Study finds total PM10 emissions from EVs equal to those of modern ICEVs; role of weight and non-exhaust PM

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Non-exhaust PM factors include tire wear, brake wear, road surface wear and resuspension of road dust. Comparison of the expected total emissions of PM10 for EVs, gasoline ICEVs and diesel ICEVs. Non-exhaust sources account for more than 90% of PM 10 and 85% of PM 2.5

2016 124

Study finds “markedly” high levels of diesel exhaust present in commuter trains powered by locomotives in pull-mode

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However, both measurements also act as proxies for the complex mixture of gases in diesel exhaust, which is an established carcinogen and associated with respiratory, cardiovascular and reproductive health effects. They also took measurements while walking along busy streets in downtown Toronto for comparison.

2017 83

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First results from HEI/ACES murine study find few biologic effects from exposure to exhaust from new technology diesel engines

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The few effects that were reported for the rats were mild hyperplasia (cell proliferation) in the lungs and slightly reduced lung function, and were most consistent with exposure to nitrogen oxides in the engine exhaust, which are being further reduced under 2010 US EPA standards now in effect. Results and Commentary on another ancillary study, assessing the effects of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust on vascular markers, will be published during the fall of 2012.

2012 65

Study finds high exhaust temperatures within NTE operation for heavy-duty diesels with aftertreatment systems contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations

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The transient results illustrate the gradual formation of the nucleation mode particles with continuous increase in exhaust temperatures. The particle number count under those conditions increased by more than an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF-out particle concentrations. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) and urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust after-treatment systems thus have emerged as feasible strategies to meet the 2010 USEPA regulations.

2012 60

SAE Publishes Revised J1711 Standard to Measure Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Economy of Hybrids and Plug-in Hybrids

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A revised J1711 standard from SAE International— J1711 - Recommended Practice for Measuring the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Economy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, including Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (J1711 JUN2010)— provides the procedures to accurately measure exhaust emissions and fuel economy of hybrid (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). There are two basic exhaust emissions and fuel economy tests described in J1711.

2010 60

Ricardo forms company to commercialize cryogenic split-cycle engine: CryoPower

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The Ricardo CryoPower split-cycle engine concept redefines the processes of internal combustion to enable significantly improved internal thermal efficiency in comparison with today’s state-of-the-art engines.

2018 94

Volkswagen Millerized 1.5 TSI ACT BlueMotion gasoline engine offers diesel-like fuel economy; derivatives may be applied in hybrid systems

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By way of comparison: a conventional turbo system diverts part of the exhaust gas stream needed for the forced induction away from the turbine via a wastegate valve as a function of its operating state.

2018 114

IHS: continued legislative focus on pollutants to drive sensor market for internal combustion engines

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The global market for sensors used in internal combustion engines (ICE) is on the road of steady growth for the next few years, propelled by increasing utilization in engine management and exhaust aftertreatment, according to a new report from IHS Technology.

2014 78

Hyundai introduces 2015 Sonata Eco with 1.6L Gamma turbo; 32 mpg combined

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As a comparison, the baseline 2015 Sonata with 2.4-liter engine is EPA-rated at 29 mpg (8.1 By cutting down on exhaust emissions, the engine meets California’s ULEV-2 (Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle) standard as well as Euro 5. 2015 Sonata Eco. Click to enlarge.

2014 84

A closer look at the basics of Volkswagen Group’s important new 2.0L diesel MDB engine

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The EA288 2.0-liter diesel, prominently showing the closely attached exhaust aftertreatment system. The cylinder head intake and exhaust valves are arranged one behind the other. This arrangement results in a mixed camshaft, each having an intake and exhaust control.

2014 120

Mercedes-Benz powering ahead with €3B strategic engine initiative; increasing electrification, 48V; diesel and gasoline; cylinder deactivation

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The new six-cylinder in-line engine comes with an intelligent form of turbocharging: assisted by the ISG at start-off, the electric auxiliary compressor (eZV) guarantees immediate high torque when driving off and accelerating, bridging the time before the large exhaust turbocharger cuts in.

2016 109

EU investing >€3M in research into ultra-efficient aero engines; ULTIMATE project

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Core exhaust loss. The “Core exhaust” loss is primarily due to thermal energy lost to the surroundings, although some excess kinetic energy and fluid friction associated pressure losses contribute as well. Core exhaust loss.

2016 78

Norwegian/Finnish studies find Euro 6 cars exceeding NOx and CO2 type limits in real-world conditions; below on PM

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Comparison between limit values for NO x , PM and CO 2 from EU type approval regulations (black clouds) to emissions in “real life” city traffic from the average Euro 6 diesel passenger car on the Helsinki city cycle. Exhaust emissions from vehicles with Euro 6/VI technology.

2015 112

Oak Ridge researchers pursuing in-cylinder reforming for control of advanced combustion

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The reformate is exhausted to the intake of the remaining cylinders and consumed in spark-ignited (SI) combustion. A comparison of the conceptualized ORNL approach to in-cylinder reforming (left) and the SwRI D-EGR approach (right).

2014 84

KSPG showcases numerous system and components for fuel efficiency at NAIAS; new steel pistons

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For the new, high-performance generation of diesels, KSPG is exhibiting components for the exhaust gas system, steel pistons, and ultramodern high-duty plain bearings. Pierburg GmbH has in recent years launched various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) modules.

2014 78

Motiv Engines introduces 2nd-generation split-cycle concept; MkII Clarke-Brayton heavy-duty engine being designed for LNG

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It expands all the way to ambient pressure before the exhaust stroke. The power is produced in almost a 50-50 split between the combustion (central) and exhaust (largest) pistons. Section of the MkII Clarke-Brayton split-cycle engine. Note the three different cylinder sizes.

2014 119

Study finds modern diesel cars emit fewer carbonaceous particulates than gasoline cars

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For comparison the average and standard deviation of PM emission factors from non-DPF medium duty diesels is shown. (b) c) Averaged THC-normalized exhaust composition (temperature in parentheses) in the smog chamber with uncharacterized emissions in grey.

2017 100

ICCT: 2025 target average of 70 g/km CO2 for new cars in EU feasible and economical; more so with electric drive

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A 2025 CO 2 target of an average 70 g/km for new cars in the EU could be met with very little electrification and with an average payback period of less than 4 years, according to a new study by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT).

2016 124

Mercedes-Benz introducing new diesel family in E 220 d this spring; new OM 654 with 13% lower fuel consumption; diesel “indispensable”

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Further, all the elements of the exhaust aftertreatment system are now configured directly on the engine itself and no longer on the vehicle. All exhaust treatment technologies configured directly on the engine; Significantly lighter and more compact: 168.4

2016 78

BMW provides an update on waste heat recovery projects; Turbosteamer and the Thermoelectric Generator

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Research project Turbosteamer: comparison of the heat exchanger generation 1 (top) and generation 2 (bottom). The primary element was a high-temperature circuit that employed a heat exchanger to recover energy from the engine exhaust gases. TEG integrated in the exhaust manifold.

Waste 122

Reduction in diesel carbonyl emissions using F-T fuel from coal

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Other research has shown that carbonyls directly influence physiological response to diesel exhaust particles and can also contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation. In the Tianjin study, they team fueled a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine fueled with CFT and DF, identifying 13 individual carbonyl compounds in the exhaust. However, the use of CFT resulted in a remarkable reduction in carbonyl emissions in comparison with using DF.

2014 60

Improving performance of 2-methylfuran as alternative SI fuel using cooled EGR

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In the Tianjin study, the team explored the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates from 0% to 15% and compression ratios (CRs) of 8, 9, and 10 on the combustion characteristics and emission performance of 2-methylfuran (MF) and gasoline. In a paper in the journal Fuel , researchers at Tianjin University report on the use of cooled EGR to improve the overall performance of 2-methylfuran (MF) as an alternative fuel.

2014 60

ICCT: real-world NOx from Euro 6 diesel passenger cars more than 2x Euro VI diesel trucks

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For comparison, emissions of a Euro 6 gasoline passenger car. NO x emissions from heavy-duty and light-duty diesel vehicles in the EU: Comparison of real-world performance and current type-approval requirements.

2017 102

Volkswagen introduces new 1L, 3-cylinder gasoline Golf; 54.7 mpg

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Golf Comparisons. Exhaust manifold integrated in cylinder head. The exhaust manifold of the 1.0 The design of the exhaust manifold enabled the use of a compact and lightweight single-scroll compressor with an electric wastegate actuator.

2015 107

Study shows two-stroke scooters dominant source of air pollution in many cities; asymmetric polluters

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Chemical analysis of the emissions shows that SOA is mainly produced via photo-oxidation of aromatic VOCs, present in gasoline, from the exhaust. Levels in the raw 2S scooter exhaust were as high as 300,000 mg m -3 or 146 ppm (v) from idling.

2014 120

German OEMs to upgrade emissions control on 5.3M Euro 5 and 6 diesels, contribute to €500M Sustainable Mobility fund

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The Federal and state governments also expect the manufacturers to use self-financed competitive measures to provide incentives for the change of pre-Euro-5 diesel vehicles to vehicles with the latest exhaust gas aftertreatment or electric vehicles.

2017 78

ICL study of 39 new Euro-6 diesels finds huge variability in NOx emissions with an average 4.5x the type approval limit

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Using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) attached to vehicle exhausts, the researchers collaborated with Emissions Analytics to measure the amount of NO x produced by the 39 Euro 6 diesel cars. Comparison of urban and motorway trip average NO x emissions (note: y axis varies).

2016 104

Ricardo: achieving light-duty diesel RDE NOx compliance in urban driving is possible, at a price

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The cost comparison is with respect to a Euro 5 baseline.

2016 78

Mercedes-Benz Trucks boosts power, lowers emissions and fuel consumption with latest generation OM 470 engine

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All these measures—in conjunction with a reduction in the exhaust gas circulation rate—lead to a further improvement in efficiency across the entire range of the engine mapping. Exhaust gas recirculation. Asymmetric injection optimises exhaust gas quality.

2016 78

CPT, TU Wien study finds 48V mild diesel hybrid cuts engine-out NOx 9%, 4.5% fuel economy improvement

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The cost effectiveness of this approach is further underscored by its impact on lean NO x trap (LNT) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment systems, which have less raw NOx emissions to process, potentially allowing for a reduction in exhaust system cost and complexity, and a longer service life. Diesel exhaust systems can also include a diesel particulate filter (DPF), which may also require less frequent purging.

2017 60

Light duty RCCI can deliver engine-out Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx; potential for 52% gross indicated efficiency

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improvement in total fluid consumption (diesel + diesel exhaust fluid for SCR) over conventional diesel combustion. Reitz (2013) Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition and Conventional Diesel Combustion: A Comparison of Methods to Meet Light-Duty NO x and Fuel Economy Targets. A study by Sage Kokjohn, Senior Engineer in Combustion Research at Cummins Inc., and Prof.

2013 65

DOE awards ~$25M to 8 projects for CO2 capture and compression; $15M for novel Direct Fuel Cell system

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A DFC stack can thus be used as a carbon purification membrane—transferring CO 2 from a dilute oxidant stream to a more concentrated fuel exhaust stream, allowing the CO 2 to be easily and affordably removed for sequestration or industrial use.

2015 97

New Audi paintshop at Ingolstadt; heating energy & water per car down by 20%, CO2 by 30%, VOCs by 90%; bell-bell

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The new paint shop incorporates technologies such as air recirculation, dry separation and exhaust air cleaning that enable a significant reduction in the use of resources. Audi has put a new topcoat paint shop into operation at its plant in Ingolstadt.

2016 98

Study shows viability of RCCI in a two-stroke engine; higher efficiency than direct-injection spark ignition

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The process involves introduction of a low reactivity fuel into the cylinder to create a well-mixed charge of low reactivity fuel, air and recirculated exhaust gases. For their study, the ERC team modified a two-stroke outboard engine to accommodate two direct fuel injectors for RCCI combustion in one cylinder, while the production direct-injection spark ignition combustion system was maintained in the other cylinder for comparison of performances at equivalent operating conditions.

2016 69

Iveco begins deliveries of heavy-duty Euro VI natural gas trucks

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Exhaust gas is treated by a standard passive three-way catalyst that does not require the use of any additives. Natural gas PM emissions are 95% lower in comparison to diesel, and 35% lower in NO x. Lastly, Iveco proposes a quieter vehicle with an average decrease of 5 decibels in comparison to diesel models. Iveco has begun deliveries of the first units of Stralis Natural Power Euro VI, the new heavy-duty range of natural gas-powered vehicles.

2014 60

Comparative study finds that B20 increases emission rates of a number of pollutants in both light- and medium-duty diesel engines at idle

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They found that the level of emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants in diesel exhaust depends on fuel, load, engine calibration, and exhaust aftertreatment technology. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded).

2012 78

Promising Delphi 1st-gen Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition engine meeting ultra fuel efficient program targets

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Due to the lower exhaust enthalpy of lower temperature engines using PPCI, it is difficult to produce intake boost with acceptable boost system parasitis. A practical powertrain system with robust PPCI combustion is needed, including injection, valvetrain, boost, and exhaust subsystems.

2014 107

U Toronto study measures GDI emissions in urban near-road environment

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In comparison, average PN EFs from a PFI vehicle exhibited less spatial variability, with mean PN EFs 15 m from the roadway 17% lower than those measured 3 m from the roadway. Hence, GDI PM mass loadings and chemical composition may vary depending on the measurement environment or exhaust conditioning.

2016 60

CMU team identifies IVOCs emissions from on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road engines as important SOA precursors

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However, only a small fraction of SOA formed during photo-oxidation of dilute LDGV exhaust in a smog chamber is explained by single-ring aromatic compounds. SOA production from measured IVOCs was predicted and compared to that from single-ring aromatic compounds and SOA measured in photo-oxidation experiments with dilute exhaust. There are also differences in the IVOC composition and volatility distribution of gasoline and diesel exhaust.

2016 60

Independent testing finds Navistars IC Bus has up to 4.5% advantage in fluid economy over competitive buses: fuel plus urea

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Comparisons of type C buses have typically been centered on fuel economy. to conduct a head-to-head fluid economy comparison. performed independent TMC (Technology & Maintenance Council) Type IV testing of three type C buses with EPA 2010-compliant engines: IC Bus CE Series with EPA 2010 MaxxForce 7 with Advanced EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) vs. a Blue Bird Vision with a Cummins ISB engine and a Thomas C2 with a Cummins ISB engine, both with liquid-urea SCR.

2011 60