EIA: trends in downsized engine design leading to increased demand for higher-octane gasoline

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Since 2013, the share of premium gasoline in total motor gasoline sales in the US has steadily increased to 11.3% This trend of increasing demand for higher octane gasoline is likely driven by changes in fuel requirements for light-duty vehicles (LDV) in response to increasing fuel economy standards, which will have widespread implications for future gasoline markets, according to EIA analysts. One significant trend is engine downsizing coupled with turbocharging.

2016 163

Split injection Miller cycle with boost decreases knock tendency and increases torque in downsized engine

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Researchers at Tianjin University in China report that combing split injection to the Miller cycle with boost pressure can effectively decrease the knock tendency and increase the engine torque in a downsized spark-ignition engine. The current development of downsized spark ignition (SI) engines with boost pressure is a proven way of increasing the thermal efficiency and reducing CO 2 emissions. Engines Fuel Efficiency

2018 174
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New Efficient Supercharger with Variable Drive for Downsized Gasoline Engines

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Turbo lag can become increasingly intrusive as engines get smaller. Superchargers are mechanically geared to enhance performance at either low or high engine speeds. The Rotrak solution overcomes this constraint by connecting the supercharger to the engine by a compact variable drive, allowing efficient operation across the whole engine speed range. The need to reduce CO 2 emissions is leading to downsized engines, heavily boosted by turbo- or supercharging.

New lightweight aluminum piston from Federal-Mogul enables further downsizing of gasoline engines

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Federal-Mogul Corporation has developed a lightweight, high-strength aluminium piston that enables engine manufacturers to increase the power density and efficiency of boosted, direct injected gasoline engines. Specific power outputs in engines are likely to increase from current levels of around 95 kW/L to 130 kW/L to coming years. Baberg, chief engineer product engineering, Federal-Mogul Powertrain Energy. Engines Fuel Efficiency Manufacturing

Torotrak to present extreme engine downsizing solution at Dresden supercharging conference

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At the 21 st Supercharging Conference in Dresden next week, Torotrak Group will present results from engine testing that verify previous claims for V-Charge, a variable drive mechanical supercharger. GTDI engine, V-Charge achieved improved BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption), better transient performance and a maximum BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) of 31 bar. 3-cylinder Ecoboost engine has similar performance to a 1.5L Engines Fuel Efficiency

2016 163

Cummins progressing with lightweight downsized T2B2 diesel for pickup; 40% improvement in fuel economy over gasoline V8

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Cummins reports that it, along with partners Johnson Matthey and Nissan, is on plan in a 4-year, $30-million ($15 million from the US Department of Energy) research project to deliver a light-duty diesel engine with fuel economy 40% improved over that of baseline gasoline V8 engine for a half-ton pickup truck while also meeting the requirements of US Tier2 Bin2 tailpipe emissions. Cost of the new engine relative to gasoline baseline.

2014 286

Volvo to concentrate on hybrids and downsized engines for US

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Volvo Car Corporation will rely on a powertrain strategy based on its new downsized 4-cylinder VEA (Volvo Environmental Architecture) engine platform ( earlier post ) and hybrids for the US market, said John Maloney, recently appointed President of Volvo Cars, US, in an interview at the Detroit Auto Show. The direction for the US was underscored by the unveiling of the XC60 gasoline-electric Plug-in Hybrid Concept at the show. Engines Hybrids Plug-ins

Ricardo to assist Lifan in development of 1.2L turbocharged DI gasoline engines for downsizing applications

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Ricardo will assist Lifan Automobile Group based in Chongqing, China, with the development of a family of highly downsized gasoline engines capable of meeting future Chinese and international fuel economy and emissions regulations. Under the new contract, which follows on collaboration between the two companies over the past five years, two new engines will be developed based on a common 1.2L

Achates OPGCI project targeting 50% fuel efficiency gains over downsized GDI engine at reduced cost

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Achates Power will work with Delphi Automotive and Argonne National Laboratory on its ARPA-E-funded project to develop an innovative opposed-piston, gasoline compression ignition (OPGCI) engine. The engine should yield fuel efficiency gains of more than 50% compared to a downsized, turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine, while reducing the overall cost of the powertrain system, said Fabien Redon, Vice President, Technology Development at Achates Power.

2015 163

Testing confirms Torotrak V-Charge variable drive mechanical supercharger enables more ambitious downsizing; 1.0L demo at Aachen

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Independent on-engine test results have verified the simulation predictions that a Torotrak V-Charge variable drive mechanical supercharger enables more ambitious levels of engine downsizing. GTDI engine producing 240 N·m torque, a 1.0L GTDI engine of the same Ford EcoBoost family outperformed the 1.5L EcoBoost engine, in a part-government funded program. GTDI engine, which in production form is fitted with a single fixed geometry turbocharger.

2016 229

Hyundai showcasing new downsized turbo engines and 7-speed dual-clutch transmission; i40 48V Hybrid, i30 CNG

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New engines and transmission. Hyundai Motor is showcasing two new turbocharged gasoline direct injected (T-GDI) engines at the Paris Motor Show 2014. Both engines—1.0-liter and 1.4-liter units which are part of a new generation of engines from the Kappa family—meet growing demand for small capacity, turbocharged engines to reduce fuel consumption and CO 2 emission without compromising performance. Kappa 1.4-liter T-GDI engine.

2014 205

ICCT-led analysis of turbocharged, downsized engine tech finds lower costs and greater benefits than 2012 EPA/NHTSA analysis; 48V, e-boost, Miller

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A new white paper published by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), in collaboration with Eaton, Ricardo, JCI, BorgWarner, Honeywell, and the ITB Group, analyzes current turbocharged, downsized gasoline engine technology developments and trends. Since then, innovations in vehicle technologies have come rapidly, enabled by computer-aided design tools and electronic engine controls. 48V Emissions Engines Fuel Efficiency Vehicle Systems

2016 205

Study finds catalyzed gasoline particulate filters effective at reducing particulate and PAH emissions from GDI engines

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A new study by researchers at the Bourns College of Engineering, University of California, Riverside (UCR) and colleagues at the Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association (MECA) has found that catalyzed gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are effective not only at reducing particulate mass, black carbon, and total and solid particle number emissions in gasoline direct injection engines (GDI) but also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs.

2018 219

Volvo introducing new downsized 4-cylinder engine range, with fuel economy improvements up to 35%; hybrid and flywheel drive systems

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The Volvo Car Corporation is introducing a new, downsized engine range consisting solely of four-cylinder gasoline and diesel engines. The upcoming four-cylinder VEA (Volvo Environmental Architecture) engine range includes common rail diesels and direct injected gasoline engines. The new VEA engines reduce the number of unique parts by 60%. Batteries Engines

2011 227

Simulation study finds “Millerizing” the Scuderi split-cycle engine could enable 50% engine downsizing with retention of power and torque, along with reduced fuel consumption

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Simulation study finds Miller version of Scuderi engine can deliver twice the BMEP as naturally aspirated version, theoretically enabling 50% downsizing while maintaining performance. In a naturally aspirated conventional engine, this would result in a loss of BMEP, but an increase in thermal efficiency. Applying the Miller cycle to the Scuderi engine (right) entails downsizing of the compression cylinder. Engines Fuel Efficiency

2012 218

Honda develops VTEC Turbo direct injection gasoline engine family, including 1.0L 3-cylinder unit

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L 3-cylinder direct injection gasoline turbo engine. announced that it has newly developed the VTEC Turbo, a direct injection gasoline turbo engine family most suitable for small-to-medium-sized vehicles. engines: 2.0L 4-cylinder direct injection gasoline turbo engine. L 4-cylinder direct injection gasoline turbo engine / 1.0 L 3-cylinder direct injection gasoline turbo engine. Engines

2013 219

Tsinghua studies on alcohol-gasoline dual fuel engines show fuel efficiency and particle number benefits

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Researchers at Tsinghua University in China are studying the effects of Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition (DFSI) combustion fueled with different alcohols and gasoline. In one paper, published in the journal Fuel , they investigated the use of alcohols–gasoline DFSI Combustion for knock suppression and high fuel efficiency using a gasoline engine with high compression ratio. Alcohols are promising alternative fuels for internal combustion engines.

2015 192

DOE: gasoline direct injection engine technology showing very rapid adoption; 48.5% market share after 9 years

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Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology has seen very rapid adoption in the US since its first significant use, according to data gathered by the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Many auto manufacturers have used the combined benefits of GDI and turbocharging for increasing power output from downsized engines. Engines Fuel Efficiency Market Background

2017 150

Promising Delphi 1st-gen Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition engine meeting ultra fuel efficient program targets

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Researchers at Delphi Powertrain, in collaboration with colleagues at Hyundai Motor, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Wisconsin Engine Research Consultants (WERC), have developed a first-generation multi-cylinder Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine, based on several years of extensive simulations and single-cylinder engine tests. The engine operates “full time” over the entire operating map with partially premixed compression ignition.

2014 249

Study Finds Strong Synergy Between Spark Ignition Engine Downsizing and Low-to-Moderate Alcohol Blend Fuels

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A study by engineers from Mahle Powertrain Ltd and BP found strong synergy between spark ignition (SI) engine downsizing and fuel containing low-to-moderate amounts of alcohol, including ethanol and butanol. The researchers found that the combination of technologies allowed improvements in fuel economy over the engine drive cycle. A Study of Gasoline-Alcohol Blended Fuels in an Advanced Turbocharged DISI Engine. (

Concept: Downsized and Supercharged Hybrid Pneumatic Engine for 30%+ Reduction in Fuel Consumption

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Schematic of downsized and supercharged four-stroke hybrid pneumatic spark injection engine. Researchers at ETH Zürich, with partners Robert Bosch GmbH, Wenko Swissauto and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy are developing a downsized and supercharged hybrid pneumatic engine that they say can deliver a fuel consumption reduction of more than 30% compared to a standard engine with the same rated power. The engine has a compression ratio of 9.0,

2009 163

Volkswagen Group to begin equipping TSI and TFSI engines with gasoline particulate filters from June 2017

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The Volkswagen Group will begin equipping the Group’s new TSI and TFSI gasoline direct injection engines with gasoline particulate filters (GPF). liter TSI engine in the new VW Tiguan and the Audi A5 in June 2017. This will reduce particulate emissions from the direct injection gasoline engines by up to 90%. From the regulatory point of view, gasoline particulate limit compliance can be achieved either by the engine or with GPFs.

2016 150

Volvo Cars well along with 3-cylinder gasoline engine development program; prototype testing underway

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Volvo Car’s 3-cylinder gasoline engine. Volvo Cars confirmed its production program to develop a lightweight 3-cylinder Drive-E gasoline engine. The engine, wholly developed in Sweden, will join the company’s 4-cylinder Drive-E engines ( earlier post ). Volvo has a long history of developing its own unique 6-, 5- and 4-cylinder engines and in-house expertise. Volvo Cars’ new three-cylinder engine. Engines

2014 199

HyBoost demonstrator debuts at LCV2011; 50% by swept volume downsizing with low-cost electrification

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The HyBoost project vehicle was revealed for the first time today at the Cenex Low Carbon Vehicle 2011 event hosted at Rockingham, UK, demonstrating a combination of high-impact, low-cost electrical systems which offer the prospect of radical engine downsizing using electric supercharger and energy capture and storage technologies within an otherwise conventional gasoline powertrain architecture. naturally aspirated four-cylinder gasoline engine has been replaced with a 1.0L

Audis Downsized 1.2L TFSI for the A3 and A3 Sportback

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Audi has introduced a new low-displacement turbocharged gasoline engine in the A3 model line. TFSI engine generates 77 kW (105 hp), with fuel consumption of 5.5 Downsizing entails the replacement of engine displacement with turbocharging. Turbocharging and direct gasoline injection facilitate a compression ratio of 10.0:1. This engine’s low weight of 89.5 A typical turbocharged engine, this small four-cylinder unit operates at low rpms.

Federal-Mogul lean tool steel offers an easily-machined, durable, valve seat material for downsizing and alt-fuel engine demands

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Federal-Mogul Corporation has developed a cost-effective new material for valve seat inserts that helps manufacturers meet the durability demands of engine downsizing and alternative or high-octane blended fuels. The company says that its lean tool steel powder metal is more efficient to machine than conventional alloys, allowing faster throughput and improved productivity on customers’ engine cylinder head production lines. Engines Materials

2010 170

ExxonMobil, Corning and Toyota develop onboard membrane system to separate gasoline into octane fractions to optimize engine efficiency and performance

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ExxonMobil, Corning and Toyota have collaborated to develop an Onboard Separation System (OBS) to optimize gasoline engine efficiency and performance. OBS is a membrane-based process that separates gasoline into higher and lower octane fractions—essentially creating a dual fuel system from a single base fuel—allowing optimal use of fuel components based on engine requirements. to 3 g/s gasoline to about 140-160 ?C

2014 258

Brunel engineers optimizing CAI combustion in 2-stroke camless gasoline DI engine

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Operating range of 2-stroke CAI fueled with gasoline, E10 and E85. Researchers at Brunel University in the UK, led by Professor Hua Zhao, Head of Mechanical Engineering and Director, Centre for Advanced Powertrain and Fuels (CAPF), are investigating optimizing the performance of controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion in a four-valve camless gasoline direct injection engine running in a two-stroke cycle. Emissions Engines Fuel Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion

2014 170

New Delphi Technologies 500+ bar GDi system cuts gasoline particulate emissions by up to 50%, reduces fuel consumption

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In a paper presented at the 2019 Vienna Motor Symposium this week, Delphi Technologies will unveil a new 500+ bar GDi system that can reduce particulate emissions by up to 50% compared to state-of-the-art 350 bar system without expensive engine design modifications. Reducing engine-out emissions cuts tailpipe emissions in the crucial period before catalyst light-off and reduces the need for costly aftertreatment systems. Emissions Engines

2019 218

Volkswagen Emphasizes Downsizing at 30th Vienna Engine Symposium; Highlights 1.2 TSI and 1.6 TDI

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Continuing to emphasize a downsizing approach, Volkswagen presented two new engines at the at the 30 th Vienna Engine Symposium (7-8 May): the 1.2-liter TSI gasoline engine and the 1.6-liter TDI diesel. Both engines will be available to order for the new Polo and the Golf this year. Due to its modular structure, the 1.6-liter TDI engine will serve as a basis for all future four-cylinder diesel engines of Volkswagen. The new 1.6-liter TDI.

2009 150

PSA to commercialize SwRI-developed Dedicated-EGR technology in high-efficiency gasoline engines by 2018

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During its recent Innovation Day presentations ( earlier post ), PSA Peugeot Citroën announced that it will commercialize high-efficiency gasoline engines featuring dedicated exhaust gas recirculation (D-EGR), derived from a collaborative program with SwRI in the US. The new engines, due to be available in PSA vehicles by 2018, will consume 10% less fuel than their predecessors across all uses, according to PSA. PSA concept D-EGR engine. Engines Fuel Efficiency

2013 225

Opel presents new midsize gasoline engine at Aachen Colloquium; fuel consumption down 13%, torque and power up 33%

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SIDI engine. Opel revealed more details about its new mid-size gasoline engine family at the Aachen Colloquium in Germany. The all-new 1.6-liter, four-cylinder, SIDI (spark ignition direct injection) ECOTEC Turbo engines, which begin Opel’s renewal of its powertrain portfolio, deliver improved fuel consumption, performance and refinement. The new engine family comprises a 1.6 Two different pistons have been designed for the Eco and Performance Turbo engines.

2012 280

HyBoost concept achieving close to Prius-level CO2 emissions; aggressive downsizing with advanced boosting and micro-hybrid system

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version of its vehicle (a 2009 Ford Focus) but with fuel economy and CO 2 emissions approaching those of a Prius, according to David Boggs, Ricardo Technical Specialist, Engines, in a presentation at the recent 2011 Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research Conference (DEER) hosted by the Department of Energy in Detroit. Downsizing the 2.0-liter base engine to a 1-liter, boosted direct injection (EcoBoost) engine delivers up to a 25% reduction.

2011 199

BorgWarner expanding variable cam timing technology for I4 engines; OEM diesel and gasoline applications in 2015

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New cam phaser for I4 engine. BorgWarner is expanding its variable cam timing (VCT) technology with a new family of cam phasers for inline-4 engines. The technology is planned to launch with a major global automaker on diesel and gasoline applications in 2015. the engine is running, VCT gives the engine designer added flexibility over a conventional fixed timing drive system. EnginesClick to enlarge.

2012 200

Mazdas new SKYACTIV gasoline and diesel engines are steps on the road to its Ideal Engine; focus on compression ratio

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Mazda’s roadmap to the ideal internal combustion engine. Mazda Motor Corporation’s SKYACTIV next-generation technologies—including engines, transmissions, vehicle bodies and chassis, launched in 2010 ( earlier post )—represent the first key building blocks for the company in achieving its “Sustainable Zoom-Zoom” strategy, which initially calls for a 30% increase in fuel efficiency (compared to 2008 levels) for all Mazda vehicles offered worldwide by 2015.

2011 262

New Delphi 500+ bar GDi system cuts particulates by up to 50% without engine changes

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Building off its 350 bar GDi (Gasoline Direct Injection) system, Delphi Technologies has developed a 500+ bar GDi system that can reduce particulate emissions by up to 50% without expensive engine re-designs for the majority of applications. With an innovative new sealing system and a new, downsized plunger, Delphi Technologies’ high-efficiency fuel pump delivers the increased pressures needed without increasing the load on the on the engine’s camshaft.

2019 195

Volkswagen introduces new 1L, 3-cylinder gasoline Golf; 54.7 mpg

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mpg US) (99 g/km CO 2 )—more efficient than any previous Golf with a gasoline engine. The new TSI engine also offers the highest specific torque of any large-scale production series gasoline engines: 200 N·m per liter displacement. Despite its efficiency, the Golf TSI BlueMotion with the 85 kW / 114 hp downsized 999 cc EA211-series engine reaches 100 km/h in 9.7 engine) introduced in 1975. Engine versions with 1.0,

2015 228

Ricardo extends work with Lifan for new turbo gasoline direct injection engine

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In a further extension of Ricard’s collaboration with the Lifan Automobile Group based in Chongqing, China, the company will assist in the development of a new turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. The new engine will achieve both China stage 3 fuel consumption and Euro 6 emissions regulations, offering the potential of application in both the Chinese and international markets. The new engine will fulfill a range of product applications for Lifan.

2012 191

DENSO develops compact EGR cooler for gasoline engines; applied in Prius c

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DENSO Corporation has developed its first EGR cooler for gasoline engines. As OEs around the world look to downsize engines to help meet the increasingly stringent regulations, EGR systems are becoming more necessary to optimize the powertrain combustion process and improve fuel economy. Because there is limited space in the engine compartment, an emphasis on size reduction is a major factor in developing EGR systems. Engines Fuel Efficiency

2012 200

Peugeot 208 features new generation of 3-cylinder gasoline and Stop & Start System (e-HDi) diesel engines

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The new Peugeot 208 B-segment supermini, which launches this spring in Europe, will be available in 3- and 5-door bodystyles with a range of gasoline and diesel engines including a new 3-cylinder gasoline engine range and the latest generation of Stop & Start System (e-HDi) diesel engines. The 208 also introduces a new range of 3-cylinder gasoline engines, 1.0- New generation of 3-cylinder engines. 208 gasoline range. 5-door 208.

2012 204

VW Premieres New Polo GTI; Textbook Downsizing Results in 25% Reduction in Fuel Consumption from Predecessor

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The new Polo GTI, in what Volkswagen is calling “textbook downsizing”, is powered by a new 1.4-liter TSI with gasoline direct injection plus turbo- and supercharging. The engine, which delivers 132 kW (177 hp), is coupled with a 7-speed DSG as standard. The 177 hp Euro-5 16-valve four-cylinder engine reaches its maximum power at 6,200 rpm. Tags: Engines Fuel Efficiency The new Volkswagen Polo GTI. Click to enlarge. Volkswagen is premiering the new Polo GTI.

Consumer Reports survey shows high fuel costs cause downsizing, less driving; 73% would consider alt fuel vehicle

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While gasoline costs were the number one reason cited for wanting a more fuel-efficient vehicle (at 90%), more than half of respondents also had other reasons, including a desire to be more environmentally friendly (62%) and concern about the nation’s dependence on foreign oil (56%). Of those who said they plan to move to a different type, owners of large SUVs were the most open to downsizing, frequently planning to move to a smaller SUV.

2012 179

Citroën introduces first members of new 3-cylinder gasoline engine family; 1.0L and 1.2L PureTech reduce fuel consumption about 25%

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PureTech 3-cylinder engine. Citroën is introducing the first members of its new PureTech family of three-cylinder gasoline engines on the C3, DS3 and C-Elysée (for international markets) ranges. The PureTech engines offer equivalent or better power compared with the previous generation powerplants, combined with significantly lower fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, down by roughly 25%. This technology also helps to reduce engine noise. Engines

2012 235