EIA: trends in downsized engine design leading to increased demand for higher-octane gasoline

Green Car Congress

One significant trend is engine downsizing coupled with turbocharging. Turbochargers work by using a turbine driven off the exhaust gas to pressurize the intake air. Since 2013, the share of premium gasoline in total motor gasoline sales in the US has steadily increased to 11.3%

2016 20

Achates OPGCI project targeting 50% fuel efficiency gains over downsized GDI engine at reduced cost

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The engine should yield fuel efficiency gains of more than 50% compared to a downsized, turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine, while reducing the overall cost of the powertrain system, said Fabien Redon, Vice President, Technology Development at Achates Power.

2015 39

Trending Sources

Cummins progressing with lightweight downsized T2B2 diesel for pickup; 40% improvement in fuel economy over gasoline V8

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Cummins made extensive use of aluminium as well as space-saving design features for new engine weight control. Exhaust system configuration.

2014 32

Simulation study finds “Millerizing” the Scuderi split-cycle engine could enable 50% engine downsizing with retention of power and torque, along with reduced fuel consumption

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Simulation study finds Miller version of Scuderi engine can deliver twice the BMEP as naturally aspirated version, theoretically enabling 50% downsizing while maintaining performance. Applying the Miller cycle to the Scuderi engine (right) entails downsizing of the compression cylinder.

Aeristech develops advanced 12V electric supercharger

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Designed to provide transient boost to support traditional mechanical forced induction systems, the 12V architecture enables the system to be integrated into existing driveline technologies. The car’s downsized 1.2

2016 46

FEV to Display Extremely Downsized Engine at 2010 SAE World Congress

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FEV’s 698 cm 3 Extremely Downsized Engine. will show its Extremely Downsized Engine (EDE) at next week’s 2010 SAE World Congress in Detroit. FEV engineers also integrated independent, fully-variable intake and exhaust cam phasing using components from Mahle and Hydraulik Ring.

Hyundai showcasing new downsized turbo engines and 7-speed dual-clutch transmission; i40 48V Hybrid, i30 CNG

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To keep the engine unit as small as possible, the exhaust manifold is integrated within the cylinder head and can therefore be cooled efficiently using the cylinder head water cooling system. The new 1.4-liter T-GDI engine incorporates a high-pressure single-scroll turbocharger integrated within the exhaust manifold to improve operational efficiency. The new design injects fuel directly inside the cylinder, improving combustion rates for better power and fuel efficiency.

Controlled Power Technologies Packages Its Switched Reluctance Systems in ‘RegEnBoost’ System for Enhanced Support for Downsizing

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Power for the battery and VTES electric supercharger is not only supplied by the SpeedStart ISG but also the TIGERS exhaust driven turbo-generator. They have also designed a 100 mpg UK (83 mpg US, 2.8 The three components of the RegEnBoost system. Click to enlarge.

ICCT: 2025 target average of 70 g/km CO2 for new cars in EU feasible and economical; more so with electric drive

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A 2025 CO 2 target of an average 70 g/km for new cars in the EU could be met with very little electrification and with an average payback period of less than 4 years, according to a new study by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT).

2016 42

Porsche presents more efficient Gen 2 919 Hybrid LMP1 racer for 2015

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Although the basic concept of the Class 1 Le Mans Prototype (LMP1)— a downsized turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine and two different energy recovery systems—was retained in the second generation, virtually every component was refined.

2015 30

Daimler Trucks NA SuperTruck achieves 115% freight efficiency improvement over 2009 baseline; 50.2% engine BTE

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The Freightliner SuperTruck uses a downsized and downsped 10.7-liter engine, a hybrid system, a Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system, along with a number of other upgrades. The aftertreatment system features additional insulation to retain maximum heat energy in the exhaust.

2015 66

FEV analysis of automotive-scale Pinnacle opposed-piston engine finds potential for significant increases in fuel economy

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The design merits continued development for automotive application. The fuel economy study, using GT Power, encompassed both a naturally aspirated 1.5-liter, 3-cylinder design of the Pinnacle engine, as well as a downsized, turbocharged 750cc Pinnacle design. FEV added two additional cylinders, piping, exhaust aftertreatment, and an air cleaner to convert the model from a 250cc single cylinder into a 750 cc three cylinder engine. Downsizing with turbocharging.

Volkswagen introduces new 1L, 3-cylinder gasoline Golf; 54.7 mpg

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Despite its efficiency, the Golf TSI BlueMotion with the 85 kW / 114 hp downsized 999 cc EA211-series engine reaches 100 km/h in 9.7 The Volkswagen EA211 engine series served as the foundation for designing the new 1.0 Exhaust manifold integrated in cylinder head.

2015 28

Downsized 5.5L V8 Biturbo in S 63 AMG Delivers 25% Fuel Savings Compared to Predecessor; Stop-Start is Standard

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An intelligently designed power transfer plays a major part in this: the unique AMG Speedshift MCT 7-speed sports transmission combines dynamism with economy, and includes a new stop-start function in the “Controlled Efficiency” driving mode. AMG 5.5-liter V8 biturbo engine.

Scuderi working on turbocharged variant of split-cycle engine; smaller, more powerful, and more fuel efficient

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The basic Scuderi engine divides the four strokes of a combustion cycle among two paired cylinders—the left cylinder functions as an air compressor, handling intake and compression, while the right cylinder handles combustion and exhaust.

DOE to award up to $137M for SuperTruck II, Vehicle Technology Office programs

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will design and develop a new more-efficient engine and advanced drivetrain and vehicle technologies. will design and develop a vehicle and powertrain with electrified engine components that can enable higher engine efficiency and a significantly more aerodynamically reengineered cab. Work with development partners to design and construct both heavy rare earth and entirely rare earth free motor designs using a multi‐layered motor rotor design.

2016 30

ALABC: 48V mild hybrids can meet emission targets with CO2 reductions of 15-20%

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The T-Hybrid (based on a Kia Optima) ( earlier post ) and the ADEPT (based on a Ford Focus) ( earlier post ) both utilize an advanced 48V lead-carbon battery system with bolt-on electrical components that allow for significant engine-downsizing without loss in performance. This engine downsizing means less fuel usage and subsequently lower CO 2 emissions compared to the base vehicle—including a 16% reduction in the Kia Optima.

Kia 20

Achates Power opposed-piston diesel for TARDEC will demonstrate multi-cylinder configuration

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a $4.9-million contract for design and construction of the Next-Generation Combat Engine. Since the pistons cyclically expose or occlude the exhaust and intake ports, there is no valve train. Scavenging continues until a 230° crank angle, at which time the exhaust ports close.

2013 28

CPT and Eminox to collaborate on development of retrofit electric supercharging and aftertreatment solutions for heavy-duty vehicles

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Having better control over the combustion process reduces the emission load on the exhaust aftertreatment systems. Eminox SCRT technology can significantly reduce harmful diesel exhaust gases, particularly in urban operating conditions.

KSPG shows new compact two-cylinder range extender for EVs, variable valve system

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The system also includes FEV’s Full Engine Vibration Compensator (FEVcom), which has been designed into the range extender to reduce NVH. The automobile can thus be delivered with or without a range extender and allows for a modular design concept.

2012 33

Study: splash blended ethanol fuels with higher ethanol percentage enable higher thermal efficiency in SI engine

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In a paper published in the journal Fuel , the researchers report that at the knock-limited engine loads, splash-blended ethanol fuels with a higher ethanol percentage enabled higher engine thermal efficiency through allowing more advanced combustion phasing and less fuel enrichment for limiting the exhaust gas temperature under the upper limit of 850 °C, which was due to the synergic effects of higher RON and octane sensitivity, as well as better charge cooling.

EALABC paper outlines approach to 48V hybrid systems with advanced lead-carbon batteries

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Augmenting its existing LC Super Hybrid program ( earlier post ), which deploys a downsized gasoline-electric powertrain, ALABC is working on advanced diesel-electric applications in development programs being undertaken with car makers including Ford and Kia.

Kia 26

ACCESS project targeting 30% improvement in fuel economy and SULEV emissions in light-duty gasoline engine; multi-mode SI/HCCI combustion

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Elements of the multi-mode combustion system include: Spark-ignited (SI) combustion with high compression ratio and high boost assisted by cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Two-stage boost—a small supercharger for HCCI, and a regular turbocharger for downsizing.

Rotrak testing prototype variable drive supercharger in vehicle on dyno

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Initial design layout of the Rotrak system with the corresponding block diagram. Both solutions involve part load losses which compromise some of the fuel consumption savings made by downsizing. It gives the next generation of downsized powertrains ‘big-engine’ response.

Toyota introduces the B-segment Yaris Hybrid at Geneva; anticipating 20% of Yaris model range sales in first year

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The new Yaris Hybrid, which is equipped with a version of the downsized hybrid powertrain featured in the Prius c/Aqua ( earlier post ), is a major step in the company’s full hybrid European roll-out strategy. The downsized full hybrid system combines the new 1NZ-FXE 1.5-liter gasoline engine with a lighter, more compact electric motor, transaxle, inverter and battery pack. Yaris Hybrid powertrain. Click to enlarge.

MAHLE study finds its Turbulent Jet Ignition pre-chamber initiated combustion system can deliver HCCI-like fuel economy in a conventional PFI engine

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Computer-generated image of the Turbulent Jet Igniter, designed to replace the spark plug in a modern spark ignition combustion system. The research presented at this World Congress was designed to: Present the current speed load range of TJI operation.

Continental to supply turbochargers for new Ford 1.0L EcoBoost engines

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Developed for the latest 1-liter downsized gasoline engines. The successful collaboration with Ford resulted in a turbocharger design that meets the particular technical challenges posed by small, downsized engines. Click to enlarge.

Update on the ACCESS fuel efficient engine project; simulations find up to 48.9% improvement in fuel economy over baseline

Green Car Congress

At the recent 2013 SAE World Congress, engineers from Bosch and AVL presented papers on progress in the ACCESS project, describing the design, combustion development and controls development for a resulting 4-cylinder gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine with part-load HCCI capability. Designing a powertrain system to enable the proposed advanced combustion and control strategies, which include air-fuel path, combustion system, after-treatment system, and vehicle platform.

Aeristech launches new 48V electric supercharger

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Aeristech’s 48v eSupercharger has already been demonstrated by MAHLE Powertrain UK in a D-segment appraisal vehicle using its downsized turbocharged 1.2 Aeristech’s motors are designed for higher speeds and lower internal impedance than would be possible with conventional controllers.

Fuel 17

New 3-cylinder, 1.0-liter Ford EcoBoost engine to debut in European Focus range

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Downsized EcoBoost engines feature turbocharging, direct injection and other technologies and replace larger engines with no loss of performance and with lower fuel consumption. Yet, despite its small capacity and proportions, the design delivers power and performance to rival a traditional 1.6-liter gasoline engine while emitting less than 120g/km CO 2 in the Focus. Careful attention has also been paid to mitigating the natural vibrations of the 3-cylinder design.

Fuel 13

PSA to commercialize SwRI-developed Dedicated-EGR technology in high-efficiency gasoline engines by 2018

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During its recent Innovation Day presentations ( earlier post ), PSA Peugeot Citroën announced that it will commercialize high-efficiency gasoline engines featuring dedicated exhaust gas recirculation (D-EGR), derived from a collaborative program with SwRI in the US.

Fuel 12

FEV displays Ford 1.0L EcoBoost engine at SAE World Congress; provided early development support

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FEV provided early development stage support for the engine in the area of design and CAE, combustion development, and engine build for 36 engines. This is a prime example of FEV’s business model, which is designed to integrate its expertise into the development process for customer propulsion systems on an as-needed basis. And these engines are capable of doing that with very low exhaust emissions levels. FEV, Inc., is showing the 1.0L

Westport unveils proprietary enhanced spark-ignited natural gas system; up to 10% improvement in power and torque over diesel

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The new approach to natural gas combustion technology is designed to provide vehicle and engine original manufacturers (OEMs) with a “downsized” natural gas solution that is cost competitive while providing similar levels of power, torque, and fuel economy to a larger diesel engine. In addition, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is applied, which is a well known mechanism for improving fuel efficiency, used extensively in passenger vehicles. Westport Innovations Inc.

New 4-cylinder 2.3L EcoBoost on Lincoln MKC small SUV; future EcoBoost prospects

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Class-exclusive Active Grille Shutters are designed to help improve MKC fuel efficiency at highway speeds. Two pivotal factors are the three-port integrated exhaust manifold cylinder head and a twin-scroll turbocharger. Lincoln MKC is the first to get the new 2.3L EcoBoost.

Dana offering Spicer PowerBoost hydraulic-hybrid system for off-highway field testing; demonstrated fuel savings of 20-25%

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The Spicer PowerBoost system allows manufacturers to select a smaller engine that does not require exhaust after treatment systems that are costly, consume added space, and increase the operating temperature of the powertrain system.

Opel to launch 3 new engine families, 13 new engines by 2016

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Focused on meeting a growing customer demand for ‘downsized’ engines offering strong power with reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, the new gasoline and diesel powertrains are being progressively introduced across the Opel product range.

2013 26

Ford introduces new 2.0L EcoBlue diesel; fuel consumption cut by up to 13%

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Advanced after-treatment processes for exhaust gases enable ultra-low emissions in line with stringent Euro Stage VI standards that will be introduced in September 2016, requiring a 55% reduction in NO x emissions compared to Euro Stage V standards.

Oil 7

Simulation study suggests ORC waste heat recovery system could deliver potential 7% improvement in fuel consumption in a PHEV on highway

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They then designed a quasi-static thermodynamic model of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) optimized to fit the prototype vehicle. On the other hand, it is well known that in an internal combustion engine up to 35% of the energy developed by the fuel combustion is dissipated in the exhaust gases.

Opel presents new midsize gasoline engine at Aachen Colloquium; fuel consumption down 13%, torque and power up 33%

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The structural design considers the engine’s use in a variety of vehicle applications, allowing minimum integration effort and consistent part interchangeability. Two different pistons have been designed for the Eco and Performance Turbo engines. New 1.6L SIDI engine. Click to enlarge.

Volvo Trucks SuperTruck demonstrator improves freight efficiency by 88%, fuel efficiency by 70%

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A key part of the overall efficiency gain is the downsized 11-liter Volvo engine, featuring advanced fuel injection, cooling, oil and turbo-charging systems, as well as new “wave” pistons and other improvements.