Severe drought influences ozone pollution

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Drought conditions can have complicated effects on ozone air quality, so to better understand the process, researchers have analyzed data from two ozone-polluted cities before, during and after the California drought. Although ozone in the stratosphere protects the earth from ultraviolet radiation, at ground level the molecule is a harmful air pollutant to humans, animals and plants. Emissions

Ozone 184

York study: Less traffic in first UK lockdown reduced NO2 pollution but caused increase in surface ozone

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Less traffic on the roads during the first COVID-19 lockdown in the UK led to a reduction in air pollution but may have caused potentially damaging surface ozone levels to rise, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of York. COVID-19 Emissions Health

2020 325
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Studies find global COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced PM2.5 and NO2 pollution, but ozone up

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Levels of two major air pollutants have been reduced significantly since lockdowns began in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, but a secondary pollutant—ground-level ozone—has increased in China, according to new research. China COVID-19 Emissions

2020 254

Global study links daily exposure to ozone pollution to increased risk of death

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Daily exposure to ground level ozone in cities worldwide is associated with an increased risk of death, according to the largest study of its kind, published in an open-access paper in The BMJ. Emissions Health

2020 222

Harvard/Nanjing study: China’s war on PM2.5 pollution is causing more severe ozone pollution

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In early 2013, the Chinese government declared a war on air pollution and began instituting stringent policies to regulate the emissions of PM 2.5. Cities restricted the number of cars on the road, coal-fired power plants reduced emissions or were shuttered and replaced with natural gas. pollution is falling, harmful ground-level ozone pollution is on the rise, especially in large cities. Emissions Policy Regulations

2019 221

Study: ozone levels higher across China than in other countries tracking the air pollutant

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In China, people breathe ozone-laden air two to six times more often than people in the United States, Europe, Japan, or South Korea, according to a new international study published in Environmental Science & Technology Letters. By one metric—total number of days with daily maximum average ozone values (8-hour average) greater than 70 ppb—China had twice as many high ozone days as Japan and South Korea, three times more than the United States, and six times more than Europe.

2018 183

China study connects ozone pollution to cardiovascular health

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Exposure to ozone, long associated with impaired lung function, is also connected to health changes that can cause cardiovascular disease such as heart attack, high blood pressure and stroke, according to a new study of Chinese adults. The findings associated ozone exposure with markers of platelet activation and increased blood pressure. They monitored indoor and outdoor ozone levels, along with other pollutants. Emissions Health

Ozone 163

Study finds pollution emitted near equator has biggest impact on global ozone

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Since the 1980s, air pollution has increased worldwide, but it has increased at a much faster pace in regions close to the equator. They found that the increase in ozone burden due to the spatial distribution change slightly exceeds the combined influences of the increased emission magnitude and global methane. Based on their findings, they suggested that emission increases in Southeast, East and South Asia may be most important for the ozone change.

2016 199

Study finds COVID-19 lockdown in China brought only slight reduction in PM2.5 and ozone

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Large improvements of air quality in China during the lockdown have been widely reported, but new research shows that two pollutants harmful to human health—fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone—were only slightly reduced. China COVID-19 Emissions Health Market Background

2020 222

UB study finds link between ambient ozone exposure, artery wall thickness

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Long-term exposure to ambient ozone appears to accelerate arterial conditions that progress into cardiovascular disease and stroke, according to a new University at Buffalo study. The research is the first epidemiological study to provide evidence that ozone might advance subclinical arterial disease—injuries that occur to the artery walls prior to a heart attack or stroke—and provides insight into the relationship between ozone exposure and cardiovascular disease risk.

2019 253

Study associates acute exposure to higher ozone levels to higher risk of cardiac arrest

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Exposure to higher ozone concentrations in the air is significantly associated with a higher risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), according to preliminary research to be presented at the American Heart Association’s Resuscitation Science Symposium 2020. Previous studies have shown acute exposure to ozone and particulate matter in the air is associated with the development of chronic diseases. Emissions Health Regulations

2020 170

New statistical method to detect ozone pollution hot spots and monitor instrument failure; combining PCA and MEWMA

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A new statistical method developed by researchers at KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia) can detect abnormal ozone levels within large bodies of monitored data. The monitoring methods can quickly and accurately detect ozone anomalies—localized spikes in ozone concentration indicated by sensor data. Ozone is the reactive form of oxygen that contains three atoms per molecule (O 3 ) rather than the normal two. Emissions Health

2016 196

MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

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More than half of all air-quality-related early deaths in the United States are a result of emissions originating outside of the state in which those deaths occur, MIT researchers report in a paper in the journal Nature. Now it’s looking like other emissions sectors are becoming important.

2020 265

TOAR shows present-day global ozone distribution and trends relevant to health; public database

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Ozone levels across much of North America and Europe dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. Even so, during 2010-2014, people in parts of California, Arizona, Colorado, Texas, the Midwest and the Middle Atlantic still experienced more than 15 days a year in which ozone levels exceeded the US health-based air quality standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb) averaged over eight hours. Trends in daily maximum ozone levels (known as 4MDA8) at urban and non-urban sites.

2018 216

Study links ambient PM2.5 and ozone specifically caused by vehicle exhaust emissions to ~361,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010 and ~385,000 in 2015

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A new study provides the most detailed picture available to date of the global, regional, and local health impacts attributable to emissions from four transportation subsectors: on-road diesel vehicles; other on-road vehicles; shipping; and non-road mobile engines such as agricultural and construction equipment. and ozone deaths, associated mortality rates, and population in G20 economies in 2015. and ozone worldwide in 2010 and ~385,000 in 2015, equivalent to 11.7%

2019 201

New study puts air-pollution related deaths in India in 2019 at 1.67 million

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Air pollution in India resulted 1.67 million deaths in 2019—the largest pollution-related death toll in any country in the world—and also accounted for $36.8 billion (US) in economic losses, according to a new study led by researchers from the Global Observatory on Pollution and Health at Boston College, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Public Health Foundation of India. The 2019 death toll attributed to air pollution in India accounted for 17.8%

2020 260

CSIRO study finds ozone uptake in oceans much lower than previously thought

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CSIRO scientists have developed a new way to account for ozone in computer simulations of the climate. This latest modeling shows that the oceans take much less ozone out of the atmosphere than previously thought. Ozone (O 3 ) is formed by reactions of chemicals such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds—i.e., Ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane, in terms of potential for global warming.

2019 150

Study quantifies impact of oil and gas emissions on Denver’s ozone problem

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The first peer-reviewed study to directly quantify how emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) activities influence summertime tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution in the Colorado Front Range confirms that chemical vapors from oil and gas activities are a significant contributor to the region’s chronic ozone problem. em>That allows us to look at how oil and gas emissions are influencing ozone production ,” said McDuffie. Emissions Health Natural Gas Oi

Denver 150

EPA tightens ground-level ozone standard to 70 ppb

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issued its final rule revising the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone to 70 parts per billion (ppb) from 75 ppb to protect public health. Ground-level ozone forms when nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the air. EPA examined nearly 2,300 studies in this review of the ozone standards including more than 1,000 new studies published since the last review of the standards in 2008. Emissions Regulations

2015 195

Yale study finds asphalt a significant source of air pollution, especially on hot, sunny days

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Asphalt is a near-ubiquitous substance—it’s found in roads, on roofs and in driveways—but its chemical emissions rarely figure into urban air quality management plans. Asphalt’s life cycle and temperature-dependent emissions. (A) Emissions Market Background Materials

2020 284

EPA dissolves boards of pollution scientists

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The EPA has dismissed two panels of outside scientists that advised the agency on particulate matter and ground-level ozone, which have been linked to smog and respiratory problems. Under acting administrator Andrew Wheeler, a former coal-industry lobbyist, analyzing those pollutants will be left to the EPA's internal Clean Air Scientific Advisory. emissions EPA air pollution

2018 99

Study associates ozone exposure at birth to increased risk of developing asthma

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A long-term study of the health of Canadian children has found that exposure to ozone (O 3 ) at birth was associated with an 82% increased risk of developing asthma by age three. Our findings show that the hazard ratios for ozone measured at birth as a single pollutant showed statistically significant higher risks for development of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. This has significant implications for other countries that have higher levels of pollution.

2018 174

Large-scale study finds air pollution increases ER visits for breathing problems; rate depends on age, pollutant and lung disease

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As levels of ozone and fine particulate pollution (PM 2.5 ) rise, more patients end up in the ER with breathing problems, according to the largest US study of air pollution and respiratory emergency room visits of patients of all ages. In “Age-specific Associations of Ozone and PM 2.5 Ozone, the main ingredient of smog, and fine particulate pollution, microscopic particles that penetrate deep into the lung, are two important forms of air pollution in the US.

2019 203

Study links air pollution to increased emergency department visits for heart and lung disease

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New research by George Mason University found that exposure to certain air pollutants is linked to increased emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. They found that exposure to pollutants such as ground-level ozone and nitrogen oxides, which are created from burning fossil fuels, led to increased ED visits. We estimated associations between twelve ambient air pollutants of both primary (e.g. Emissions Health

2018 285

Satellite method provides insight into ozone-NOx-VOCs sensitivity for different locations

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Ozone pollution near Earth’s surface is one of the main ingredients of summertime smog. It is also not directly measurable from space due to the abundance of ozone higher in the atmosphere, which obscures measurements of surface ozone. New NASA-funded research has devised a way to use satellite measurements of the precursor gases that contribute to ozone formation to differentiate among three different sets of conditions that lead to its production.

2017 150

EPHA: Coronavirus threat greater for polluted cities; clean air returning to cities in lockdown

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Those living in polluted cities are more at risk from COVID-19, the European Public Health Alliance (EPHA) warned today. Air pollution can cause hypertension, diabetes and respiratory diseases, conditions that doctors are starting to link to higher mortality rates for COVID-19.

2020 240

Study: 25% EV adoption would save US $17B annually from avoided climate change & pollution damages

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A new study led by researchers from Northwestern University projects that if electric vehicles replaced 25% of combustion engine cars currently on the road, the United States would save approximately $17 billion annually by avoiding damages from climate change and air pollution. Vehicle electrification in the United States could prevent hundreds to thousands of premature deaths annually while reducing carbon emissions by hundreds of millions of tons.

Study estimates ~4M children worldwide develop asthma each year because of NO2 air pollution

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About 4 million children worldwide develop asthma each year because of inhaling nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) air pollution, according to an open-access study published in The Lancet Planetary Health by researchers at the George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH). Our findings suggest that millions of new cases of pediatric asthma could be prevented in cities around the world by reducing air pollution. Emissions Health

2019 290

EPA proposes tightening primary ozone standards to range of 65-70 ppb; final rule by October 2015

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Counties where measured ozone is above proposed range of standards, based on 2011-2013 monitoring data. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing tightening the ground-level 8-hour ozone (O 3 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to within a range of 65 to 70 parts per billion (ppb), while taking comments on a level as low as 60 ppb. EPA will issue final ozone standards by 1 October 2015. Emissions Regulations

2014 229

Congressman introduces “Super Pollutant” emissions act

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US Congressman Scott Peters (CA-52) introduced the Super Pollutant Emissions Reduction Act (SUPER Act) of 2013, legislation aimed at combating short-lived climate pollutants, which are only somewhat addressed by disparate government programs. The short-lived climate pollutants (also called super pollutants) include black carbon, a primary component of soot; tropospheric ozone, the principle component of urban smog; methane; and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

2013 179

Texas study finds PHEV use could increase ozone at night, decrease ozone during the day

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A study by researchers at the University of Texas found that in general, use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. In addition, the study, published in the IOP journal Environmental Research Letters , found that charging plug-in vehicles at night could slightly reduce, on average, ozone.

Ozone 191

Satellite data show resurgence in NO2 emissions over China

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Data from the ESA’s Tropomi (TROPOspheric Monitoring) instrument on board the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite shows the variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) emissions over China from December to March. Behavior China Emissions Health Market Background Policy

2020 377

California introduces first-in-nation rules to reduce climate “super pollutants” from commercial refrigeration, air conditioning equipment

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HFCs are synthetic gases that are used in a variety of applications, but mainly to replace ozone-depleting substances in aerosols, foams, refrigeration and air-conditioning. HFCs are considered to be super pollutants because they trap heat in the atmosphere thousands of times more effectively than carbon dioxide, the most prevalent greenhouse gas. California is required to reduce HFC emissions 40% below 2013 levels by 2030 under Senate Bill 1383.

2020 235

CARB, NOAA, NASA and San Jose State University scientists team up to study ozone transported across Pacific

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As California continues to reduce local sources of ozone, ozone entering the state from the Pacific makes up a larger fraction of measured ozone levels. Current ozone levels in the San Joaquin Valley are predominantly caused by local emissions, but as air quality standards become lower, any contribution from global ozone levels needs to be understood. Emissions Regulations

Study: surface ozone in India in 2005 damaged 6M tonnes of crops, enough to feed 94M people in poverty

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Ozone, the main component of smog, is a plant-damaging pollutant formed by emissions from vehicles, cooking stoves and other sources. New research shows that ozone pollution damaged millions of tons of wheat, rice, soybean and cotton crops in India in 2005. Surface ozone pollution in India damaged 6 million metric tons (6.7 Rising emissions are causing severe ozone pollution in some of India’s most populated regions.

2014 205

Obama Administration withdraws proposed rulemaking on strengthened ozone standards

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In a statement released this morning, President Barack Obama said he has requested that US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa Jackson withdraw the agency’s draft Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) rulemaking. In January 2010, EPA proposed strengthening the NAAQS for ground-level ozone, the main component of smog, and said it planned to issue final standards by 31 August 2010. Overview of January 2010 proposed revisions to ozone NAAQS.

Ozone 219

Study Links Springtime Ozone Increases Above Western North America to Emissions in Asia

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Springtime ozone distributions for 1984, 1995–2008 in the mid-troposphere (3.0–8.0 Springtime ozone levels above western North America are rising primarily due to air flowing eastward from the Pacific Ocean, a trend that is largest when the air originates in Asia. These increases in ozone could make it more difficult for the United States to meet Clean Air Act standards for ozone pollution at ground level, according to a new international study.

HEI study finds no heart effects of ozone exposure in healthy older adults; lungs affected at relatively low exposures

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The largest systematic study ever conducted of human volunteers exposed to ozone air pollution has found no evidence of effects on the heart in its healthy, older participants, but did find effects on the volunteers’ ability to breathe, even at low ambient levels. HEI Research Report 192 , Multicenter Ozone Study in oldEr Subjects (MOSES): Part 1. Possible pathways by which ozone may cause adverse health effects. Emissions Health

2017 150

Study finds rising temperatures increase risk of unhealthy ozone levels absent sharp cuts in precursors

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Ozone pollution across the continental United States will become far more difficult to keep in check as temperatures rise, according to new work led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The study shows that Americans face the risk of a 70% increase in unhealthy summertime ozone levels by 2050, assuming continued greenhouse gas emissions with resultant significant warming (IPCC Scenario A2 and RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5.).

2014 179

Study associates long-term exposure to air pollution with increasing emphysema

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Long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants, especially O 3 (ozone), is significantly associated with increasing emphysema, according to a new study led by the University of Washington, Columbia University and the University at Buffalo. We were surprised to see how strong air pollution’s impact was on the progression of emphysema on lung scans, in the same league as the effects of cigarette smoking, which is by far the best-known cause of emphysema. Emissions Health

2019 195

Study finds that current approach to limiting wintertime pollution may initially backfire

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The processes that create ozone pollution in the summer can also trigger the formation of wintertime air pollution, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder and NOAA, in partnership with the University of Utah. The team’s unexpected finding, published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters , suggests that in the US West and elsewhere, certain efforts to reduce harmful wintertime air pollution could backfire. Emissions

2019 195

Study: air pollution causes 800,000 extra deaths a year in Europe and 8.8 million worldwide

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Air pollution could be causing double the number of excess deaths a year in Europe than has been estimated previously, according to a study published in the European Heart Journal. Using a new method of modeling the effects of various sources of outdoor air pollution on death rates, the researchers found that it caused an estimated 790,000 extra deaths in the whole of Europe in 2015 and 659,000 deaths in the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU-28). and ozone.

2019 235

PM2.5, O3 pollution associated with development of Alzheimer’s disease; new study identifies evolving axonal damage

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and ozone at or above the current standards have been linked to neuroinflammation and high risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). suggesting long-term exposure to PM 2.5 , as well as ozone above the current US EPA standards, are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) is an example of extreme urban growth and serious environmental pollution; millions of children are involuntarily exposed to harmful concentrations of PM 2.5

2018 258