ~4M children worldwide develop asthma each year because of NO2 air pollution

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About 4 million children worldwide develop asthma each year because of inhaling nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) air pollution, according to an open-access study published in The Lancet Planetary Health by researchers at the George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH). Our findings suggest that millions of new cases of pediatric asthma could be prevented in cities around the world by reducing air pollution.

2019 290

Study: 25% EV adoption would save US $17B annually from avoided climate change & pollution damages

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A new study led by researchers from Northwestern University projects that if electric vehicles replaced 25% of combustion engine cars currently on the road, the United States would save approximately $17 billion annually by avoiding damages from climate change and air pollution. This highlights the potential of co-beneficial solutions to climate change that not only curb greenhouse gas emissions but also reduce the health burden of harmful air pollution.

California introduces first-in-nation rules to reduce climate “super pollutants” from commercial refrigeration, air conditioning equipment

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HFCs are synthetic gases that are used in a variety of applications, but mainly to replace ozone-depleting substances in aerosols, foams, refrigeration and air-conditioning. HFCs are considered to be super pollutants because they trap heat in the atmosphere thousands of times more effectively than carbon dioxide, the most prevalent greenhouse gas.

2020 237

Study Links Springtime Ozone Increases Above Western North America to Emissions in Asia

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Springtime ozone distributions for 1984, 1995–2008 in the mid-troposphere (3.0–8.0 Springtime ozone levels above western North America are rising primarily due to air flowing eastward from the Pacific Ocean, a trend that is largest when the air originates in Asia. These increases in ozone could make it more difficult for the United States to meet Clean Air Act standards for ozone pollution at ground level, according to a new international study.

Are Asian emissions to blame for US ozone levels?

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A new international study suggests that springtime ozone levels above western North America are rising mainly because of air flowing eastward from the Pacific Ocean – a trend at its largest when the air originates in Asia. This could even make it difficult for the US to meet Clean Air Act standards for ozone pollution.

Ozone 37

Toyota Central R&D Labs develops new ferrihydrite material that effectively removes ozone from air

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Japan) report in the journal Angewandte Chemie the development of a mesoporous two-line ferrihydrite (2LFh)—ferrihydrite is a widespread mineral composed of iron, oxygen, and water—that could lead to a new generation of ozone filters in electrostatic devices and aircraft applications. In ozone processes for water cleaning and odor removal, e.g. smoke from vehicle interiors, it could catch the unreacted O 3. Such isolated iron oxide units absorb ozone especially well.

2011 195

Modelling the Impact of PHEVs on Ozone in Denver

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Denver represents an interesting case study for exploring potential PHEV impacts because it violates the federal air quality standard for ozone and because several large EGUs [electricity generating units] are located in or near the urbanized area. The ozone response to PHEV penetration was modeled under a wide range of meteorological conditions, as experienced during July 2006. Ozone concentration increases were modeled for small areas near central Denver.

Denver 163

Using Ozone-Generated Bubbles to Remove Oil Sheen and Contaminants from Water

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A University of Utah engineer has developed an inexpensive new method to remove oil sheen by repeatedly pressurizing and depressurizing ozone gas, creating microscopic bubbles that attack the oil so it can be removed by sand filters. Hong says the method&mash;for which patents are pending—also could be used to clean a variety of pollutants in water and even soil, including: Produced water from oil and gas drilling sites on land.

2009 183

Researchers fully characterize reaction that affects ground-level ozone formation; a small but significant impact on predictive models

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The two combine in the atmosphere to make either nitric acid or peroxynitrous acid; the so-called branching ratio of these two chemicals is important in models of ozone production. has fully characterized a key chemical reaction that affects the formation of pollutants in smoggy air in urban areas. Until about the last decade, scientists thought these two compounds only combined to form nitric acid, a fairly stable molecule with a long atmospheric life that slows ozone formation.

2010 190

Fast action on black carbon, ozone and methane could help limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees C

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Fast action on pollutants such as black carbon, ground-level ozone and methane may help limit near term global temperature rise and significantly increase the chances of keeping temperature rise below 2 °C (3.6 °F)—and The proposed measures for reducing black carbon, methane and ozone levels in the atmosphere significantly increase our chances to keep global warming below dangerous levels during this century. of oil and natural gas.

2011 195

EEA report finds most Europeans in cities still exposed to levels of air pollution exceeding WHO guidelines

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The European Environment Agency’s (EEA’s) “ Air quality in Europe — 2019 report ” shows that almost all Europeans living in cities are still exposed to air pollution levels that exceed the health-based air quality guidelines (AQGs) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). 20 % of stations registered concentrations above the EU ozone (O 3 ) target value for the protection of human health.

2019 163

EPA proposes air pollution standards for oil and gas drilling operations; focus on capture of escaping natural gas

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed standards to reduce harmful air pollution from oil and gas drilling operations. The proposal would cut smog-forming volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from several types of processes and equipment used in the oil and gas industry, including a 95% reduction in VOCs emitted during the completion of new and modified hydraulically fractured wells.

2011 174

UNEP study: small number of measures targeting black carbon and tropospheric ozone could yield immediate climate benefits

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A small number of emissions reduction measures targeting black carbon (BC) and tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) could immediately begin to protect climate, public health, water and food security, and ecosystems, according to a study, Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone , newly released by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Black carbon and tropospheric ozone are harmful air pollutants that also contribute to climate change.

2011 195

California Air Resources Board posts revised draft of strategy to reduce “Super Pollutants”

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The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has posted a revised draft of California’s proposed Short-Lived Climate Pollutant (SLCP) Strategy. SLCPs are a category of pollutants which remain in the atmosphere for a relatively brief period, but have global warming potentials that are much higher than those of CO 2. The major sources of methane in California are livestock (~30% of the state’s methane emissions), followed by landfills and oil and gas production.

2016 200

Emissions of Air Pollutants down in EU-27

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The European Community’s air pollutant emission inventory report released by the European Environment Agency finds that in 2007, sulphur oxides (SO x ) emissions were down by 72 % from 1990 levels. The downward emission trend of three main pollutants which cause ground-level ozone continued in 2007: carbon monoxide (CO) fell by 57%, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were down by 47% and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) have dropped 36%.

2009 207

EPA releases national assessment of strategies to reduce air pollution at ports

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A new report from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finds that air pollution at US ports can be reduced significantly at all port types and sizes through a variety of strategies and cleaner technologies. Implementing these approaches, the report finds, would reduce greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions from diesel-powered ships, trucks and other port equipment.

2016 190

Study uncovers role of longer-chain unburned hydrocarbon emissions from diesels in London air pollution; calls for regulatory shift

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The study found that 60% of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity in London is from those diesel-related hydrocarbons; the authors predicted that the longer-chain HCs contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. The primary regulated air pollutants (criteria pollutants) are particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

2015 209

Study Finds Ozone, Nitrogen Change the Way Rising CO2 Affects Earths Water

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Through a recent modeling experiment, a team of NASA-funded researchers have found that future concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone in the atmosphere and of nitrogen in the soil are likely to have an important but overlooked effect on the cycling of water from sky to land to waterways. Plants consume carbon dioxide—a significant greenhouse gas—in the process of photosynthesis. Excess ground-level ozone harms the cells responsible for photosynthesis.

2009 174

California ARB soliciting research suggestions for FY 2012-2013 plan; sustainable communities, behavior, pollutant exposure, air pollution science, GHG targets

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The FY 2011-2012 plan focused primarily on five areas of interest: sustainable communities; behavior and technology adoption; health and air pollution exposures; air pollution science; and greenhouse gas targets. Development of sustainable communities strategies can also provide an opportunity for associated criteria pollutant emission reductions that will be needed to attain air quality standards for ozone and particulate matter as well as reduce near-roadway exposures.

2011 204

EPA Proposes Transport Rule to Cut Pollution from Power Plants in 31 States and DC; New Approach for Pollution Reduction

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The proposed Transport Rule sets in place a new approach that can and will be applied again as further pollution reductions are needed to help areas meet air quality health standards, EPA says. Air pollution can travel hundreds of miles and cause multiple health and environmental problems on regional or national scales, EPA noted in a presentation on the proposed rule. In the first alternative, EPA is proposing to set a pollution limit or budget for each state.

2010 195

ICCT finds growth in shipping in Arctic could increase pollutant emissions 150-600% by 2025 with current fuels

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At the current allowable levels of sulfur in marine bunker fuels, pollutant emissions (particulates, black carbon, NO x , SO x , and CO 2 ) from projected increased ship traffic transiting the US High Arctic could increase from 150% to 600% (depending upon the pollutant) above 2011 levels by 2025, according to a new working paper just published by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT).

2015 232

EPA proposes new heavy-duty truck emissions rules

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing new, stronger standards to promote clean air and reduce pollution from heavy-duty vehicles and engines starting in model year (MY) 2027. In 2045, the proposed Option 1 would result in total annual monetized ozone- and PM 2.5

EPA 354

California issues draft plan for more efficient, less polluting freight system

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The Draft Action Plan puts forward a single shared vision to improve the efficiency of California’s freight system while reducing its pollution, while continuing to bolster the competitiveness of California’s goods movement system nationally and internationally. Many of these pollutants are emitted in close proximity to communities and pose health risks to nearby residents, highlighting the need for additional steps to protect public health.

2016 150

Critical review finds actual measurement data on segments of natural gas lifecycle sparse or lacking

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After a critical review of the literature on the air impacts of increased natural gas acquisition, processing, and use, a team of US researchers has determined that that actual measurement data on various individual segments of the natural gas life cycle are sparse or critically lacking. National and state regulators primarily use generic emission inventories to assess the climate, air quality, and health impacts of natural gas systems.

2014 195

Report argues advanced HD natural gas vehicles foundational for California to hit air and climate goals; near zero-emission potential

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Five technology paths for very-low-NO x and GHG emissions from heavy-duty natural gas engines. The “Pathways to Near-Zero-Emission Natural Gas Heavy Duty Vehicles” report, authored by GNA on behalf of Southern California Gas Co. SoCalGas), showcases the technologies currently under development that could deliver near-zero-emission heavy-duty natural gas engines by the end of this decade. —“Pathways to Near-Zero-Emission Natural Gas Heavy-Duty Vehicles”.

2014 221

Pollution plumes in Paris air are richer in gaseous aromatic compounds than in LA; gasoline engines main source of VOCs

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The study also shows that the proportion of gaseous aromatic compounds—apart from benzene—in hydrocarbon emissions is two to three times greater in pollution plumes in Paris than in Los Angeles, even though the total quantity of hydrocarbons emitted in Los Angeles remains considerably greater than in Paris. times greater than in Los Angeles due to the greater overall volatile hydrocarbon pollution in the latter city.

2013 200

Low-lying and other vulnerable countries calling for fast action on non-CO2 global warming pollutants

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Led by the tiny Pacific island of the Federated States of Micronesia, a growing group of low-lying islands and other vulnerable countries are calling for fast action on the approximately 50% of global warming that is caused by pollutants other than carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Among the non-CO 2 pollutants are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), methane, tropospheric ozone, and black carbon soot. Reducing tropospheric ozone can improve public health as well as agricultural productivity.

2010 183

EPA proposes new standards to reduce methane and VOCs emissions from oil and gas industry

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its latest set of proposed standards to reduce emissions of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the oil and natural gas industry. Methane, the key constituent of natural gas, is a potent GHG with a global warming potential more than 25 times greater than that of carbon dioxide. The proposal also includes incentives to spur the oil and gas industry to minimize leaks.

2015 209

OptiFuel finalizing $2.6M DOE grant to demonstrate RNG hybrid line-haul locomotive

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million US Department of Energy (DOE) grant to demonstrate a pre-production Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) hybrid 4,300 hp line-haul locomotive. The pre-production locomotive will consume 83% natural gas with 20% improved efficiency versus Tier 4 diesel line-haul freight locomotives.

2020 227

EPA updates VOCs standards for oil and gas storage tanks

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued final updates to its 2012 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) performance standards for storage tanks used in crude oil and natural gas production and transmission. The oil and natural gas industry uses tanks for temporary storage of crude oil, condensate and other liquids, before those liquids are moved to a pipeline, sold or moved for disposal.

2013 174

Lancet Series Finds That Cutting Greenhouse Pollutants Will Have Major Direct Health Benefits Worldwide

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Carefully choosing how we reduce greenhouse gas emissions will have the added benefit of reducing global health inequities. Climate change due to emission of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel energy sources causes air pollution by increasing ground-level ozone and concentrations of fine particulate matter. The 10-year program could prevent 2 million premature deaths in India, he said, in addition to reducing greenhouse pollution by hundreds of millions of tons.

2009 190

California ARB and NOAA Collaborating in $20M Research on Interaction of Air Pollution and Climate Change; One Atmosphere Approach

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The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are collaborating in the $20-million CalNex research project to examine the nexus between air pollution and climate change. These connections arise because in many cases the agents of concern are the same, and in many cases the sources of the agents are the same or intimately connected.For example, surface ozone is both an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas.