Study finds rising temperatures increase risk of unhealthy ozone levels absent sharp cuts in precursors

Green Car Congress

Ozone pollution across the continental United States will become far more difficult to keep in check as temperatures rise, according to new work led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The study shows that Americans face the risk of a 70% increase in unhealthy summertime ozone levels by 2050, assuming continued greenhouse gas emissions with resultant significant warming (IPCC Scenario A2 and RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5.). Ozone formation.

Ozone 60

Toyota Central R&D Labs develops new ferrihydrite material that effectively removes ozone from air

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Comparison of O 3. In ozone processes for water cleaning and odor removal, e.g. smoke from vehicle interiors, it could catch the unreacted O 3. Such isolated iron oxide units absorb ozone especially well. Most newer devices are equipped with filters that convert the ozone.

Ozone 78

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NOAA Study Identifies Nitrous Oxide as Top Ozone-Depleting Emission in 21st Century

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Comparison of annual N 2 O ODP-weighted emissions from the 1990s with emissions of other ODS in 1987 and in 2008. Currently, anthropogenic N 2 O emissions represent the largest contribution to ozone depletion.

Ozone 78

HEI: 95%+ of world’s population live in areas of unhealthy air

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Comparison of 2016 annual average PM 2.5 Ozone, another important component of outdoor air pollution, whose levels are on the rise around the world, contributed to 234,000 deaths from chronic lung disease. Population-weighted seasonal average ozone concentrations in 2016.

2018 100

Study finds fleet switch from PFI to GDI engines will result in net reduction in global warming

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We estimate ozone and SOA formation potential. Therefore, the secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation potential of the exhaust does not depend on engine technology.

2017 97

Renault makes public its lifecycle study of Fluence ICE vs Fluence EV

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Renault’s comparison of the carbon footprint of EV and ICE vehicles over production, operation and end of life. Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (kg Ethene equivalent). Quantifies the production of pollutant ozone (?

2013 119

Study: Urban grime releases NOx when exposed to sunlight

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When in the air, these compounds may combine with volatile organic compounds to produce ozone, the main component of smog. In a subsequent laboratory comparison, they found that nitrate disappeared from grime 10,000 times faster than from a water-based solution when both were exposed to artificial sunlight.

2015 69

NOAA, partners find about 98% decline in VOCs concentrations in LA Basin over last 50 years despite 3x increase in use of gasoline and diesel

Green Car Congress

VOCs, primarily emitted from the tailpipes of vehicles, are a key ingredient in the formation of ground-level ozone which, at high levels, can harm people’s lungs and damage crops and other plants. The 98% drop in VOCs in the last 50 years does not mean that ozone levels have dropped that steeply; the air chemistry that leads from VOCs to ozone is more complex than that.

2012 75

Reduction in diesel carbonyl emissions using F-T fuel from coal

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However, the use of CFT resulted in a remarkable reduction in carbonyl emissions in comparison with using DF. lower ozone formation potential of the carbonyl compounds present than DF under the identical operating conditions.

2014 60

NASA GISS Study Finds That Methane Has an Elevated Warming Effect Due to Interactions With Aerosols

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Despite their limitations, GWPs are widely used for comparison among long-lived gases, forming the basis for worldwide political agreements on climate and carbon trading. And hydroxyls drive long chains of reactions involving other common gases, including ozone.

2009 100

Study finds that environmental impact of corn-ethanol E85 is 23% to 33% higher than that of gasoline; environmental problem-shifting

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eutrophication; ET = ecological toxicity; FEC = fossil energy consumption; WU = water use; LO = land occupation; “The rest” includes acidification; smog formation; ozone layer depletion; and human health effects. Environmental impacts of gasoline and E85.

2012 123

GISS study finds applying stricter non-CO2 vehicle emission standards worldwide would yield climate benefits in addition to major health and agricultural benefits

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million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops; $US0.6-2.4 While reductions in particulate matter tend to produce local health benefits, the scientists found health and agricultural benefits from reduced ozone disperse more widely. That’s largely because more stringent standards would reduce emissions of black carbon, a constituent of soot, and carbon monoxide, a precursor of ozone. Climate response to non-CO 2 vehicle emissions.

2011 60

Abt life-cycle analysis of different Li-ion chemistries for PHEVs and EVs identifies opportunities for improving environmental profile of batteries

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The authors emphasized that their study— as well as data contained in a previous study—suggest that, in comparison to internal combustion engine vehicles, there are significant benefits in GWP for both EVs and PHEV-40s, regardless of the carbon intensity of the grid.

2013 78

Sponsors of SAE Study Conclude HFO-1234yf Can Be Used As Low-GWP Global Replacement Refrigerant in MAC Systems

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HFO-1234yf is a non-Ozone Depleting Substance with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 4. In comparison, the current refrigerant, R-134a, has a GWP of 1,430. A two-year Cooperative Research Program conducted through SAE International to investigate the safety and environmental performance of the low-global-warming-potential (GWP) refrigerant HFO-1234yf for mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems has finished its study.

USA 60

Ford researchers report detailed study of the effect of different ethanol blend levels on emissions from FFVs

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Comparison of the NO x data shows the dominant role of engine calibration on the tailpipe emissions of NO x. Ozone reduction in highly polluted urban areas generally requires reduction of the emissions of both NO x and organic compounds, the Ford team noted.

2013 100

Field study finds soot particles absorb significantly less sunlight than predicted by models; climate models may be overestimating warming by BC

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The observed mean ambient particle E abs versus RBC during CalNex is shown for comparison (orange line). Black carbon is part of a group of pollution sources known as Short-Lived Climate Forcers (SLCFs), including methane gas and ozone, which are produced on earth.

2012 84

ICCT finds growth in shipping in Arctic could increase pollutant emissions 150-600% by 2025 with current fuels

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Comparison of the potential reduction in emissions with the application of lower sulfur 0.5% MARPOL Annex VI sets limits on NO x and SO x emissions from ship exhaust, and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone-depleting substances. and 0.1% fuel for Arctic vessels assuming a low-growth scenario. Source: ICCT. Click to enlarge.

2015 69

HEI study finds London Congestion Charging Scheme shows little evidence of improving air quality

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From their comparison of actual air pollutant measurements within the CCZ with those at control sites in Outer London, the investigators reported little evidence of CCS-related changes in pollutant levels at roadside monitoring sites, where their modeling had suggested the most pronounced effects would be seen.

2011 81

Study finds climate impact of long distance trip can vary by factor of 10 depending upon mode, efficiency and occupancy

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They accounted for both CO 2 emissions and emissions of ozone precursors (NO x , VOC, CO) and aerosols (BC or black carbon, OC, SO 2 ) as well as cloud effects (aviation-induced cirrus clouds and contrails)—i.e.,

2013 78

Up close and personal with Volkswagen’s e-Golf carbon offset project: Garcia River Forest

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The main focus of the comparisons is on five environmental impact categories during production, use and recycling. ozone depletion potential (ODP). photochemical ozone creation potential.

2015 112

Emissions of Air Pollutants down in EU-27

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The downward emission trend of three main pollutants which cause ground-level ozone continued in 2007: carbon monoxide (CO) fell by 57%, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were down by 47% and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) have dropped 36%. The data viewer can show emission trends for the main sectors and allows comparison of emissions between different countries and activities.

Study Finds Environmental and Tailpipe Pollutants Benefits in Using Biodiesel in Construction Vehicles

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Key improvements in the LCI included an update of combustion emission factors based on 2006 US national average emission rates; comparison of pre-NSPS (New Source Performance Standards) and NSPS-compliant soyoil plants; and the use of portable emission measurement system (PEMS) data for real-world tailpipe emissions factors based on 15 nonroad diesel vehicles: five backhoes, four front-end loaders, and six motor graders. ozone, PM) problems may be less pressing.

2009 60

Comparative study finds that B20 increases emission rates of a number of pollutants in both light- and medium-duty diesel engines at idle

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Unregulated pollutants also include ozone precursors and bioaccumulative and toxic compounds. Assanis (2012) Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels. Emission rates for the 1.7 and 6.4

2012 78

Lifecycle study finds that environmental impacts of silicon-anode Li-ion battery could be roughly comparable with conventional Li-ion battery

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A conventional battery pack using graphite anode with the same capacity was the a basis for comparison of the life cycle impact results. Life cycle impact benchmarking between LIB packs with SiNW and graphite anode. Units of the X-axis values are different and shown under each impact category name on Y-axis. Credit: ACS, Li et al. Click to enlarge.

2014 65

EPA report to Congress finds a strong scientific and technical foundation for mitigating black carbon emissions

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Most of this infrared radiation passes through the atmosphere, but some is absorbed by GHG molecules like CO 2 , methane, ozone and others. Key policy-relevant scientific uncertainties related to BC. Source: EPA. Click to enlarge.

Perspective: US Needs to Transition to Hydrous Ethanol as the Primary Renewable Transportation Fuel

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During the 1992 and later high ozone seasons no person, including without limitation, no retailer or wholesale purchaser-consumer, and during the 1992 and later regulatory control periods, no refiner, importer, distributor, reseller, or carrier shall sell, offer for sale, dispense, supply, offer for supply, transport or introduce into commerce gasoline whose Reid vapor pressure exceeds the applicable standard. by Brian J. Donovan, CEO Renergie, Inc.

2009 82

Automakers agree on common plug to recharge electric vehicles

Tony Karrer Delicious EVdriven

Im gonna post a couple excerpts here: Most ozone pollution is caused by motor vehicles, which account for 72% of nitrogen oxides and 52% of reactive hydrocarbons (principal components of smog). (7,