Study finds total PM10 emissions from EVs equal to those of modern ICEVs; role of weight and non-exhaust PM

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Non-exhaust PM factors include tire wear, brake wear, road surface wear and resuspension of road dust. Comparison of the expected total emissions of PM10 for EVs, gasoline ICEVs and diesel ICEVs. Non-exhaust sources account for more than 90% of PM 10 and 85% of PM 2.5

Study finds high exhaust temperatures within NTE operation for heavy-duty diesels with aftertreatment systems contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations

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The transient results illustrate the gradual formation of the nucleation mode particles with continuous increase in exhaust temperatures. The particle number count under those conditions increased by more than an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF-out particle concentrations. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) and urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust after-treatment systems thus have emerged as feasible strategies to meet the 2010 USEPA regulations.

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Study finds “markedly” high levels of diesel exhaust present in commuter trains powered by locomotives in pull-mode

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However, both measurements also act as proxies for the complex mixture of gases in diesel exhaust, which is an established carcinogen and associated with respiratory, cardiovascular and reproductive health effects. They also took measurements while walking along busy streets in downtown Toronto for comparison.

First results from HEI/ACES murine study find few biologic effects from exposure to exhaust from new technology diesel engines

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The few effects that were reported for the rats were mild hyperplasia (cell proliferation) in the lungs and slightly reduced lung function, and were most consistent with exposure to nitrogen oxides in the engine exhaust, which are being further reduced under 2010 US EPA standards now in effect. Results and Commentary on another ancillary study, assessing the effects of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust on vascular markers, will be published during the fall of 2012.

Study finds ethanol blending appears to reduce significantly genotoxic emissions from gasoline direct injection vehicles

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These vehicles have been introduced promising enhanced engine power and fuel efficiency and hence lower CO 2 emissions in comparison with PFI vehicles. In 2012, the WHO classified untreated diesel exhaust as a group 1 carcinogen inducing lung cancer in humans.

Ricardo demos real-world driving emissions testing at Air Quality show

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The system uses absorption spectroscopy to monitor and record emissions from a vehicle’s exhaust as it passes by a road-side sensor.

2017 12

ICCT: 2025 target average of 70 g/km CO2 for new cars in EU feasible and economical; more so with electric drive

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A 2025 CO 2 target of an average 70 g/km for new cars in the EU could be met with very little electrification and with an average payback period of less than 4 years, according to a new study by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT).

2016 42

SAE Publishes Revised J1711 Standard to Measure Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Economy of Hybrids and Plug-in Hybrids

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A revised J1711 standard from SAE International— J1711 - Recommended Practice for Measuring the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Economy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, including Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (J1711 JUN2010)— provides the procedures to accurately measure exhaust emissions and fuel economy of hybrid (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). There are two basic exhaust emissions and fuel economy tests described in J1711.

U Toronto study measures GDI emissions in urban near-road environment

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In comparison, average PN EFs from a PFI vehicle exhibited less spatial variability, with mean PN EFs 15 m from the roadway 17% lower than those measured 3 m from the roadway. Hence, GDI PM mass loadings and chemical composition may vary depending on the measurement environment or exhaust conditioning.

2016 26

Motiv Engines introduces 2nd-generation split-cycle concept; MkII Clarke-Brayton heavy-duty engine being designed for LNG

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It expands all the way to ambient pressure before the exhaust stroke. The power is produced in almost a 50-50 split between the combustion (central) and exhaust (largest) pistons. Section of the MkII Clarke-Brayton split-cycle engine. Note the three different cylinder sizes.

Achates Power building 2.7L opposed-piston light-duty engine; exceeding CAFE 2025, Tier 3 targets at lower cost

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A comparison between the 2.7L Achates has demonstrated the ability to achieve exceptionally high exhaust gas temperatures at idle—much beyond what can be done with equivalent 4-stroke engines. A high trapped temperature results in high exhaust gas temperatures.

Light 46

Opel to begin publishing WLTP fuel consumption numbers in Q2 2016; improving SCR for NOx reductions

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A partial comparison of WLTP to NEDC. Related to NO x emissions, Opel has started working on improved solutions for the effectiveness of exhaust gas treatment systems in Euro 6 diesel engines with SCR technology to make improvements in the direction of future RDE guidelines.

2016 53

Study shows viability of RCCI in a two-stroke engine; higher efficiency than direct-injection spark ignition

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The process involves introduction of a low reactivity fuel into the cylinder to create a well-mixed charge of low reactivity fuel, air and recirculated exhaust gases. For their study, the ERC team modified a two-stroke outboard engine to accommodate two direct fuel injectors for RCCI combustion in one cylinder, while the production direct-injection spark ignition combustion system was maintained in the other cylinder for comparison of performances at equivalent operating conditions.

2016 23

Volkswagen introduces new 1L, 3-cylinder gasoline Golf; 54.7 mpg

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Golf Comparisons. Exhaust manifold integrated in cylinder head. The exhaust manifold of the 1.0 The design of the exhaust manifold enabled the use of a compact and lightweight single-scroll compressor with an electric wastegate actuator.

2015 28

Toyota’s new conventional and hybrid powertrains for 2018 Camry deliver significant boost in efficiency

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The engine features VVT-iE on the intake side while utilizing VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing with intelligence) for the exhaust, a highly efficient compression ratio of 13:1 (14:1 for the hybrid version) for increased thermal efficiency and fuel efficiency and a bore and stroke measuring 3.44

2018 38

BMW provides an update on waste heat recovery projects; Turbosteamer and the Thermoelectric Generator

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Research project Turbosteamer: comparison of the heat exchanger generation 1 (top) and generation 2 (bottom). The primary element was a high-temperature circuit that employed a heat exchanger to recover energy from the engine exhaust gases. TEG integrated in the exhaust manifold.

2011 28

Ricardo: achieving light-duty diesel RDE NOx compliance in urban driving is possible, at a price

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The cost comparison is with respect to a Euro 5 baseline.

2016 17

GM provides technical details of the Gen 2 Voltec propulsion system used in the 2016 Volt

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Out of this, the GM team selected several systems for more intensive study and comparison with two benchmark systems from other OEMs. Comparison of Gen 1 and Gen 2 Voltec drive units. 1) and external cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).

2015 56

ICL study of 39 new Euro-6 diesels finds huge variability in NOx emissions with an average 4.5x the type approval limit

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Using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) attached to vehicle exhausts, the researchers collaborated with Emissions Analytics to measure the amount of NO x produced by the 39 Euro 6 diesel cars. Comparison of urban and motorway trip average NO x emissions (note: y axis varies).

2016 19

SAE REX: PHEVs and REEVs could open door for advanced combustion regime engines

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the capability to adjust intake temperature, pressure, and dilution level through the use of an intake air heater, supercharger, and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rate modulation, respectively. This fuel economy improvement is reduced to 3% in comparison to a modern CI (i.e.


Study shows two-stroke scooters dominant source of air pollution in many cities; asymmetric polluters

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Chemical analysis of the emissions shows that SOA is mainly produced via photo-oxidation of aromatic VOCs, present in gasoline, from the exhaust. Levels in the raw 2S scooter exhaust were as high as 300,000 mg m -3 or 146 ppm (v) from idling.

2014 20

Opinion: Enablers of disruption in transportation

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For comparison, a Boeing Dreamliner 787 has about 15 million lines of code—about 10% of the amount expected in autonomous vehicles of the near future. by Mike Millikin, editor, Green Car Congress. This post is part of the ‘Think Further’ series sponsored by Fred Alger Management.

2015 31

A closer look at the basics of Volkswagen Group’s important new 2.0L diesel MDB engine

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The EA288 2.0-liter diesel, prominently showing the closely attached exhaust aftertreatment system. The cylinder head intake and exhaust valves are arranged one behind the other. This arrangement results in a mixed camshaft, each having an intake and exhaust control.

2014 14

Georgia Tech study suggests one in five materials chemistry papers may be wrong; MOFs as example

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This concept is illustrated by an exhaustive analysis of a topic that has been the focus of thousands of published studies, gas adsorption in metal–organic framework (MOF) materials. … The thousands of research papers yielded just nine MOF compounds for which four or more independent studies allowed appropriate comparison of results. There are other certainly other areas of materials chemistry where this kind of comparison could be done.

Audi power-dense 2.5L TFSI engine with electric biturbo delivers 591 hp from 2,480 cc; 48V subsystem for the turbo

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By comparison: The new Ford Shelby GT 350 will feature a naturally aspirated 5.2L starting from very low revs, the rise in boost pressure and therefore torque becomes gradually greater only as the exhaust energy increases.

2015 19

Wrightspeed unveils new turbine range extender for medium- and heavy-duty electric powertrains; 30% more efficient than current microturbine generators

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kg), for a power-to-weight ratio of 478 W/kg; by comparison, Wrightspeed’s new Fulcrum microturbine offers a power-to-weight ratio of 750 W/kg. Wrightspeed Inc.,

Range 33

Two new studies of road air pollution in London find detrimental effects on over-60s and unborn babies

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Previous research has found that diesel exhaust fumes, particularly fine particulate matter air pollution, has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death, and can cause a worsening of diseases of the airways, such as asthma. By comparison, a walk along Oxford Street led to only a small increase in lung capacity in participants, far lower than recorded in the park.

Pinnacle 4-stroke opposed-piston SI engine shows fuel economy improvements of between 30-60% at light loads, 12-30% at medium loads over conventional

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Comparison of ISFC (@42.9 The test engine for the paper was a 250cc single-cylinder unit with dual-camshaft-actuated reciprocating sleeve valves for induction and exhaust. For a comparison engine, Pinnacle used a 200 cc, conventional two-valve, air-cooled, carbureted model.

2012 19

CPT, TU Wien study finds 48V mild diesel hybrid cuts engine-out NOx 9%, 4.5% fuel economy improvement

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The cost effectiveness of this approach is further underscored by its impact on lean NO x trap (LNT) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment systems, which have less raw NOx emissions to process, potentially allowing for a reduction in exhaust system cost and complexity, and a longer service life. Diesel exhaust systems can also include a diesel particulate filter (DPF), which may also require less frequent purging.

Study finds biodiesel from algae, yeast and bacteria can displace both petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel

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Here, we have selected a representative from each of these three groups, produced biodiesel, have characterized the properties of the fuels in comparison to biodiesel produced from plant oils. Diesel engine torque output as a function of the engine speed (rpm) for the tested fuels.

2012 12

Panasonic and Tokyo Gas introduce home fuel cell unit for condominiums

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In comparison to detached houses, condominiums have more restrictions on the conditions for installations. In addition, in order to meet the installation standards of condominiums, the legs that anchor the unit have been strengthened, making the fuel cell more earthquake resistant, and measures, such as a modified exhaust structure, have improved the wind resistance of the fuel cell, making installation in the upper floors of a condominium and operation in strong winds possible.

CMU team identifies IVOCs emissions from on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road engines as important SOA precursors

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However, only a small fraction of SOA formed during photo-oxidation of dilute LDGV exhaust in a smog chamber is explained by single-ring aromatic compounds. SOA production from measured IVOCs was predicted and compared to that from single-ring aromatic compounds and SOA measured in photo-oxidation experiments with dilute exhaust. There are also differences in the IVOC composition and volatility distribution of gasoline and diesel exhaust.

Study finds that optimizing engine parameters for renewable diesel can reduce PM and NOx both by more than 25%

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It has been already reported that by changing the fuel from conventional EN590 diesel to HVO decreases exhaust emissions. The results show that considerable reductions of exhaust emissions are possible by adjusting the engine settings to better suit the HVO fuel.

2012 12

FEV study finds optimizing engine for renewable diesel use reduces fuel consumption and emissions

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The FEV results are based on a comparison between figures from the use of the engine optimized for Neste MY Renewable diesel and the use of conventional fossil diesel in the same engine, optimized for typical European EN 590 fossil diesel operation at Euro 6 emission level.

Independent testing finds Navistars IC Bus has up to 4.5% advantage in fluid economy over competitive buses: fuel plus urea

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Comparisons of type C buses have typically been centered on fuel economy. to conduct a head-to-head fluid economy comparison. performed independent TMC (Technology & Maintenance Council) Type IV testing of three type C buses with EPA 2010-compliant engines: IC Bus CE Series with EPA 2010 MaxxForce 7 with Advanced EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) vs. a Blue Bird Vision with a Cummins ISB engine and a Thomas C2 with a Cummins ISB engine, both with liquid-urea SCR.

DOE awards ~$25M to 8 projects for CO2 capture and compression; $15M for novel Direct Fuel Cell system

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A DFC stack can thus be used as a carbon purification membrane—transferring CO 2 from a dilute oxidant stream to a more concentrated fuel exhaust stream, allowing the CO 2 to be easily and affordably removed for sequestration or industrial use.

New Audi paintshop at Ingolstadt; heating energy & water per car down by 20%, CO2 by 30%, VOCs by 90%; bell-bell

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The new paint shop incorporates technologies such as air recirculation, dry separation and exhaust air cleaning that enable a significant reduction in the use of resources. Audi has put a new topcoat paint shop into operation at its plant in Ingolstadt.

FEV analysis of automotive-scale Pinnacle opposed-piston engine finds potential for significant increases in fuel economy

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FEV added two additional cylinders, piping, exhaust aftertreatment, and an air cleaner to convert the model from a 250cc single cylinder into a 750 cc three cylinder engine. As a point of baseline comparison, an unnamed production MY2009 1.5L FEV explored addition of VCT for both the intake and exhaust cams, and for intake only. less than with the exhaust cam also phased.

2013 18

Coates setting up subsidiary in China; Coates Spherical Rotary Valve (CSRV) engine

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Comparison of CSRV and conventional poppet valves. This means the engine oil does not see the hottest parts of the engine—the exhaust poppet valves. Coates International , Ltd., the developer of the , is establishing a new subsidiary—Coates Engines, China Ltd.—in

Rotrak testing prototype variable drive supercharger in vehicle on dyno

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Additional benefits in comparison with turbocharger solutions include simpler transient air fuel ration (AFR) control, and reduced thermal inertia in the exhaust, enabling faster catalyst light-off and reduced under hood temperatures.

2012 14