Researchers show mixotrophic fermentation process improves carbon conversion, boosting yields and reducing CO2

Green Car Congress

The production costs for most chemicals via microbial fermentation are currently high compared to oil-derived products primarily because of operating costs associated with feedstock and feedstock processing. Consequently, first and second generation bioproduct manufacturing processes are economically challenged, particularly in light of recent low oil prices. One way to mitigate high feedstock cost is to maximize conversion into the bioproduct of interest.

2016 207

Startup Siluria Technologies developing novel bio-templated catalysts for economic direct conversion of methane to ethylene; potential for transportation fuels

Green Car Congress

A commercially viable OCM process—which has been sought for some 30 years— would decouple the production of mainstream chemicals and fuels from crude oil and its current price instabilities, along with reducing energy consumed for processing. Today this molecule is made from oil, by a process known as steam cracking.

2011 231

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Navigant: almost 39,300 natural gas refueling stations worldwide by 2026

Green Car Congress

Since late 2014, the production of crude oil has outpaced demand, triggering a sustained collapse in world oil prices, which have remained mostly below $50 per barrel. As a result, these low prices have put pressure on the market for natural gas vehicles (NGVs) and the corresponding refueling infrastructure. The total number of natural gas refueling stations globally will reach almost 39,300 locations by 2026, according to a new report from Navigant Research.

2016 150

Study suggests that decarbonizing US transport sector by converting waste CO2 to fuels would require economical air-capture of CO2

Green Car Congress

Over time, however, as the CO 2 price increases, it eventually becomes more economical to either retrofit plants to capture and store most of. CCTF will only employ direct CO 2 capture from air when the CO 2 emission price exceeds the cost of air capture. At sufficiently high oil prices, CCTF will always displace CCS, but from a climate perspective, CCTF (without air capture) is clearly not a replacement for CCS.

2010 200

PNAS study finds Vertimass CADO efficient way to convert ethanol to biohydrocarbons; 40 to 96% reduction in GHGs, based on feedstock

Green Car Congress

Increased oil prices or current production incentives make Vertimass fuel cost competitive, and CADO-derived hydrocarbon blendstocks pass on greenhouse gas emission reductions of the ethanol feedstock.

2019 209

The driving force behind the US oil boom

Green Car Congress

The shale revolution’s sweet spot is oilfield services, the lower-risk backbone of the American oil and gas boom that pays off regardless of a play’s economics. And while oil prices slumped in October, drilling activity continues to rise, according to Baker Hughes , the third-largest oil services company. All the drilling poises the oil and gas services industry for big gains. Market Background Oil by James Stafford of

2014 221

The Real Reason for USA based Economic Recessions.

DIY Electric Car

The True Cause of Recessions: OIL. I was asked to speak about the economic impact of our oil dependency and so I began researching this topic to see if I could draw some insightful conclusions. There have been 5 recession since then until now and I wanted to see if Oil had anything to do with them, because deep in my heart, I knew the most recent recession was directly caused by the oil price spikes that started in 2007 and peaked in 2008.

USA 153

Global Bioenergies reports first production of green isobutene at demo plant

Green Car Congress

With a nameplate capacity of 100 tons/year, the demo plant will allow the conversion of various resources (industrial-grade sugar from beets and cane, glucose syrup from cereals, second-generation sugars extracted from wheat straw, bagasse, wood chips…), into high-purity isobutene. Global Bioenergies is now entering the final phase of demonstrating its technology for converting renewable carbon into hydrocarbons.

2016 210

CSIRO and partners to test Direct Injection Carbon Engine to reduce brown coal emissions by up to 50%

Green Car Congress

The process has very high conversion efficiency >97% (LCA); he fuel choice determines the carbon footprint. CSIRO notes that the idea of using a coal engine to generate electricity is not new; it was successfully investigated in the US some 20 years ago for use in diesel locomotives before development was terminated by persistently low oil prices.

2014 218

Lux: VCs invest $5.8B in bio-based chemicals, as focus shifts to disruptive synthetic biology

Green Car Congress

While from 2010 to 2015, the investment focus was on drop-in replacements for established chemicals, in 2016 VCs’ focus has shifted to disruptive synthetic biology (synbio) and conversion technologies, according to Lux Research. Low oil hits drop-ins, substitutes. Amid low oil prices, VCs have shifted focus this year to commercializing bio-based products that offer improved performance, not just “greener” replacements for petro-based compounds.

2016 150

EIA projects world energy use to increase 53% by 2035; oil sands/bitumen and biofuels account for 70% of the increase in unconventional liquid fuels

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World oil prices remain high in the IEO2011 Reference case, but oil consumption continues to grow; both conventional and unconventional liquid supplies are used to meet rising demand. In the IEO2011 Reference case the price of light sweet crude oil (in real 2009 dollars) remains high, reaching $125 per barrel in 2035. Oil sands/bitumen and biofuels account for 70% of the increase in unconventional liquid fuels. Forecasts Fuels Oil Oil sands

GE Aviation testing 100% Gevo Alcohol-to-Jet fuel

Green Car Congress

These new catalytic conversion strategies are focused on making ATJ blends that include additional hydrocarbon products—such as aromatic content—to allow for greater blending volumes of the AJF product. With the successful scale-up of this technology, it is believed that Gevo’s HEDFs could be produced at a lower cost than the petroleum-based equivalent, even at current oil prices.

2017 161

EIA: China’s use of methanol in liquid fuels has grown rapidly since 2000; >500K bpd in 2016

Green Car Congress

Methanol can also be converted directly to gasoline, and in China this conversion occurs much less often than the blending of methanol or its derivatives into gasoline. MTG units involve high capital costs and are only cost-competitive when oil prices are high. Lower oil prices since late 2014 have reduced China’s MTG plant operating rates and have created uncertainty for investment in new MTG plants.

2017 150

Getting Interviewed and Finding a Car

Open Source Civic EV Kit

With the huge jump in oil prices yesterday, I received a call from the local KEX radio to ask about electric vehicles and how they could be part of the solution. James Boggs over at Electronpirate interviewed me today for a podcast about my past conversion experiences and this Civic-EV project. A few new things have happened over the past two days.

2008 100

Univ of Washington team working to make poplar coppice viable cheap, high-volume biofuel feedstock

Green Car Congress

The UW team is the first to try converting the entire young tree—leaves, bark and stems—into bio oil and ethanol using two separate processes. We have the environmental incentives to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable resources, but right now, they aren’t enough to compete with low oil prices. Research is underway to convert this bio-oil to a transportation fuel that resembles gasoline or diesel.

2017 150

Oil Is At The Mercy Of Financial Markets

Green Car Congress

Oil prices regained more ground on Wednesday, pushed higher after equity markets rebounded from an initial selloff at the start of 2019 trading. The price gains are not entirely convincing. In fact, the trajectory and health of the global economy has moved to the top of the list in terms of variables exerting influence on oil prices. On any given day, stock prices offer a clue into investor sentiment in this regard. Market Background Oil

2019 184

Navigant forecasts global annual natural gas vehicle sales to reach 3.9M in 2025, up 62.5% from 2015

Green Car Congress

Navigant expects that with a wider gap between natural and liquid fuel prices and more aggressive incentives, Western Europe and to a lesser degree Asia Pacific, will continue to see NGV growth, but at a lower rate than previous projections. However, the collapse in global oil prices has eroded a significant portion of the natural gas cost advantage.

2015 150

Pike Research forecasts global biofuels market to double by 2012 to $185.3B

Green Car Congress

Although many feedstocks, technologies, and conversion pathways are currently sharing the same tent, the current decade is shaping up to be one of shakeouts, as early bets on cellulosic technologies reach commercial production and significant investments from oil majors and multinationals. Ultimately, widespread commercialization will depend on whether these ventures can reach price. Number of off-take agreements with oil and chemical will increase, confirming the trend.

2012 217

IHS Markit: 2020 low-sulfur requirements for marine bunker fuels causing scramble for refiners and shippers

Green Car Congress

Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is the predominant marine fuel. Refiners will experience significant price impacts as they shift production to deliver more lower-sulfur fuels to the market and, at the same time, find a market for the higher-sulfur fuels they produce. From the shipping industry point of view, IHS Markit estimates that about 20,000 ships account for around 80 percent of heavy fuel-oil bunker fuel use. Diesel Fuels Oil Ports and Marine Regulations

2017 150

VTT study concludes gasification-based pathways can deliver low-carbon fuels from biomass for about 1.90-2.65 US$/gallon

Green Car Congress

The horizontal red lines show the comparable price of gasoline (before tax, refining margin 0.3 $/gal, exchange rate: 1 € = 1.326 $) with crude oil prices 100 $/bbl and 150 $/bbl. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MW th of biomass) scale.

2013 191

IHS Markit: shippers, refiners scrambling to respond to IMO signals on low-sulfur fuel enforcement

Green Car Congress

Recent moves by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) have signaled a strong determination by the sanctioning body to strictly enforce a tightening of marine fuel low-sulfur regulations, which will result in a period of huge upheaval in global oil markets, extraordinary margins for some oil refiners, and a potential doubling of fuel costs for shippers, according to new analysis from IHS Markit.

2018 163

Updated NETL study provides more detailed economic and environmental assessment of coal-to-liquids and CTL with modest biomass

Green Car Congress

The new study expands upon the prior by adding new scenarios, including: conversion of additional coal types (sub-bituminous coal) at a facility located in the Western part of the United States; poly-generation of electricity with fuels (up to 12% of the total product slate); and how different cooling technologies can be leveraged to reduce water usage. This equates to diesel prices in the range of $2.70 per gallon increase in fuel price over the coal cases.

2012 196

Global CO2 emissions up 3% in 2011; per capita CO2 emissions in China reach EU levels

Green Car Congress

savings stimulated by high oil prices led to a decrease of 3% in CO 2 emissions in the European Union and of 2% in both the United States and Japan. tonnes per capita, despite a decline due to the recession in 2008-2009, high oil prices and an increased share of natural gas. Global fossil oil consumption increased by about 2.9% in 2011, with below average consumption in all regions, except for North America, where low prices drove robust growth.

2012 204

Sandia Labs/GM Biofuels Systems Study Concludes Large-Scale Production of Advanced Biofuels is Achievable and Sustainable

Green Car Congress

The simulations assume technological progress in the conversion technologies, which results in average biomass conversion yields of over 95 gallons of ethanol per dry ton of biomass by 2030. Conversion technologies are linked to feedstocks. In the study, conversion technologies are linked with specific feedstocks. For each new plant constructed, the BDM selected a feedstock/conversion pair resulting in the lowest cost of ethanol.

2009 163

Pike Research forecasts global biofuels market value to double to $185B by 2021

Green Car Congress

between 2017 and 2021, as a combination of higher oil prices, emerging mandate. Multiple aims include the reduction of dependence on imported oil, mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and driving economic development. The emergence of advanced conversion pathways and non-food feedstocks could unlock considerable production potential throughout the world. Ultimately, widespread commercialization will depend on whether these ventures can reach price.

2011 196

Study projects emission impacts of inexpensive, efficient EVs: 36% further reduction in LDV GHG by 2050, or 9% economy-wide

Green Car Congress

output of mining or importing technologies) to conversion or process technologies (e.g., The team explored other scenarios including different levels of CO 2 and CH 4 fees applied to the BAU and OPT scenarios; different levels of LDV demand; and different oil prices.

2017 150

BCG report finds advanced biofuels, concentrated solar power, and solar photovoltaic tracking to make significant market impact sooner than commonly assumed

Green Car Congress

The fortunes of alternative energy have historically waxed and waned with the price levels of oil, gas, and other energy sources, rising when prices are high only to fall once they retreat. For the most part, the focus has been on the technical feasibility of various technologies, required subsidies, or need for carbon prices to make those technologies viable.

2010 246

Genencor and Goodyear Partnering on Process to Develop BioIsoprene from Sugars; To be Used in Manufacture of Tires

Green Car Congress

An important precursor for some types of synthetic rubber is isoprene, a highly volatile hydrocarbon which is typically obtained as a by-product from refining crude oil. Overall, Genencor notes, the process highlights the potential for the conversion of carbohydrates to valuable chemicals using a combination of biological and process engineering. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

2010 212

National Research Council report finds it unlikely the US will meet cellulosic biofuel mandates absent major innovation or a change in policies

Green Car Congress

Further, the report found, only in an economic environment characterized by high oil prices, technological breakthroughs, and a high implicit or actual carbon price would biofuels be cost-competitive with petroleum-based fuels.The report also suggests that RFS2 may be an ineffective policy for reducing global GHG emissions because the effect of biofuels on GHG emissions depends on how the biofuels are produced and what land-use or land-cover changes occur in the process.

2011 214

BP and Martek Biosciences Enter a Joint Development Agreement to Deliver Advanced Microbial Biofuels

Green Car Congress

BP and Martek Biosciences Corporation signed a Joint Development Agreement (JDA) to work on the production of microbial oils for biofuels applications. The partnership combines a broad technology platform and operational capabilities to advance the development of a step-change technology for the conversion of sugars into renewable diesel fuels. A similar patented process was developed for a fungus that produces an oil rich in arachidonic acid, ARA.

2009 175

KPMG survey finds majority of energy execs see oil over $121/barrel this year; shale expected to have transformative impact, investment in alternatives increasing

Green Car Congress

Energy executives expect continued volatility in the price-per-barrel of oil for the remainder of the year, with 64% predicting crude prices to exceed $121 per barrel. The executives also foresee shale oil and gas having a transformative effect on helping to meet the world’s energy needs, according to the results of the 9 th Annual Energy Survey conducted by the KPMG Global Energy Institute. Even batteries and fuel cells have entered the conversation.

2011 196

Study details viable pathway to develop sustainable aviation biofuels industry in Pacific Northwest; hydroprocessing of natural oils seen as the most immediate opportunity

Green Car Congress

aviation fuel at the scale or speed needed to achieve industry goals, the report focuses on a portfolio of options, including different conversion technologies and sources of potentially sustainable biomass, including oilseeds, forest residues, solid waste, and algae. SAFN focused on two primary conversion technologies for use with the four feedstocks: Hydroprocessing. Established hydroprocessing technologies to produce aviation fuels from natural oils.

2011 199

Perspective: US Needs to Transition to Hydrous Ethanol as the Primary Renewable Transportation Fuel

Green Car Congress

The oil price shocks of the 1970s led the Brazilian government to address the strain high prices were placing on its fragile economy. Brazil, the largest and most populous country in South America, was importing 80% of its oil and 40% of its foreign exchange was used to pay for that imported oil. The government assisted the shift by giving sugar companies subsidized loans to build ethanol plants, as well as guaranteeing prices for their ethanol products.

2009 258

Biosyncrude Gasification Process Could Produce Motor Fuel at Cost of Around $3/gallon

Green Car Congress

A crude oil price of US$100/bbl results in an approximate cost of €0.56/L (US$2.72/gallon US) without tax for conventional motor fuel. Biomass is pyrolized to a pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is mixed with pyrolysis coke from the process to create a biocrude slurry for transport and subsequent gasification to syngas and subsequent catalytic conversion to chemicals and/or fuels. Overview of the Bioliq process. Source: Henrich et al. Click to enlarge.

2009 150

GAO Report Concludes Industry and Government Face Significant Challenges in Meeting RFS Target While Minimizing Unintended Adverse Effects; Suggests Federal Research Give Priority to Non-Ethanol Biofuels

Green Car Congress

Biofuels production has had mixed effects on US agriculture with respect to land use, crop selection, livestock production, rural economies, and food prices, the report found. For example, while increasing demand for corn for ethanol contributed to higher corn prices, thereby providing economic incentive for some corn producers, they also increased feed costs for livestock producers.

2009 161

US DOE progress report says 1M plug-ins by 2015 ambitious but achievable; not likely to be constrained by production capacity

Green Car Congress

The report hopefully points to the economics of EVs for fleet buyers; the conversion of the current $7,500 tax credit to benefit the consumer at the point-of-sale; the attraction of PEV attributes to some consumers; and potentially higher fuel prices to buoy consumer demand for PEVs.

2011 185

Is Ford First?

Plug In Partners

Ford Chairman and CEO Bill Ford told shareholders at the automaker's annual meeting that the automotive market is shifting rapidly because of higher oil prices and the company is trying to respond. First customers for the conversions of several dozen SUVs would be cities, utilities, CEOs, entrepreneurs and celebrities. There's a growing national interest in this technology, especially among fleet buyers, to further reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases.

2006 100

CAR releases study on use of bio-based materials in automotive sector; potential for the Great Lakes Region

Green Car Congress

Encouraging bio-manufacturing and its associated value chain development, and building upon its current expertise in producing conventional parts for automakers, may position the Great Lakes region at a global competitive advantage as oil prices climb, and the demand for more bio-based parts increases. These feedstocks are usually fermented and go through a series of conversions to produce polymers that can be used in plastic composites.

2012 191

Inaugural Quadrennial Technology Review report concludes DOE is underinvested in transport; greatest efforts to go to electrification

Green Car Congress

In the transportation sector, DOE will focus on technologies that significantly reduce oil consumption and diversify fuel sources for on-road transportation. Electrification is the next greatest opportunity to dramatically reduce or eliminate oil consumption in the light-duty vehicle fleet. Although biofuels have other economic or security advantages, DOE understands that any drop-in liquid fuel will not insulate consumers from the global oil price.

2011 191

Interview with Chris Paine in the Whole Life Times

Revenge of the Electric Car

January 2009 | Conversations The Electric Car Returns (and This Time It’s Personal). Q: When gas prices went up, people started driving less, and interest in EVs soared. But now, gas prices have fallen below $2 in some places. A: Certainly, when oil prices are down, it makes it harder for the competition. Oil price fluctuations are tough for small companies to deal with as consumer demand goes up and down, but I think the long run looks pretty bright.

2009 100

Study Finds Integrated Biorefinery Processes Could Be Highly Competitive With Petroleum Fuels on Efficiency and Costs, While Offering Substantial Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Green Car Congress

forest conversion) resulting from land-use considerations. Achieve production costs consistent with gasoline when oil prices are at about $30 a barrel. Processing efficiencies for biorefinery scenarios (energy out as percent of feedstock lower heating value). Laser et al. 2009) Click to enlarge. Biomass refining technologies.

2009 163

RAND study concludes use of alternative fuels by US military would convey no direct military benefit; recommends energy efficiency instead

Green Car Congress

If the US military increases its use of alternative jet and naval fuels that can be produced from coal or various renewable resources, including seed oils, waste oils and algae, there will be no direct benefit to the nation’s armed forces, according to a new RAND Corporation study. Other conclusions in this area are: It is highly uncertain whether appreciable amounts of hydrotreated renewable oils can be affordably and cleanly produced within the United States or abroad.

2011 210

Accenture Reports Identifies 12 Disruptive Technologies Most Likely to Transform Supply and Demand of Transport Fuels and Cut Emissions Within Next 10 Years

Green Car Congress

Will be competitive at an oil price of $45 to $90 at their commercial date. This technology could avoid both the need for significant capital investment to upgrade refineries to produce more low sulfur fuel oil (LSFO) and greater dependence on costlier, low sulfur crudes. There are many players, and the oil industry (including Shell, ExxonMobil, BP, Valero and Chevron) is looking at a range of methods to eliminate steps in the process to reduce complexity and cost.

2009 224