PNNL team develops new low-cost method to convert captured CO2 to methane

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By using a water-lean post-combustion capture solvent, (N-(2-ethoxyethyl)-3-morpholinopropan-1-amine) (2-EEMPA), they achieved a greater than 90% conversion of captured CO 2 to hydrocarbons—mostly methane—in the presence of a heterogenous Ru catalyst under relatively mild reaction conditions (170 °C and 2 pressure). But these traditional solvents have relatively high water content, making methane conversion difficult.

Exeter team develops low-cost photoelectrode for spontaneous water-splitting using sunlight

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The nanostructured photoelectrode results in spontaneous hydrogen evolution from water without any external bias applied with a faradaic efficiency of 30% and excellent stability. The greatest challenge is to develop a suitable technology for large scale and cost effective solar fuel production to compete with fossil fuel. One way this could be achieved is by using photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting which directly converts water and sunlight to solar fuel (hydrogen).

2018 278
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GWU team demonstrates highly scalable, low-cost process for making carbon nanotube wools directly from CO2

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Researchers at George Washington University led by Dr. Stuart Licht have demonstrated the first facile high-yield, low-energy synthesis of macroscopic length carbon nanotubes (CNTs)—carbon nanotube wool—from CO 2 using molten carbonate electrolysis ( earlier post ). This synthesis consumes only CO 2 and electricity, and is constrained only by the cost of electricity. The process is constrained by the (low) cost of electricity.

2017 250

EPFL team develops low-cost water splitting cell with solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 12.3%

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A team led by Dr. Michael Grätzel at EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) in Switzerland has developed a highly efficient and low-cost water-splitting cell combining an advanced perovskite tandem solar cell and a bi-functional Earth-abundant catalyst. The combination of the two delivers a water-splitting photocurrent density of around 10 milliamperes per square centimeter, corresponding to a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 12.3%.

2014 235

EPFL team develops low-cost catalyst for splitting CO2

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EPFL scientists have developed an Earth-abundant and low-cost catalytic system for splitting CO 2 into CO and oxygen—an important step towards achieving the conversion of renewable energy into hydrocarbon fuels. The system uses the same catalyst for the cathode that reduces CO 2 to CO and for the anode that oxidizes water to oxygen through the oxygen evolution reaction. This is the first time that such a bi-functional and low-cost catalyst is demonstrated.

2017 150

Swiss team develops effective and low-cost solar water-splitting device; 14.2% solar-to-hydrogen efficiency

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Using commercially available solar cells and none of the usual rare metals, researchers at the Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM) and École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) have designed an intrinsically stable and scalable solar water splitting device that is fully based on earth-abundant materials, with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 14.2%.

2016 163

MIT Researchers Identify New Low-Cost Water-Splitting Catalyst

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Daniel Nocera and his associates have found another formulation, based on inexpensive and widely available materials, that can efficiently catalyze the splitting of water molecules using electricity. In 2008, Nocera and his team reported developing a water-splitting catalyst that is easily prepared from earth-abundant materials (cobalt and phosphorous) and operates in benign conditions: pH neutral water at room temperature and 1 atm pressure. MIT Prof.

Saudi Aramco R&D proposes SuperButol as new low-cost high-octane blend component

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A team from Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center has developed a novel low-cost, high-octane gasoline blend component it calls SuperButol. SuperButol is made from low-value mixed butenes using a new process the team has named Butenes to Butanol (BTB); it has slightly lower blending RON compared to MTBE but has lower blending vapor pressure and higher energy content compared to ethanol. Overall single pass conversion is 14 vol%.

2017 163

Waste Management and Renmatix to explore conversion of urban waste to low-cost cellulosic sugar via supercritical hydrolysis

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The strategic investment and alliance aims to expand the feedstock flexibility of Renmatix’s proprietary Plantrose process beyond rural biomass to include materials derived from cost-effective and readily available urban waste material such as that managed by Waste Management. The water-based Plantrose Process consists of two core steps: Fractionation of biomass and separation of the remaining solids which contain cellulose and lignin. Waste Management, Inc.

2012 232

Harvard team demonstrates new metal-free organic–inorganic aqueous flow battery; potential breakthrough for low-cost grid-scale storage

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In a paper in Nature , they suggest that the use of such redox-active organic molecules instead of redox-active metals represents a new and promising direction for realizing massive electrical energy storage at greatly reduced cost. Wide-scale utilization of flow batteries is, however, limited by the abundance and cost of these materials, particularly those using redox-active metals and precious-metal electrocatalysts. Cell schematic.

2014 299

New nickel-gallium catalyst could lead to low-cost, clean production of methanol; small-scale, low-pressure devices

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In their paper, they suggested that this is a first step towards the development of small-scale low-pressure devices for CO 2 reduction to methanol. If hydrogen production is to be distributed and produced in small-scale devices, it would be attractive if the subsequent conversion of H 2 into a liquid fuel could also be performed in simpler, low-pressure decentralized units. Carbon Capture and Conversion (CCC) Catalysts Methanol

2014 221

MIT team outlines path to low-cost solar-to-fuels devices; the artificial leaf

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The new analysis follows up on 2011 research that produced a proof of concept of an artificial leaf—a small device that, when placed in a container of water and exposed to sunlight, would produce bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen. The original demonstration leaf in 2011 had low efficiencies, converting less than 4.7% Because a single Si junction has insufficient potential to drive water splitting, it cannot be used for direct solar-to-fuels conversion.

2013 195

New $30M ARPA-E program to produce renewable liquid fuels from renewable energy, air and water

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The US Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) announced up to $30 million in funding for a new program for technologies that use renewable energy to convert air and water into cost-competitive liquid fuels. ( ARPA-E’s Renewable Energy to Fuels through Utilization of Energy-dense Liquids (REFUEL) program seeks to develop technologies that use renewable energy to convert air and water into Carbon Neutral Liquid Fuels (CNLF). Fuel cost $/kg.

2016 197

SwRI, UTSA seek to combine reverse water-gas shift and Fischer Tropsch synthesis in single reactor to produce low-carbon hydrocarbon fuels

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Southwest Research Institute and The University of Texas at San Antonio (USTA) are collaborating to combine two catalytic processes into a single reactor, with the overall goal of recycling carbon from COCO 2 2 to produce low-cost hydrocarbon fuels. Combining the functionality of these two catalytic processes, reverse water-gas shift and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, into a single reactor would simplify the process and increase its economic viability.

Carbon 174

Iowa State researchers developing low-cost thermochemical process to produce sugars from biomass for bio-fuels and -chemicals; pyrolytic molasses

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Low-cost sugars from biomass are a key enabler for many production pathways for bio-based fuels and chemicals. Brown and Iowa State researchers are presenting present their ideas and findings during tcbiomass2011 , the International Conference on Thermochemical Conversion Science in Chicago. separate sugars from the heavy fractions of bio-oil using a simple water-washing process.

2011 174

NCSU team develops catalyst for thermal hybrid water-splitting and syngas generation with exceptional conversion; H2 gas and liquid fuels

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Researchers at North Carolina State University have developed a highly effective new perovskite-promoted iron oxide redox catalyst for a hybrid solar-redox scheme they had proposed earlier for partial oxidation and water-splitting of methane. In contrast, previously reported ferrite materials typically exhibit 20% or lower steam to hydrogen conversion. Researchers have long known that iron oxide can be used as a catalyst for thermal water splitting, but it is not very efficient.

2015 183

ORNL team devises electrocatalyst for direct conversion of CO2 into ethanol with high selectivity; pushing the combustion reaction in reverse

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Researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed an electrocatalyst which operates at room temperature and in water for the electroreduction of dissolved CO 2 with high selectivity for ethanol. With the help of the nanotechnology-based catalyst which contains multiple reaction sites, the solution of carbon dioxide dissolved in water turned into ethanol with a yield of 63%. Carbon Capture and Conversion (CCC) Emissions Ethanol

2016 237

DOE awarding $35M to 11 projects for hydrokinetic turbine development; ARPA-E SHARKS

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Hydrokinetic energy is an abundant renewable resource that can boost grid resiliency and reduce infrastructure vulnerability, but it is currently a cost prohibitive option compared to other energy generating sources. It has a low maintenance cost, resulting in a lower cost of energy.

2020 344

US/China team develops robust, stable Ni/Fe OER catalyst for water-splitting at low overpotentials

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A team from the University of Houston and Hunan Normal University in China has developed an active and durable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst for water splitting that meets commercial crtieria for current densities at low overpotentials. The researchers said that their discovery sets the stage for large-scale hydrogen production by water splitting using excess electrical power whenever and wherever available.

2018 163

DOE’s $10M Advanced Water Splitting Materials Consortium accelerating development of green hydrogen production

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The Energy Department (DOE) recently announced $10 million, subject to appropriations, to support the launch of the HydroGEN Advanced Water Splitting Materials Consortium ( HydroGEN ). As part of the EMN, the HydroGEN consortium will provide industry and academia the expertise and capabilities to more quickly develop, characterize, and deploy high-performance, low-cost advanced water-splitting materials for lower cost hydrogen production.

2016 197

DOE to award $35M for bioenergy feedstock and algae R&D

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DE-FOA-0002423 ) Topic Areas ins the FOA support DOE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) objectives to reduce the minimum selling price of drop-in biofuels, lower the cost of biopower, and enable high-value products from biomass or waste resources. Topic Areas include: Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Enable Production of Conversion-Ready Feedstocks (up to $15M). Algae Algal Fuels Biorefinery Carbon Capture and Conversion (CCC) Fuels

2020 273

University of Houston team demonstrates new efficient solar water-splitting catalyst for hydrogen production

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Researchers from the University of Houston (UH) have developed a cobalt(II) oxide (CoO) nanocrystalline catalyst that can carry out overall water splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of around 5%. The generation of hydrogen from water using sunlight could potentially form the basis of a clean and renewable source of energy. Here we show that cobalt(II) oxide (CoO) nanoparticles can carry out overall water splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of around 5%.

2013 228

US researchers demo separation-free, IL-based process for conversion of biomass to advanced biofuel

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Lower cost and higher efficiency biomass deconstruction remains a critical hurdle towards large-scale deployment of affordable lignocellulosic biofuels. This toxicity can be mitigated by extensive water washing to remove residual ILs prior to saccharification or fermentation, by use of a new class of lower toxicity ILs, by development of IL-tolerant enzyme mixtures and biofuel production strains, or by a combination of these techniques. …

2018 174

Stanford team develops new low-voltage single-catalyst water splitter for hydrogen production

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Researchers at Stanford University have developed a new low-voltage, single-catalyst water splitter that continuously generates hydrogen and oxygen. In the reported study, the new catalyst achieved 10 mA cm −2 water-splitting current at only 1.51 V Currently, the state-of-the-art catalysts to split water are IrO 2 and Pt for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), respectively, with ~1.5 V

2015 197

Stanford GCEP awards $6.6M to 7 projects; focus on combining energy conversion with carbon-neutral fuel production

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million to seven research teams—six from Stanford and one from Carnegie Mellon University—to advance research on technologies for renewable energy conversion to electricity or fuels and for capturing CO 2 emissions and converting CO 2 to fuels. Carbon capture and sequestration, and technologies that combine energy conversion with carbon-neutral fuel production could play major roles in the energy sector in the coming decades. Advanced water-splitting.

2013 190

Researchers develop free-standing nanowire mesh for direct solar water-splitting to produce H2; new design for “artificial leaf”

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The mesh with BiVO 4 nanowire photoanode for water oxidation and Rh-SrTiO 3 nanowire photocathode for water reduction produces hydrogen gas without an electron mediator. Researchers from UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore have developed a new technology for direct solar water-splitting—i.e., When immersed in water with visible light irradiation (? ?

2014 230

bp plans UK’s largest hydrogen project; 1GW of blue hydrogen

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With close proximity to North Sea storage sites, pipe corridors and existing operational hydrogen storage and distribution capabilities, the area is uniquely placed for H2Teesside to help lead a low-carbon transformation, supporting jobs, regeneration and the revitalisation of the surrounding area.

NSF/DOE partnership to award up to $18M for H2 production via advanced solar water-splitting technologies; separate DOE solicitation

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A National Science Foundation and US Department of Energy (DOE) partnership on hydrogen production via solar water-splitting will award ( NSF 14-511 ) up to $18 million to support the discovery and development of advanced materials systems and chemical processes for direct photochemical and/or thermochemical water splitting for application in the solar production of hydrogen fuel. More specifically, the portion of the cost goal apportioned to production is.

2013 190

Conversion of glucose to 5-HMF over solid acid catalyst

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Researchers at the South China University of Technology report on the use of a Zr(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 solid acid catalyst in an isobutanol-water (1.6:1/V:V) Although fructose can be converted to 5-HMF with high yield via acid-catalyzed dehydration, fructose is costly. With its low cost and wide supply, the conversion of glucose to HMF has attracted the interests of researchers. hours at 180 °C over Zr(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 with ratio of 1:1; glucose conversion was 94.83%.

2011 174

Georgia Tech team develops highly efficient multi-phase catalyst for SOFCs and other energy storage and conversion systems

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The catalyst is also readily applicable to other energy storage and conversion systems, including metal-air batteries, supercapacitors, electrolyzers, dye-sensitized solar cells, and photocatalysis. The ions meet to make water, which exits the fuel cell. That could, in turn, reduce overall material costs.

2018 174

New photoelectrode with enhanced visible light absorption for improved solar water-splitting for hydrogen production

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A team of researchers at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Korea University, and the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) has developed a new type of multilayered (Au NPs/TiO 2 /Au) photoelectrode that could boost the ability of solar water-splitting to produce hydrogen. Photocatalytic water splitting to produce molecular hydrogens and oxygen in artificial photosynthetic system has been practiced in laboratories for decades.

2016 150

Perspective: Drive Star Conversion Program Could Cut US Oil Use in Half by 2020

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If terrorists had poisoned 40% of our wetlands and 25% of our fisheries, we wouldn’t ask, ‘How much will it cost to fight back?’ And it will cost much less than you think.”. We know we eventually need to kick our addiction to costly, dangerous fossil fuels. The missing piece we dream President Obama will follow up with is an emergency-response roadmap to a world where increasingly scarce and costly oil is used only when needed. And no one asked what it would cost.

2010 218

Rochester researchers demonstrate robust photogeneration of hydrogen in water using semiconductor nanocrystals and a nickel catalyst

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Researchers at the University of Rochester (New York) have developed a robust and highly active system for solar hydrogen generation in water using semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) and a nickel catalyst. We report here a system that provides light-driven H 2 production with exceptional longevity, maintaining its high activity with no decrease for over two weeks using water as solvent. The nanocrystals were capped with DHLA (dihydrolipoic acid) to make them water-soluble.

2012 200

Vertimass licenses ORNL ethanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology; overcoming the blend wall with drop-in fuels

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In a 2012 presentation, the inventors said that the direct conversion process delivers a liquid hydrocarbon fuel yield of ~54-55% at 310°C, with ~6-7% ethylene and ~39% water byproducts, making the technology more cost-effective than previous approaches. It could also be incorporated into new plant designs to further reduce operating costs. Catalytic conversion of to hydrocarbons (2012).

2014 197

Occidental Petroleum and Chevron invest in direct air carbon capture and synthetic fuels company Carbon Engineering

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CE) has received equity investment from two global energy companies: Oxy Low Carbon Ventures, LLC (OLCV), a subsidiary of Occidental Petroleum Corporation; and Chevron Technology Ventures (CTV), the venture capital arm of Chevron Corporation. Occidental Petroleum is the industry leader in using CO 2 to enable low-cost EOR, which can increase oil recovery by 10 to 20 percent in the fields where it is employed, while at the same time permanently sequestering the CO 2 in the reservoir.

2019 284

ARPA-E adds five new funding topics to FOA to advance critical energy innovation

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The removal of CO 2 from oceanwater (or other natural waters), or direct ocean capture (DOC), is one method of capturing dispersed CO 2. ARPA-E seeks to establish robust, energy efficient, and low-cost strategies for direct removal of carbon dioxide from ambient air.

2020 286

Researchers from MIT and Sun Catalytix develop an artificial leaf for solar water splitting to produce hydrogen and oxygen

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Researchers led by MIT professor Daniel Nocera have produced an “artificial leaf”—a solar water-splitting cell producing hydrogen and oxygen that operates in near-neutral pH conditions, both with and without connecting wires. aligned with the low-cost systems engineering and. Placed in a container of water and exposed to sunlight, the device quickly begins to generate oxygen from one side and hydrogen bubbles from the other.

2011 235

DOE to award ~$96M for bioenergy research and development

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Topic areas within this FOA will advance DOE’s Bioenergy Technology Office’s objectives of reducing the price of drop-in biofuels; lowering the cost of biopower; and enabling high-value products from biomass or waste resources. Algae Bioproducts and CO 2 Direct-Air-Capture and Efficiency (ABCDE) (up to $14M): Lowering the cost of algal biofuels by improving carbon efficiency, and/or by employing direct air capture technologies.

2020 174

Vertimass receives up to $2M from DOE for conversion of ethanol into gasoline, diesel and jet blendstocks; expanding the ethanol market

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Ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons as a function of temp. Benefits of the catalyst technology include: A single step conversion of ethanol into a hydrocarbon blend stock without the addition of hydrogen. Operation at relatively low temperature and atmospheric pressure. Graph showing hydrocarbon distribution in product stream of 10% ethanol after catalytic conversion over Cu-ZSM-5 at 400° C at 12.5 Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons.

2014 214

Novozymes and Sea6Energy collaborating on the conversion of seaweed to sugars for production of fuels and chemicals

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Novozymes will research, develop, and manufacture enzymes for the conversion process, while Sea6 Energy contributes its offshore seaweed cultivation technology. Seaweed can be produced at many locations in the world, but the warm sea conditions, abundant sunlight, and the possibility for several harvest cycles through the year make the waters around India particularly suitable, Novozymes said.

2012 214

New $30M ARPA-E program to develop new solar conversion and storage technologies; targeting higher solar penetration in mix

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Schematic comparing the cost and dispatchability of PV to CSP with thermal storage. The “PV+Storage” box includes the high cost of electrical storage for PV. The primary goal of this funding opportunity ( DE-FOA-0000949 ) is to provide disruptive new solar conversion and storage technology options to enable a much higher penetration of solar energy generation into the US energy mix. Cost per unit of delivered exergy from converter. ?.

2013 243

DOE awards $97M to 33 bioenergy research and development projects

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These projects will improve the performance and lower the cost and risk of technologies that can be used to produce biofuels, biopower, and bioproducts from biomass and waste resources. Scale-Up of the Primary Conversion Reactor to Generate a Lignin-Derived Cyclohexane Jet Fuel. Microchannel Reactor for Ethanol to n-Butene Conversion. Decontamination of Non-recyclable MSW and Preprocessing for Conversion to Diesel. Electrolyzers For CO 2 Conversion from BioSources.

2020 174

CSIRO joins US sCO2-based power generation project STEP demo

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The STEP project seeks to demonstrate power generation plants enabled by supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO 2 ) technology that can offer dramatically improved efficiencies, economics, and environmental performance, and can play an important role as low-carbon energy evolves. Using sCO 2 as a power cycle working fluid instead of steam/water will lower capital expenditures and reduce plant size and footprint. Carbon Capture and Conversion (CCC) Market Background Power Generation

2020 163