TOAR shows present-day global ozone distribution and trends relevant to health; public database

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Ozone levels across much of North America and Europe dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. People living in parts of southern Europe, South Korea and southern Japan and China also experienced more than 15 days a year of ozone levels above 70 ppb.

2018 112

EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan sees likely increase in tropospheric ozone, with more difficulty in attaining NAAQS in many areas

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Among the many climate-related vulnerabilities that can impact its mission, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cites a likely increase in tropospheric ozone pollution as potentially making it more difficult to attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards ( NAAQS ) in many areas with existing ozone problems. The analysis comes in a draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan that the agency has released for public comment. Climate Change Emissions Policy

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UNEP study: small number of measures targeting black carbon and tropospheric ozone could yield immediate climate benefits

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The climate change benefit is estimated for 2050 and human health and crop benefits are for 2030 and beyond. Black carbon and tropospheric ozone are harmful air pollutants that also contribute to climate change. Climate Change Diesel Emissions Policy

2011 99

New international Climate and Clean Air Coalition to focus on reduction of short-lived climate pollutants

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Global benefits from full implementation of measures for reduction of short-lived climate pollutants in 2030 compared to the reference scenario. The climate change benefit is estimated for a given year (2050) and human health and crop benefits are. Climate Change Emissions Policy

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. The piece was co-authored by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego climate and atmospheric scientist V. Besides a danger to breathe, ozone lowers crop yields.

Study Concludes Warming Climate Will Increase Ozone Levels in Major California Air Basins; Climate Change and Regional Air Quality Are Intertwined Problems

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Illustration of projected ozone changes in the South Coast region due to climate change in 2050. Areas in orange and red could see ozone concentrations elevated by 9 to 18 parts per billion. In a new report released by the California Air Resources Board, scientists from the University of California at Davis and Berkeley estimate that rising temperatures from climate change will increase ozone levels in California’s major air basins.

Study: surface ozone in India in 2005 damaged 6M tonnes of crops, enough to feed 94M people in poverty

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Ozone, the main component of smog, is a plant-damaging pollutant formed by emissions from vehicles, cooking stoves and other sources. New research shows that ozone pollution damaged millions of tons of wheat, rice, soybean and cotton crops in India in 2005. Surface ozone pollution in India damaged 6 million metric tons (6.7 Rising emissions are causing severe ozone pollution in some of India’s most populated regions. Smog in India.

2005 82

California ARB moves forward with climate and air quality actions

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On the first day of a two-day board meeting—the second day of which (Friday 24 March) will consider the Advanced Clean Cars Midterm Review—the California Air Resources Board (ARB) took a number of climate and air quality actions.

2017 95

EPA proposes approval of new ozone plans for the two of the worst Air Quality Zones in US: California’s San Joaquin Valley and South Coast

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US EPA Region 9 8-hour ozone trends, 1979-2000. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to approve the 8-hour ozone air quality plans—which include their attainment demonstrations, enforceable commitments and reductions from new technologies—for California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and South Coast (SC) areas, two of the worst air quality areas left in the country. Children and the elderly are most impacted by ozone pollution.

2011 81

Cutting Non-CO2 Pollutants Can Delay Abrupt Climate Change; The Fast Action Climate Agenda

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This would mean that the climate system is close to entering if not already within the zone of “dangerous anthropogenic interference” (DAI). “We Cutting HFCs, black carbon, tropospheric ozone, and methane can buy us about 40 years before we approach the dangerous threshold of 2°C warming. —co-author

Air Resources Board seeks nominations for 2014 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards

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The California Air Resources Board is accepting applications for the 2014 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards. The awards are annually bestowed upon scientists, policy makers, community leaders and educators who have made outstanding contributions to the advancement of clean air and climate change science, technology and policy. The 2014 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards nomination period is between1 Oct. Past Winners of the Haagen-Smit Clean Air Award.

2014 80

California ARB and NOAA Collaborating in $20M Research on Interaction of Air Pollution and Climate Change; One Atmosphere Approach

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Schematic diagram of the trade-offs between the implications for regional air quality and global climate change of new policies for management of the atmosphere. The complex roles that ozone and aerosols play in the atmosphere provide examples of such trade-offs.

ARB posts discussion draft of new proposed mobile-source emissions reduction strategy through 2030; Advanced Clean Cars 2 regulation

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ARB staff developed this strategy using a multi-pollutant scenario planning tool ( Vision 2.0 ) that quantifies changes in ozone and PM 2.5 The California Air Resources Board (ARB) staff has published a discussion draft of a.

2015 103

Study suggests cap and trade programs do not provide sufficient incentives for energy technology innovation; implications for climate policy

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Policies incentivizing the private sector to push to develop innovative “clean” technologies are likely to play a key role in achieving climate stabilization. Respectively, Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act and the Ozone Transport Commission/NO x Budget Program.). The lower-than-expected price signal did cause emissions sources to reassess their clean technology investments, however, and led to significant cancellations, Taylor reported. Climate Change Policy

2012 88

Report argues advanced HD natural gas vehicles foundational for California to hit air and climate goals; near zero-emission potential

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Compared to the 2010 “Business as Usual” scenario—which includes all adopted emission control measures for the South Coast—NO x levels must be reduced by 65% and by 75% to meet the 2023 and 2032 ozone standards, respectively.

2014 113

California ARB releases final version of proposed update to Climate Change Scoping Plan; LEV IV

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the final version of the proposed First Update to the Climate Change Scoping Plan (First Update). Continuing progress on light-duty vehicles beyond the scope of the Advanced Clean Cars program with a LEV IV standard targeted at achieving additional GHG emission reductions of about five percent per year beyond 2025 would reduce new vehicle emission standards to about 125 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per mile (gCO 2 e/mi) in 2030 and to below 100 gCO 2 e/mi by 2035.

Study findings suggest that switching from coal to natural gas would do little for global climate

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Although the burning of natural gas emits far less carbon dioxide than coal, a new study by Tom Wigley, a senior research associate at the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and an adjunct professor at the University of Adelaide in Australia, concludes that a greater reliance on natural gas would fail to significantly slow down climate change. The study will appear next month in the peer-reviewed journal Climatic Change Letters.

2011 107

US Climate Action Report to UN Projects 4% Growth in Total US GHG Emissions to 2020

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while the US GDP is projected to grow by 40%, according to the fifth National Communication on US climate change actions submitted by the US Department of State to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The submission of the document, also called the US Climate Action Report 2010, is a requirement under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The United States released previous Climate Action Reports in 1994, 1997, 2002, and 2006.

2010 71

Study Highlights the Importance of Considering Climate Effects of Non-CO2 Emissions from Transport in Mitigation Strategies and Policies

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The on-road transportation (ORT) and power generation (PG) sectors are major contributors to CO 2 emissions and a host of short-lived radiatively-active air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone and fine aerosol particles, that exert complex influences on global climate.

2009 78

Emissions of potent GHG HFC-23 have grown, contradicting reports of huge reductions

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This would have been a big win for climate. That the reduction has not materialized—and that global emissions have instead risen—is a puzzle, and may have implications for the Montreal Protocol, the international treaty that was designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer. Climate Change Emissions Market Background Policy

2020 71

Researchers Determine Process Through Which Hydrocarbon Compounds Emitted by Trees Form Aerosols, With Impact on Human Health and Climate

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Aerosols impact human health, due to their ability to penetrate deep into lungs, and impact Earth’s climate through the scattering and absorption of solar radiation and through serving as the nuclei on which clouds form, noted co-author Prof. Tags: Climate models Emissions Health

2009 78

International study identifies 14 key measures to reduce methane and black carbon emissions; reduction in projected global mean warming of ~0.5 °C by 2050

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Circle areas are proportional to values for (A and B) climate change, (C and D) human health (values for population over age 30), and (E and F) agriculture. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and an important precursor to ground-level ozone. Black carbon Climate Change Emissions

2012 113

San José International deploys 10 Proterra electric buses in airport fleet

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The electric bus fleet is anticipated to reduce ozone emissions by 1.1 The electric buses are powered by the City’s own San José Clean Energy source, contributing to the Airport meeting its sustainability goals in conjunction with Climate Smart San José.

2019 137

NASA GISS Study Finds That Methane Has an Elevated Warming Effect Due to Interactions With Aerosols

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Despite their limitations, GWPs are widely used for comparison among long-lived gases, forming the basis for worldwide political agreements on climate and carbon trading. And hydroxyls drive long chains of reactions involving other common gases, including ozone.

2009 116

House Chairmen Waxman, Markey Release Draft of Energy and Climate Legislation; Among the Many Provisions Are Cap-and-Trade, Harmonization of CAFE and California Vehicle Regulations, and Low Carbon Fuel Standard

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Markey of the Energy and Environment Subcommittee on Tuesday released a draft of far-reaching energy and climate legislation that targets job creation, promotes renewables and energy efficiency, and places limits on emissions of greenhouse gases. The bill also modifies the Clean Air Act to require the development of greenhouse gas emissions standards for all other mobile sources—e.g., Clean Fuels and Vehicles. Clean Air Act Exemptions. Exporting Clean Technology.

2009 69

California Air Resources Board posts revised draft of strategy to reduce “Super Pollutants”

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The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has posted a revised draft of California’s proposed Short-Lived Climate Pollutant (SLCP) Strategy. SLCPs may account for an estimated 40% of global warming, increasing the impacts of climate change. Climate Change Emissions Policy Regulations

2016 102

MIT study finds air quality co-benefits of US carbon policies can significantly offset costs, depending upon the policy

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Air quality co-benefits are additional to climate benefits realized from reduced CO 2 emissions.). In a paper published in the journal Nature Climate Science , the MIT researchers took a systems-level approach to analyzing how climate policies influence air quality, focusing on US emissions of O 3 and PM 2.5 In 2011, 231 counties in the US exceeded the EPA’s regulatory standards for ozone, the main component of smog. Climate Change Emissions Health Policy

2014 80

Northwestern/Princeton study explores air quality impacts of aggressive conversion to EVs

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Among the findings: Summer surface ozone (O 3 ) decreases in most locations due to widespread reductions of traffic NO x emissions. Across scenarios, we found the more cars that transitioned to electric power, the better for summertime ozone levels.

2019 121

EPA report to Congress finds a strong scientific and technical foundation for mitigating black carbon emissions

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has submitted its final Report to Congress on Black Carbon , in response to an October 2009 request from Congress to advance efforts to understand the role of black carbon (BC) in climate change. Effects of BC on climate, as compared to GHGs.

EPA Issues Proposed Endangerment Finding for Greenhouse Gases; Proposed Cause or Contribute Finding Identifies Motor Vehicles as Contributing Source

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The issuance of an endangerment finding enables the regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. The proposed cause or contribute finding concludes that that the combined emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, and HFCs from new motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines contribute to the atmospheric concentrations of these key greenhouse gases and hence to the threat of climate change. In both magnitude and probability, climate change is an enormous problem.

2009 60

EPA proposes retaining current NAAQS for particulate matter

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The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to set NAAQS for criteria pollutants —currently PM, ground-level ozone (O 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) The law requires the EPA to periodically review the relevant scientific information and the standards and revise them, if appropriate, to ensure that the standards provide the requisite protection for public health and welfare.

2020 68

EPA, NHTSA issue One National Program Rule; EPA withdraws CA waiver for GHG and fuel economy

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For its part, EPA is withdrawing the Clean Air Act preemption waiver it granted to the State of California in January 2013 as it relates to California’s GHG and ZEV programs. California’s ability to enforce its Low Emission Vehicle program and other clean air standards to address harmful smog-forming vehicle emissions—i.e., The California waiver authority exists because California has uniquely difficult problems with ozone-forming pollutants.

2019 77

US EPA proposing allowing high-octane, higher ethanol content fuels as part of Tier 3 regs; E30 as example

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Currently, the Clean Air Act limits the volatility of gasoline to 9.0 psi RVP in southern ozone non-attainment areas—but allows a 1 psi RVP waiver for E10. Climate Change Emissions Engines Fuel Efficiency Fuels High Octane Fuels Policy

2013 86

Calif. ARB releases GHG scoping plan update; more ZEVs, “LEV IV”, MD and HD regulations; ZEV for trucks; more LCFS

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The update identifies eight key sectors for ongoing action: Energy; Transportation, fuels, land use and infrastructure; Agriculture; Water; Waste management; Natural lands; Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (such as methane and black carbon); and Green Buildings. Many of the strategies employed to reduce GHG emissions will also work to meet the national ambient air quality standard for ozone in 2032.

2014 91

California Air Resources Board adopts GHG cap-and-trade program; first auctions slated for Aug/Nov 2012

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The cap-and-trade joins a suite of other major climate program measures including standards for ultra-clean cars (Advanced Clean Cars, earlier post ), low-carbon fuels (Low Carbon Fuel Standard, earlier post ) and renewable electricity. Cap-and-trade is another important building block in California’s effort to create a clean and vibrant economy. the destruction of existing stores of ozone-depleting substances in the U.S. Climate Change Emissions Policy

2011 76

Study finds anthropogenic PM and dust undercutting global solar energy production

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The data showed a 50% jump in efficiency each time the panels were cleaned after being left alone for several weeks. The manmade particles are also small and sticky, making them much more difficult to clean off. If cleanings take place every two months, those numbers jump to 25 or 35%.

2017 98

California ARB soliciting research suggestions for FY 2012-2013 plan; sustainable communities, behavior, pollutant exposure, air pollution science, GHG targets

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Sustainable Communities : The Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act of 2008 (SB 375) directs California’s metropolitan planning organizations to develop sustainable communities strategies that meet regional greenhouse gas reduction targets through integrated land use, housing and transportation planning. Behavior and Technology adoption : Strategies to improve air quality depend not only on sound technologies, but on adoption and appropriate use of clean technologies.

2011 80

New international study finds lab testing of diesel NOx emissions underestimates real-world levels by up to 50%

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The research, led by the International Council on Clean Transportation and Environmental Health Analytics, LLC., —Josh Miller, researcher at the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT). The team then computed the impacts on health, crops and climate.

2017 104

Stanford Professor Urges EPA to Include Black Carbon in Endangerment Finding

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In testimony for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) public hearing ( earlier post ) on the proposed endangerment finding for greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act ( earlier post ), Stanford Professor Mark Jacobson urged the EPA to include black carbon in the finding. Immediate GHG control is still absolutely necessary to stem short and long-term climate damage. F, with about 40% due to ozone. Tags: Black carbon Climate Change Emissions Policy

2009 60

Study: air pollution causes 800,000 extra deaths a year in Europe and 8.8 million worldwide

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and ozone. When we use clean, renewable energy, we are not just fulfilling the Paris Agreement to mitigate the effects of climate change, we could also reduce air pollution-related death rates in Europe by up to 55%.

2019 112

Cummins CTO John Wall receives California’s premier air quality award

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is one of the three recipients of the 2014 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards , California’s premier award recognizing individuals who have made outstanding contributions to improving air quality. Haagen-Smit Clean Air Awards are given annually to individuals who have made significant lifetime contributions toward improving air quality and climate change science, technology and policy, furthering the protection of public health.

2015 77

EPA proposes new rules to reduce global warming HFC emissions from refrigerants

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Specifically, the proposed rule updates the current prohibition under section 608 of the Clean Air Act against knowingly venting, releasing or disposing of ozone-depleting (ODS) and substitute refrigerants and extends the requirements, as appropriate, to non-ozone-depleting substitute refrigerants, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). EPA has proposed a new to reduce emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), potent greenhouse gases used in refrigeration and air conditioning.

2015 77

ICCT study finds that transitioning to low-GWP MAC refrigerants in China could avoid up to US$150B in costs

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A new study from the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) assesses the feasibility, benefits, and costs of phasing out HFC-134a as the refrigerant in mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in the Chinese LDV fleet, focusing on three alternatives with lower global warming potential (GWP) most likely to be adopted by automakers with a global supply chain: HFO-1234yf, HFC-152a, and CO 2.

2016 76