Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. The piece was co-authored by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego climate and atmospheric scientist V. Besides a danger to breathe, ozone lowers crop yields.

Study Concludes Warming Climate Will Increase Ozone Levels in Major California Air Basins; Climate Change and Regional Air Quality Are Intertwined Problems

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Illustration of projected ozone changes in the South Coast region due to climate change in 2050. Areas in orange and red could see ozone concentrations elevated by 9 to 18 parts per billion. In a new report released by the California Air Resources Board, scientists from the University of California at Davis and Berkeley estimate that rising temperatures from climate change will increase ozone levels in California’s major air basins.

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Ozone pollution will worsen climate change impact, study suggest

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Air pollution and ground-level ozone may worsen the impact that climate change is having on food crop production around the world, according to new research. Ground-level ozone is formed when pollutants from cars and industry react with sunlight, with the amount of ozone produced increasing as tem[.].

UN Review of Recent Climate Research Concludes That Impacts Of Climate Change Coming Faster Than Anticipated

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Significant climate anomalies 2008/2009. Source: Climate Change Compendium. A UN review of some 400 major scientific contributions to Earth systems and climate science released through peer-reviewed literature or from research institutions over the last three years, has found that the pace and scale of climate change may now be outstripping even the worst case predictions of the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC).

Studies find global COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced PM2.5 and NO2 pollution, but ozone up

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The gas typically enters the atmosphere through emissions from vehicles, power plants, and industrial activities. However, the drop in nitrogen dioxide pollution has caused an increase in surface ozone levels in China, according to one of the new studies.

2020 254

Cutting Non-CO2 Pollutants Can Delay Abrupt Climate Change; The Fast Action Climate Agenda

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A “fast-action” climate agenda including reducing non-CO 2 climate change agents such as black carbon soot, tropospheric ozone, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), as well as expanding bio-sequestration through biochar production, can forestall fast-approaching abrupt climate changes, according to Nobel Laureate Dr. Mario Molina (Chemistry, 1995) and co-authors in a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Climate policy.

California ARB and NOAA Collaborating in $20M Research on Interaction of Air Pollution and Climate Change; One Atmosphere Approach

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Schematic diagram of the trade-offs between the implications for regional air quality and global climate change of new policies for management of the atmosphere. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are collaborating in the $20-million CalNex research project to examine the nexus between air pollution and climate change. What is the importance of natural emissions to the ozone formation process?

Fast action on black carbon, ozone and methane could help limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees C

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The climate change benefit is estimated for a given year (2050) and human health and crop benefits are. Fast action on pollutants such as black carbon, ground-level ozone and methane may help limit near term global temperature rise and significantly increase the chances of keeping temperature rise below 2 °C (3.6 °F)—and Measures that improve climate change mitigation and air quality and have a large. sector in industrialized countries.

2011 191

UNEP study: small number of measures targeting black carbon and tropospheric ozone could yield immediate climate benefits

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The climate change benefit is estimated for 2050 and human health and crop benefits are for 2030 and beyond. A small number of emissions reduction measures targeting black carbon (BC) and tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) could immediately begin to protect climate, public health, water and food security, and ecosystems, according to a study, Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone , newly released by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

2011 191

Emissions of potent GHG HFC-23 have grown, contradicting reports of huge reductions

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This gas has very few industrial applications. This would have been a big win for climate. That the reduction has not materialized—and that global emissions have instead risen—is a puzzle, and may have implications for the Montreal Protocol, the international treaty that was designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer. Climate Change Emissions Market Background Policy

2020 179

WMO reports GHG concentrations at highest in 800K years

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Concentrations of CO 2 are now 145% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels, according to the Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. Population growth, intensified agricultural practices, increases in land use and deforestation, industrialization and associated energy use from fossil fuel sources have all contributed to increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere since the industrial era, beginning in 1750. This is 122% of pre-industrial levels.

2017 174

California Air Resources Board posts revised draft of strategy to reduce “Super Pollutants”

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The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has posted a revised draft of California’s proposed Short-Lived Climate Pollutant (SLCP) Strategy. SLCPs may account for an estimated 40% of global warming, increasing the impacts of climate change. With the reduction in on-road black carbon, regulators are turning to focus on off-road mobile, fuel combustion in the industrial and power sectors, and woodstoves and fireplaces. Climate Change Emissions Policy Regulations

2016 196

Up close and personal with Volkswagen’s e-Golf carbon offset project: Garcia River Forest

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Emission reductions produced by the project are verified by an approved third party and registered with the Climate Action Reserve (Project ID CAR102 ). Large family and industrial timber interests (including the Garcia River Forest) own 75% of the watershed; 15% is under agricultural use, and 10% is held in small private ownerships. ozone depletion potential (ODP). photochemical ozone creation potential.

2015 268

UN report projects that increasing use of HFCs likely to have a significant climate impact by 2050; equivalent to current total annual emissions from transport

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The decrease in CO 2 equivalent emissions of ODSs (ozone-depleting substances: CFCs, halons, HCFCs, and others) may be offset by the projected increase in their non-ozone depleting substitutes (HFCs) (lines designated as HFC scenarios). Used in products such as air conditioners, refrigerators, firefighting equipment and insulation foams, HFCs are becoming popular as replacements for those phased-out or being phased-out to protect the ozone layer. Climate and the Ozone Layer.

2011 237

Study Concludes that Rocket Launches May Need Regulation to Prevent Ozone Depletion

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The global market for rocket launches may require more stringent regulation in order to prevent significant damage to Earth’s stratospheric ozone layer in the decades to come, according to a new study by researchers in California and Colorado. If left unregulated, rocket launches by the year 2050 could result in more ozone destruction than was ever realized by CFCs.” Solid rocket motors (SRMs) and liquid rocket engines (LREs) deplete the global ozone layer in various capacities.

2009 150

IPCC: GHG emissions accelerating despite mitigation efforts; major institutional and technological change required to keep the heat down

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Decomposition of the decadal change in total global CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion by four driving factors; population, income (GDP) per capita, energy intensity of GDP and carbon intensity of energy. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released a policymaker’s summary of Working Group III’s (WG III) latest report showing that despite a growing number of climate change mitigation policies, annual anthropogenic GHG emissions grew on average by 1.0

2014 218

Study Finds On-Road Transportation Sector the Greatest Net Contributor to Atmospheric Warming Now and in Mid-Term; Power Sector Takes the Lead by 2050

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A new study by led by Nadine Unger at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) that analyzes the net climate impacts of emissions from economic sectors rather than by individual chemical species has found that on-road transportatation is and will be the greatest net contributor to atmospheric warming now and in the near term. Due to the health problems caused by aerosols, many developed countries have been reducing aerosol emissions by industry.

2010 310

Volkswagen to use CO2 as refrigerant for future air conditioning systems

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While last year it appeared that the auto industry as a whole would shift to R-1234yf, in September 2012, Daimler said that internal testing had identified safety (flammability) issues under certain conditions, and that it would not use R-1234yf in its products. R134a replaced CFC-12 as the MAC refrigerant in the early 1990s due to the negative impact of CFCs on the Earth’s ozone layer. With its GWP of 1, it is also the refrigerant that has the least impact on climate.

2013 255

EPA says methane emissions from natural gas production have dropped 36% from 2007-2011

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The figure includes the direct effects and those indirect effects due to the production of tropospheric ozone and stratospheric water vapor.) Anthropogenic sources of CH 4 include natural gas and petroleum systems, agricultural activities, landfills, coal mining, wastewater treatment, stationary and mobile combustion, and certain industrial processes. Climate Change Emissions Natural Gas

2013 236

EPA proposes new standards to reduce methane and VOCs emissions from oil and gas industry

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its latest set of proposed standards to reduce emissions of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the oil and natural gas industry. The proposal also includes incentives to spur the oil and gas industry to minimize leaks. Limit emissions from new and modified pneumatic pumps, which are used throughout the industry from well sites to transmission compressor stations.

2015 205

EPA Issues Proposed Endangerment Finding for Greenhouse Gases; Proposed Cause or Contribute Finding Identifies Motor Vehicles as Contributing Source

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The proposed cause or contribute finding concludes that that the combined emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, and HFCs from new motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines contribute to the atmospheric concentrations of these key greenhouse gases and hence to the threat of climate change. In both magnitude and probability, climate change is an enormous problem. The scientific analysis also confirms that climate change impacts human health in several ways.

2009 150

Study suggests cap and trade programs do not provide sufficient incentives for energy technology innovation; implications for climate policy

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Policies incentivizing the private sector to push to develop innovative “clean” technologies are likely to play a key role in achieving climate stabilization. Respectively, Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act and the Ozone Transport Commission/NO x Budget Program.). Yet policymakers also seldom set targets they don’t have evidence that industry can meet. Climate Change Policy

2012 221

EPA, NSF, NOAA, Southern Company and EPRI contribute >$20M to fund SouthEast Atmosphere Study

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SAS involves dozens of other domestic and international research institutions, and is one of the largest North American air quality and climate studies in decades. SOAS objectives include the direct quantification of VOC, ozone and NO x surface fluxes and the reconciliation of differences with “blank-down” emission estimates. It seeks a better understanding of HO x /NO x /ozone/organics/aerosol distributions, sources and sinks. Climate Change Emissions

EPRI 170

NASA GISS Study Finds That Methane Has an Elevated Warming Effect Due to Interactions With Aerosols

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Despite their limitations, GWPs are widely used for comparison among long-lived gases, forming the basis for worldwide political agreements on climate and carbon trading. Our results suggest that gas-aerosol interactions play an important role in methane’s GWP, and hence our larger value would allow better optimization of climate change mitigation policies. Methane’s GWP may also change with time as air quality regulations alter the background state of tropospheric chemistry.

2009 224

California Air Resources Board adopts GHG cap-and-trade program; first auctions slated for Aug/Nov 2012

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The cap-and-trade joins a suite of other major climate program measures including standards for ultra-clean cars (Advanced Clean Cars, earlier post ), low-carbon fuels (Low Carbon Fuel Standard, earlier post ) and renewable electricity. When the nation addresses the growing danger of climate change, as I believe it must and will, California’s climate plan will serve as the model for a national program. Climate Change Emissions Policy

2011 191

California ARB greenlights states GHG cap-and-trade program

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The regulation—which is a key measure to achieve the greenhouse gas reduction goals of AB 32, California’s climate change law signed by Governor Schwarzenegger in 2006—sets a statewide limit on the emissions from sources responsible for 80% of California’s greenhouse gas emissions and establishes a price signal to drive long-term investment in cleaner fuels and more efficient use of energy. Climate Change Emissions Policy

2010 191

US Climate Action Report to UN Projects 4% Growth in Total US GHG Emissions to 2020

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while the US GDP is projected to grow by 40%, according to the fifth National Communication on US climate change actions submitted by the US Department of State to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The submission of the document, also called the US Climate Action Report 2010, is a requirement under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. US Fifth Climate Action Report. Fifth Climate Action Report.

2010 179

Sponsors of SAE Study Conclude HFO-1234yf Can Be Used As Low-GWP Global Replacement Refrigerant in MAC Systems

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Based on these results, the sponsors of the SAE CRP 1234 have concluded that HFO-1234yf can be used as the global replacement refrigerant in future mobile air conditioning systems and it can be safely accommodated through established industry standards and practices for vehicle design, engineering, manufacturing, and service. HFO-1234yf is a non-Ozone Depleting Substance with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 4. Tags: Climate Change Emissions Vehicle Systems

2009 170

National Academies Report Examines Hidden Cost of Energy Production and Use in US; Estimates $120B in 2005

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Health and other non-climate damages by life-cycle component for different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 (top) and 2030 (bottom). That figure does not include damages from climate change, harm to ecosystems, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to national security, which the report examines but does not monetize. Climate-related monetary damages range from 0.1 Tags: Climate Change Emissions Policy

2005 210

WMO: Atmospheric Concentrations of Main Greenhouse Gases in 2008 Set New Highs

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Relative contribution of major greenhouse gases to the overall change in radiative forcing between 1979 and 1984 (a) and from 2003 to 2008 (b). ppb—higher than those in pre-industrial times (before 1750) by 38%, 157% and 19%, respectively. Its atmospheric abundance was nearly constant at about 280 ppm before industrialization. Before the industrial era, atmospheric methane was about 700ppb. ppb higher than in 2007, and 19% above the pre-industrial level.

2008 191

Study Finds Current Swedish Biofuels Offer Major Climate Benefits; Biogas from Manure the Best

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A study by researchers at Lund University in Sweden found that Swedish biofuels produce between 65 and 148% less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline and diesel, even when direct and indirect land use changes are taken into account. The fuels studied were: biogas from sugar beet, ley crops, maize and waste products in the form of household waste, industrial waste and manure; biodiesel from rapeseed; ethanol from wheat and sugar beet; and ethanol from Brazilian sugar cane.

2010 161

ARB releases proposed cap-and-trade regulation for comment; transportation fuels impacted in 2015

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During the public comment period, ARB staff will continue to meet with stakeholders to refine the regulation and develop proposed changes to present at the Board hearing. The design of the California cap-and-trade program allows linkage with programs established by partner jurisdictions in the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) to create a regional market system. Tags: Climate Change Emissions Fuels Policy

2010 185

House Chairmen Waxman, Markey Release Draft of Energy and Climate Legislation; Among the Many Provisions Are Cap-and-Trade, Harmonization of CAFE and California Vehicle Regulations, and Low Carbon Fuel Standard

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Markey of the Energy and Environment Subcommittee on Tuesday released a draft of far-reaching energy and climate legislation that targets job creation, promotes renewables and energy efficiency, and places limits on emissions of greenhouse gases. A transitioning title intended to protect US consumers and industry and promotes green jobs during the transition to a clean energy economy. Industrial Energy Efficiency. Tags: Climate Change Emissions Policy

2009 174

SCOPE Biofuels Project Releases Assessment on Environmental Effects of Biofuel Technologies

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The economic viability of this technology still needs to be proven, and potential conflicts with traditional wood-based industries should be considered. Criteria that account for the effects of land-use change, or that restrict the types of biofuel feedstocks, could have greater utility. A few studies also include other relevant impact indicators as acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential and various toxicity potentials.

2009 150

Maersk calls for EU enforcement of reefer legislation, pushes its Supotec foam

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Maersk Container Industry (MCI) is calling for tougher enforcement of European environmental legislation designed to protect the Earth’s ozone layer and help prevent climate change. Nymand, CEO for Maersk Container Industry. Current EU legislation bans the “import” or “placing on the market” of reefer containers with significant potential to damage the climate and ozone layer. And SuPoTec causes no harm to the Earth’s ozone layer, unlike HCFC141b.

2013 196

US, China, and G-20 agree to work to global phase down of HFCs

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The US reached separate agreements with the G-20 and with China to address the rapid growth in the use and release of climate-damaging hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HFCs are potent greenhouse gases used in refrigerators, air conditioners, and industrial applications. While they do not deplete the ozone layer, many are highly potent greenhouse gases whose use is growing rapidly as replacements for ozone-depleting substances being phased out under the Montreal Protocol.

2013 179

United States and China agree to work together on phasing down HFCs

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HFCs are potent greenhouse gases used in refrigerators, air conditioners, and industrial applications. While they do not deplete the ozone layer, many are highly potent greenhouse gases. Their use is growing rapidly as replacements for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

Air Resources Board seeks nominations for 2014 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards

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The awards are annually bestowed upon scientists, policy makers, community leaders and educators who have made outstanding contributions to the advancement of clean air and climate change science, technology and policy. Through a series of innovative experiments he demonstrated that most of California’s smog is the result of motor vehicle exhaust and industrial smokestack pollution reacting with sunlight to create ground-level ozone.

2014 200

Cummins CTO John Wall receives California’s premier air quality award

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Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards are given annually to individuals who have made significant lifetime contributions toward improving air quality and climate change science, technology and policy, furthering the protection of public health. The Cummins CTO has consistently taken a proactive environmentally conscious position for the diesel industry throughout his career, ARB said. John Wall, Vice President and Chief Technical Officer of diesel engine manufacturer Cummins Inc.,

2015 192

Indo-US task force to study HFC phase-down

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Reifsnyder, in New Delhi, along with members of industry and civil society groups to discuss the HFC issue. HFCs are chemicals are potential substitutes for ozone-depleting and climate-warming CFCs and HCFCs currently being phased out under the Montreal Protocol treaty to protect the ozone layer. Once agreed, the amendment would ensure climate mitigation of up to 100 billion tonnes of CO 2 -equivalent by 2050, many times more than the Kyoto Protocol climate treaty.

2011 170

Study: air pollution causes 800,000 extra deaths a year in Europe and 8.8 million worldwide

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The researchers used exposure data from a model that simulates atmospheric chemical processes and the way they interact with land, sea and chemicals emitted from natural and man-made sources such as energy generation, industry, traffic and agriculture. and ozone. When we use clean, renewable energy, we are not just fulfilling the Paris Agreement to mitigate the effects of climate change, we could also reduce air pollution-related death rates in Europe by up to 55%.

2019 235

ICCT study finds that transitioning to low-GWP MAC refrigerants in China could avoid up to US$150B in costs

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Among the findings of the report, “HFC-134a phase-out in the Chinese light-duty motor vehicle sector”, was that, considering the social cost of CO 2 e, up to 1 trillion RMB in costs (US$150 billion) required to address climate change could be avoided through 2050 by transitioning to low-GWP alternative MACs. A more aggressive schedule is possible, but the five-year period is generally consistent in the industry retooling cycle.

2016 191

California ARB moves forward with climate and air quality actions

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On the first day of a two-day board meeting—the second day of which (Friday 24 March) will consider the Advanced Clean Cars Midterm Review—the California Air Resources Board (ARB) took a number of climate and air quality actions. The plan, California’s Short-lived Climate Pollutant Reduction Strategy, maps out the route to more rapid greenhouse gas reductions by clamping down on these super pollutants.

2017 183