California and China expand partnership on climate change

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and China’s top climate official, National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Vice Chairman Xie Zhenhua, signed an agreement on climate change—the first between the NDRC and a subnational entity. The NDRC oversees China’s efforts to address climate change and much of the government’s economic strategy. California Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr.

NRC report: US Navy, Marines and Coast Guard need to begin now to prepare for effects of climate change in the Arctic

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In response to the measured and projected effects of climate change, US naval forces—i.e., In response to the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), the National Research Council appointed a committee operating under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board to study the national security implications of climate change for US naval forces. Determine the potential impact climate change will have on allied force operations and capabilities.

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Black carbon is a much larger cause of climate change than previously assessed; about twice previous estimates, and 2/3 the effect of CO2

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the distribution of black carbon in the atmosphere and determine its role in the climate system. Black carbon (BC) is the second largest man-made contributor to global warming and its influence on climate has been greatly underestimated, according to the first quantitative and comprehensive analysis of this pollutant’s climate impact. Accounting for all of the ways black carbon can affect climate, it is believed to have a warming effect of about 1.1

Copenhagen Diagnosis Released, Detailing Accelerating Indicators of Climate Change In Last Three Years

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A team of 26 climate scientists from Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States have published the “Copenhagen Diagnosis”, an interim synthesis report on developments in climate change science from mid-2006 to the present day. The report points out that many key harbingers of climate change “ are occurring at the high end or even beyond the expectations of only a few years ago."”

Study projects thermoelectric power in Europe and US vulnerable to climate change due to lower summer river flows and higher river water temperatures

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Projected changes in summer mean usable capacity of power plants in the US and Europe for the SRES A2 emissions scenario for the 2040s (2031–2060) relative to the control period (1971–2000). A study published in Nature Climate Change suggests that thermoelectric power plants (i.e., 16% in the United States depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031—2060. Nature Climate Change doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1546.

Nielsen global survey finds concerns about climate change slipping behind concerns over other environmental issues; air and water pollution top worries, pesticide use #3

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Other environmental concerns have pushed ahead of climate change on a global average basis. Concern about climate change/global warming among online consumers around the world took a back-seat to other environmental issues such as air and water pollution, water shortages, packaging waste and use of pesticides, according to Nielsen’s 2011 Global Online Environment & Sustainability Survey of more than 25,000 Internet respondents in 51 countries.

MIT researchers conclude fundamental changes in the US energy-innovation system are needed to meet challenges of climate change and energy supply

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A three-year study by a team of researchers based at MIT has concluded that fundamental changes are needed in the US energy-innovation system. Without systematic, transformative changes, the US is unlikely to succeed either in averting the worst economic and environmental consequences of climate change or in achieving a secure, affordable and reliable energy supply. Climate Change Market Background Policy

Columbia team organizes available scientific evidence on the effects of air pollution on children’s health

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Researchers at Columbia University, with colleagues at Boston University and Abt Associates, have identified concentration-response (C-R) functions for a number of adverse health outcomes in children associated with air pollutants largely from fossil fuel combustion. The study, led by researchers at the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH), organized the available scientific evidence on the effects of air pollution on children’s health.

2018 85

Columbia University engineers make breakthrough in understanding electroreduction of CO2 for conversion to electrofuels

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Researchers at Columbia University have solved the first piece of the puzzle; they have proved that CO 2 electroreduction begins with one common intermediate, not two as was commonly thought. Our findings about CO 2 activation will open the door to an incredibly broad range of possibilities: if we can fully understand CO 2 electroreduction, we'll be able to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, contributing to the mitigation of climate change.

2018 73

UC Riverside researcher awarded $450K grant to study impact of black carbon particles on climate change and air quality

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A University of California, Riverside assistant professor of chemical and environmental engineering has received a $450,000 grant to study the impact of air-polluting black carbon particles as a way to mitigate climate change. Clouds have an important role in climate change. Understanding aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is imperative for predicting the impact of climate change.

Light-powered nano-bio hybrid organisms consume CO2, create plastics and fuels

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University of Colorado Boulder researchers have developed nanobio-hybrid organisms capable of using airborne carbon dioxide and nitrogen to produce a variety of plastics and fuels, a promising first step toward low-cost carbon sequestration and eco-friendly manufacturing for chemicals. We’re looking at a technique that could improve CO 2 capture to combat climate change and one day even potentially replace carbon-intensive manufacturing for plastics and fuels.

2019 109

Rice researchers show ocean could have contained enough methane to cause drastic climate change 56M years ago

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Analysis by researchers at Rice University suggests that the theory that the release of massive amounts of carbon from methane hydrate frozen under the seafloor 56 million years ago drove a massive climate change incident—the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)—is quite possible. In the ocean, organisms die, sink into the sediment and decompose into methane.

Open Letter by Netherlands Scientists on IPCC and Errors in 2007 Climate Change Report

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In response to the ongoing discussion about the reliability of the UN IPCC and the climate reports, a group of 55 leading Dutch scientists working in the field of climate change, energy and the environment wrote an open letter. Open letter (10 February 2010) to Netherlands parliament by Netherlands scientists on climate change and IPCC. Errors in the IPCC climate change report are being seized by some to discredit climate science.

2007 65

Perspective: Why Carbon Emissions Should Not Have Been the Focus of the UN Climate Change Summit and Why the 15th Conference of the Parties Should Have Focused on Technology Transfer

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Oceans, already expanding from warmth and melting glaciers, would rise, increasing coastal flooding; a chain reaction of climate changes is projected to lead to harsher, more widespread droughts and more powerful storms. US intelligence and defense agencies say such environmental changes can lead to energy insecurity, water and food shortages, and social instability. It’s about time we changed course. COP15 , United Nations Climate Change Conference Copenhagen 2009.

Report Suggests Biorefineries May Have a Major Role in Mitigating Climate Change, Addressing Energy Security, and Creating Economic Growth

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Biorefineries may have a major role to play in mitigating the threat of climate change; meeting the “ seemingly boundless demand ” for energy, fuels, chemicals and materials; and creating economic growth, according to a new report released by the World Economic Forum: The Future of Industrial Biorefineries. The report, was edited and authored by Sir David King at the University of Oxford, was produced in collaboration with Royal DSM N.V.,

ARPA-E awarding $16.5M to six projects for technologies supporting the biofuels supply chain

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Project descriptions: University of Illinois – Urbana. The “System of Systems” Solutions for Commercial Field-Level Quantification of Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrous Oxide Emission for Scalable Applications (SYMFONI) - $4,500,000. The University of Illinois will develop a commercial solution, SYMFONI, to estimate soil organic carbon and the dynamics of nitrous oxide emissions at an individual field level. University of Utah. Princeton University.

2020 69

Researchers Predict Permafrost Thaw Will Intensify Climate Change More Quickly Than Previously Thought; Melting of Greenland Icesheet Could Drive More Water Than Previously Thought to North American Northeast

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As areas with permafrost thaw and more old carbon is released, the carbon balance changes. Before this study, we didn’t know how fast that carbon could potentially be released from permafrost, and how this feedback to climate would change over time. Ted Schuur, University of Florida and lead author of the study. Records from this site exist on a decadal time scale, meaning we are able to more accurately account for the slow pace of change within the system.

New silica-organic hybrid absorbents deliver among highest performance yet reported for CO2 capture from air

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A team from the Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, reports on an improved material for capturing carbon dioxide from the air—silica?organic organic hybrid adsorbents—in a paper published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. It is now widely accepted that anthropogenic CO 2 , due to its role as a greenhouse gas, is the major contributor to climate change.

2012 73

New model framework for improving predictions of black carbon’s radiative effect on climate

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For years, scientists have known that these particles are affecting Earth’s warming climate, but measuring their exact effect has proved elusive. Atmospheric soot particles as seen under a transmission electron microscope are coated by organic and inorganic materials. Absorption by black carbon strongly affects regional and global climate. While soot particles are indeed coated in organic materials, that coating is not uniform from particle to particle.

2020 75

New Tool to Assist in Deciding Whether to Use Managed Relocation of Species in Adaptation to Climate Change

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A new tool to help decision-makers determine if, when and how to use managed relocation of species to help them adapt to rapid climate change and other threats is described in the current issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) by a multi-disciplinary working group. David Richardson of Stellenbosch University in South Africa led the writing of the paper. Now, we are committed to greater degrees of climate change.

2009 60

Study suggests global impact of obesity may be extra ~700MT/y CO2eq: about 1.6% of worldwide GHG emissions

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A new analysis led by a team from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, estimates that on a global scale, obesity contributes to extra GHG emissions of ~49 megatons per year of CO 2 equivalent (CO 2eq ) from oxidative metabolism due to greater metabolic demands; ~361 megatons per year of CO 2 eq from food production processes due to increased food intake; and ~290 megatons per year of CO 2 eq from automobile and air transportation due to greater body weight.

2019 76

Global Mobility Report finds world not on track to achieving sustainable mobility

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The GMR is the first study to assess the global performance of the transport sector and the progress made toward four main objectives: universal access, efficiency, safety, and green mobility. The report was produced by the Sustainable Mobility for All initiative ( SuM4All )—a worldwide consortium of more than 50 leading organizations in the transport sector. The GMR report focuses on two primary impacts: climate change and air and noise pollution.

2017 60

Study finds megacity traffic soot can reach high altitudes and be transported over long distances, contributing to global warming

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From there, BC can be transported over long distances and exert impact on climate and composition of remote southern hemisphere. According to the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), there are still major uncertainties regarding the quantities and distribution of soot in the atmosphere. Therefore, air pollution in this region has a particularly strong impact on the atmosphere and the global climate. Climate Change Emissions

2018 85

Study reorders significance of fungal and bacterial decomposition of organic matter; impact on climate models

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In a 23-year experiment, a team from Lund University, Sweden, and the University of New Hampshire has determined that the common understanding of how organic material is decomposed by fungi and bacteria is fundamentally wrong. This means that climate models that include microorganisms to estimate future climate change must be reconsidered, they said. —Johannes Rousk, researcher in Microbial Ecology at Lund University.

2015 75

Study: expanding Brazilian sugarcane for ethanol could reduce global CO2 emissions by up to 5.6%

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Vastly expanding sugarcane production in Brazil for conversion to ethanol could reduce current global CO 2 emissions by as much as 5.6%, according to a new study by an international team led by researchers from the University of Illinois. However, it could be accomplished without impinging on environmentally sensitive areas in Brazil and while allowing for the expansion of other agricultural crops and human needs, the researchers report in a paper in the journal Nature Climate Change.

2017 60

PNNL-led international study finds ultrafine aerosols have outsize impact on storm clouds, precipitation

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Scientists have known that aerosols may play an important role in shaping weather and climate; the new study shows that the smallest of particles have an outsize effect. Aerosol impacts on cloud processes via this pathway are known as aerosol indirect effects, referred to as aerosol-cloud interaction in the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report. The work was supported by the Department of Energy’s Office of Science and other organizations.

2018 76

Study: California’s cap-and-trade air quality benefits go mostly out of state

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state residents did not see the benefits of improved air quality from presumed reductions in harmful co-pollutants, such as particulate matter— according to a new study led by UC Berkeley and San Francisco State University researchers. Changes in annual average greenhouse gas emissions within California after implementation of the state’s cap-and-trade program. Good climate policy is good for environmental justice.

2018 69

Study finds fleet switch from PFI to GDI engines will result in net reduction in global warming

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A new study quantifying emissions from a fleet of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and port fuel injection (PFI) engines finds that the measured decrease in CO 2 emissions from GDIs is much greater than the potential climate forcing associated with higher black carbon emissions from GDI engines. Widespread adoption of new engine technologies raises concerns about changes in emissions and their effects on air quality and the climate.

2017 75

WHO report urges greater attention to improved land use, rapid transit, cycling and walking to achieve health co-benefits from transport GHG emissions mitigation

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Among strategies to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transport sector, a shift to active transport (walking and cycling) and rapid transit/public transport combined with improved land use can yield much greater immediate health “co-benefits” than improving fuel and vehicle efficiencies, according to a new WHO (World Health Organization) report. —Health co-benefits of climate change mitigation—Transport sector. Climate Change Emissions Health Land use

2011 117

Study casting doubt on GHG benefits of corn stover ethanol draws sharp criticism by other researchers; Liska responds

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A study published earlier this year in the journal Nature Climate Change that cast doubt on whether biofuels produced from corn residue could meet federal mandates for cellulosic biofuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 60% compared to gasoline ( earlier post ) has drawn critical response published as correspondence in the same journal. Sheehan, Mark Easter, William Parton, Keith Paustian and Stephen Williams from Colorado State University; and Paul R.

2014 90

DOE Joint Genome Institute approves 41 projects for 2012 Community Sequencing Program; climate, environment and bioenergy feedstocks

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In an indication of the increasing use of sequencing to study whole biological systems rather than individual organisms, more than half the approved proposals include sequencing of multi-organism samples either instead of or in addition to individual genomes. The projects span the globe and the unexplored branches of the tree of life, and promise to yield a better understanding of the interplay between climate, ecosystem and organism. University of Iceland.

2011 83

Study: IMO low-sulfur fuel standards will decrease childhood asthma cases, premature deaths; climate tradeoffs

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Marine shipping fuels will get cleaner in 2020 when a regulation by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) requires a decrease in the allowable amount of sulfur in fuel oil from 3.5% The study was led by University of Delaware’s James Corbett, and included an international team of researchers from the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in New York and Energy and Environmental Research Associates.

2018 65

Crowdsourcing air pollution measurements: iSPEX-EU 2015

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A collaboration led by researchers at Leiden University in The Netherlands has launched a Europe-wide citizen campaign— iSPEX-EU 2015 —to use a smartphone add-on and app to measure atmospheric aerosols (tiny particles), resulting in a broad-based data set with high spatio-temporal resolution. Atmospheric aerosols play an important but as-yet poorly understood role in climate and air quality, with significant impacts on the environment, health, and air traffic.

2015 89

Study finds that California clean diesel programs have slashed black carbon, a powerful short-term contributor to global warming

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In California, reductions in emissions of black carbon since the late 1980s—mostly from diesel engines as a result of air quality programs—have resulted in a measurable reduction of concentrations of global warming pollutants in the atmosphere, according to a study examining the impact of black carbon on California’s climate. It is also one of the major short-lived contributors to climate change. —“Black Carbon and Regional Climate of California”.

2013 91

Aramco opens R&D center in Detroit area; fuels research with focus on novel fuels/engines systems for reduced CO2

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Aramco’s global fuels research network encompasses Aramco’s Research & Development Center in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; a partnership with the Clean Combustion Research Center at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia; and the Aramco Fuel Research Center, Paris, with the French petroleum research institute IFPEN. Climate Change Emissions Engines Fuels

2015 78

Study finds high concentration of CO2 protects sorghum against drought and improves seeds

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A study by researchers at the University of São Paulo’s Bioscience Institute (IB-USP) in Brazil, with colleagues at the Ohio State University, has found that the rising atmospheric concentration of CO 2 is beneficial for the physiology of sorghum, an economically and nutritionally important crop grown worldwide. The discovery contributes to a better understanding of the impact of climate change on sorghum and other grasses such as sugarcane and maize.

2015 60

Chevy buying carbon credits from US colleges; new formula helps fund campus energy-efficient projects

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Chevrolet is investing in clean energy efficiency initiatives of US colleges and universities through its voluntary carbon-reduction initiative. The funding opportunity is open to all US universities and colleges; a campus determines whether its performance in reducing carbon emissions will qualify based on new methodologies that Chevrolet developed through the Verified Carbon Standard. Ball State University in Muncie, Ind.

2014 85

U Calgary study finds oil shale most energy intensive upgraded fuel followed by in-situ-produced bitumen from oil sands

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A team at the University of Calgary (Canada) has compared the energy intensities and lifecycle GHG emissions of unconventional oils (oil sands and oil shale) alongside shale gas, coal, lignite, wood and conventional oil and gas. Oil shale is fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which shale oil can be produced. Climate Change Emissions Lifecycle analysis Oil Oil sands Oil Shale

Obama climate plan calls for new fuel economy standards for heavy-duty vehicles post-2018; cleaner fuels and investment in advanced fossil energy

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Among the transportation-related elements of US President Barack Obama’s new climate action plan, which he is outlining today in a speech at Georgetown University, is the development of new fuel economy standards for heavy-duty vehicles post-2018. Preparing the US for the impacts of climate change. Preparing the US for the impacts of climate change. Providing a toolkit for climate resilience.

2013 86

Study Finds On-Road Transportation Sector the Greatest Net Contributor to Atmospheric Warming Now and in Mid-Term; Power Sector Takes the Lead by 2050

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A new study by led by Nadine Unger at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) that analyzes the net climate impacts of emissions from economic sectors rather than by individual chemical species has found that on-road transportatation is and will be the greatest net contributor to atmospheric warming now and in the near term. It’s good for the climate in the short term and long term, and it’s good for our health.”. Tags: Climate Change Emissions Policy

2010 124

Study finds rising temperatures increase risk of unhealthy ozone levels absent sharp cuts in precursors

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The RCPs were chosen to represent a broad range of climate outcomes, based on a literature review. Ozone pollution is not emitted directly, but instead forms as a result of chemical reactions that take place between nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. Warmer temperatures and other changes in the atmosphere related to a changing climate, including higher atmospheric levels of methane, spur the chemical reactions that lead to ozone.

2014 73

Qatar University provides first update on R&D on sustainable aviation biofuels; scaling up production

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Qatar University (QU) provided the first public update on the progress of its work on developing sustainable alternative biofuels for aviation on the eve of the UN Climate Change Conference COP-18. The university’s state-backed QR45.5-million (US$12.5 The Peninsula. million) biofuel project, in collaboration with Qatar Airways and Qatar Science and Technology Park (QSTP), is now in its third year.

Qatar 81

US and UK researchers report direct measurement of key atmospheric reactant; more rapid formation of secondary aerosols

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Now, researchers from Sandia National Laboratory’s Combustion Research Facility, the University of Manchester and the University of Bristol report in a paper in Science the first direct kinetics measurements made of reactions of any gas-phase Criegee intermediate, in this case formaldehyde oxide (CH 2 OO). Our results will have a significant impact on our understanding of the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and have wide ranging implications for pollution and climate change.

2012 91