Photocatalytic optical fibers convert water into hydrogen

Green Car Congress

Researchers at the University of Southampton have transformed optical fibers into photocatalytic microreactors that convert water into hydrogen fuel using solar energy. This as an ideal example of chemical engineering for a 21 st century green technology.

2020 307

Building materials recycler switches fleet to Neste renewable diesel

Green Car Congress

Our environmental track record and continual efforts to help our customers build more sustainable communities played a major role in our decision to use renewable diesel in our fleet. There’s no change in engine performance.

2020 358
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The Game-Changing Water Revolution: Interview with Stanley Weiner

Green Car Congress

Globally, water demand is threatening to dangerously outpace supply, while in the US, dry states such as Texas and California are suffering from shortages and the future forebodes more suffering. For the North American shale boom, the lack of water is suffocating. The water revolution is here, according to Stanley Weiner, CEO of STW Resources -a Texas-based company that has the exclusive North American license for Dutch-developed next-generation Salttech desalination technology.

2015 221

MAN presents hydrogen roadmap; use in fuel cells and combustion engines

Green Car Congress

MAN plans to build prototype vehicles as early as next year in line with the currently ongoing development projects. MAN is testing both the use of a fuel cell and an H 2 combustion engine. Engines Fuel Cells Heavy-duty Hydrogen

2020 372

SwRI, UTSA seek to combine reverse water-gas shift and Fischer Tropsch synthesis in single reactor to produce low-carbon hydrocarbon fuels

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The work, led by Dr. Grant Seuser of SwRI’s Powertrain Engineering Division and Dr. Gary Jacobs of UTSA’s College of Engineering, is supported by a $125,000 grant from the Connecting through Research Partnerships (Connect) Program. To accomplish this, they plan to build a single reactor capable of performing two chemical processes in one step.

Carbon 170

Libertine awarded $3.6M to develop renewable-fueled free-piston-engine range extenders for battery electric trucks

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Libertine FPE, the creator of Smart Engine control technology for free piston engine (FPE) generators, has secured £2.6 Libertine’s free-piston engines contain pairs of pistons which are free to slide within a linear combustion cylinder. Electric (Battery) Engines

Engine 241

Ford targeting 30% reduction in water used per vehicle by 2015

Green Car Congress

Ford plans to cut the amount of water used to make each vehicle 30% globally by 2015, compared with the amount of water used per vehicle in 2009. If Ford meets the 30% goal, the amount of water used to make a vehicle will have dropped from 9.5 Ford is also developing year-over-year efficiency targets as part of its annual environmental business planning process and has established a cross-functional team spanning several divisions to review water usage more holistically.

Water 218

Ford launches the 1.5L EcoBoost engine; first in Mondeo, Fusion following; computer-controlled clutch on water pump

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EcoBoost engine. Ford Motor Company officially launched the new 1.5-liter EcoBoost engine into its lineup. The new engine will be first introduced in China in the all-new Ford Mondeo, making its public debut later this month at Auto Shanghai 2013 ( earlier post ), with applications following in the Fusion sedan in North America this year, and later the new Mondeo in Europe. A water-cooled charge air cooler is added to offer a more efficient feed of air into the engine.

2013 210

Novel microsphere photocatalysts show good performance for water splitting and water cleaning

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Researchers at the National University of Singapore and the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) in Singapore have produced novel microsphere catalysts that can improve water quality in daylight and also generate hydrogen as a green energy source. The novel multielement Au/La-SrTiO 3 microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method using monodisperse gold and La-SrTiO 3 nanocrystals as building blocks.

2014 185

Researchers split water by altering photosynthetic machinery in plants; semi-artificial photosynthesis

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They used natural sunlight to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen using a mixture of biological components and manmade technologies. A new paper, published in Nature Energy , outlines how the researchers at the Reisner Laboratory in Cambridge developed their platform to achieve unassisted solar-driven water-splitting. Here, we report a bias-free semi-artificial tandem platform that wires photosystem II to hydrogenase for overall water splitting.

2018 190

SpaceX rolls Starship launch tower section, giant water tank to orbital pad

Teslarati

A few days of delays aside, the latest transport simultaneously rolled a massive 12m (40 ft) wide water tank and another prefabricated section of SpaceX’s skyscraper-sized orbital launch tower to a nascent orbital launch site adjacent to two well-worn suborbital pads.

Water 79

Rice team demonstrates plasmonic hot-electron solar water-splitting technology; simpler, cheaper and efficient

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Researchers at Rice have demonstrated an efficient new way to use solar energy for water splitting. In contrast to past work, the new architecture does not utilize a Schottky junction—the commonly used building block to collect hot carriers. a) Plasmonic photocathode for solar water splitting, consisting of plasmonic nanoparticles in direct contact with water, p-NiO x as an electron blocking layer, and aluminum as the electrode material. (b)

2015 229

Caltech engineers devise new thermochemical cycle for water splitting for H2; recyclable, non-toxic, non-corrosive and at lower temperatures

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The research group led by Mark Davis, the Warren and Katharine Schlinger Professor of Chemical Engineering at Caltech, describes the new, four-reaction process in an open access paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Research on thermochemical water splitting cycles largely began in the 1960s and 1970s and involved nuclear reactors and solar collectors as the energy sources, the team notes in their paper.

2012 185

DARPA awards LiquidPiston $2.5M to advance further X4 rotary engine prototype

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million to continue development of a new, patented, high-efficiency, lighter-weight rotary engine. LiquidPiston, a developer of advanced combustion engine technology, received the award for the first phase of a program to realize the full capability of its patented high-efficiency hybrid cycle (HEHC) engine. hp/lb, making it up to ten times (10x) more powerful than a standard diesel engine with the same weight. Water may be injected to internally cool the engine.

2016 293

NSF announces $55M toward national research priorities; intersection of food, energy and water systems

Green Car Congress

The National Science Foundation (NSF) has made 11 awards totaling $55 million aimed at building research capacity to develop new innovations at the intersection of food, energy and water systems and to address fundamental questions about the brain. RII Track-2 builds national research strength by initiating collaborations across institutions in two or more EPSCoR jurisdictions. Research at the nexus of food, energy and water.

2016 150

New robust triple-layer bifunctional catalyst for water splitting with earth-abundant materials

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A new robust and highly active bifunctional catalyst developed by Rice University and the University of Houston splits water into hydrogen and oxygen without the need for expensive metals such as platinum. The work, the team suggests, provides a facile strategy for fabricating highly efficient electrocatalysts from earth-abundant materials for overall water splitting. The lower you can get it, the closer you come to making it as efficient as possible for water splitting.

2017 150

Cyclone Power Technologies’ licensee in China completes build of initial prototype engines

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External combustion engine developer Cyclone Power Technologies announced that its licensee in China, Great Wall Alternative Power Systems Ltd., has completed the build of the first prototype engines under its license agreement and has begun in-house testing of these units. The engines built by Great Wall are based on Cyclone’s WHE-25 design, and are meant for use with biomass-to-power generator systems.

2012 185

Ford cuts global water use 8.5% per vehicle from 2011 to 2012; total usage down 62% since 2000

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Ford has reduced the average amount of water used to make each of its vehicles by 8.5% Since 2000, Ford has reduced the amount of water used around the world from 64 million cubic meters to 24 million cubic meters—a reduction of about 10.6 Ford aims to use an average of 1,056 gallons of water to make each vehicle globally—consistent with its overall goal of a 30% reduction in the amount of water used per vehicle between 2009 and 2015.

2000 210

Geely invests in Carbon Recycling Intl.; vehicles fueled by methanol from CO2, water and renewable energy

Green Car Congress

Geely Auto has invested significant resources in the development and promotion of methanol-fueled engines and vehicles over a long period and has already made progress with this technology in China. This investment will build on our existing methanol technology, facilitating even more valuable solutions and helping to propel this part of our business in China. Zhejiang Geely Holding Group (Geely Group) will invest a total of US$45.5 million in Carbon Recycling International (CRI).

2015 210

Ricardo investigating potential for its split-cycle engine in large engine market

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Ricardo is exploring the value proposition for applications of its novel split-cycle combustion engine ( earlier post ). In a poster-session paper presented at CIMAC Congress 2016 in Finland, Ricardo described the use of this split-cycle concept in high- and medium-speed engines for power generation to achieve efficiencies of 60% from units of 1–30 MW mechanical output. Illustrative split cycle engine layout in a V configuration (cross section view).

2016 183

MIT researchers advancing development of supercritical water upgrading of heavy crude; lower cost, energy use and CO2

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Findings by MIT researchers could help advance the commercialization of supercritical water technology for the desulfurization and upgrading of high-sulfur crude oil into high-value, cleaner fuels such as gasoline without using hydrogen—a major change in refining technology that would reduce costs, energy use, and CO 2 emissions. Crane ('72) Professor of Mechanical Engineering at MIT. Although oil and water don’t normally mix, using supercritical water solves that problem.

2015 210

Nissan to use mirror bore process on new 2.5L engine for Altima; highest volume application of technique

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Nissan’s Decherd assembly line is using a mirror bore process in the all-new 2019 Nissan Altima 2.5-liter engine. (At engine for the Altima, including the mirror bore coating.). The team in Decherd assembles an engine every 19 seconds and is capable of building about 1.4 million engines a year. Many engines today use lightweight aluminum materials for the cylinder block. First, by removing the cylinder liner, the design realizes a lighter engine.

2019 211

Elio Motors unveils engine prototype for 84 mpg highway 3-wheeler

Green Car Congress

Elio Motors, the start-up developing a $6,800, 84-mpg- (2.8l/100 km) three-wheeled vehicle with a target date of 2016, unveiled its engine prototype: a 0.9-liter, 3-cylinder unit developed by IAV. The original engine concept for the three-wheeler was to take the Geo Metro engine and create a template for the Elio engine; the Metro engine was compact, perceived to be efficient, had the correct power requirements, and is relatively inexpensive to produce.

2015 257

Lucid shows the tedious process of building the Air Dream Edition by hand

Teslarati

Lucid Motors detailed the tedious process of building its introductory electric vehicle, the Air Dream Edition, by hand in a recent video the automaker posted to its website. We take the unit, start with the handle lock mechanisms, and we take the car to the water test, squeak and rattles.

Achates Power continues development of opposed-piston technology for US Army vehicles

Green Car Congress

Achates Power was recently awarded a $5-million contract from the US Army to expand the family of opposed-piston engines for military vehicles. The project, awarded in late-2020, builds upon the success of the Advanced Combat Engine (ACE).

Power 339

UC Berkeley hybrid semiconductor nanowire-bacteria system for direct solar-powered production of chemicals from CO2 and water

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Researchers at UC Berkeley have developed an artificial photosynthetic scheme for the direct solar-powered production of value-added chemicals from CO 2 and water using a two-step process involving a biocompatible light-capturing nanowire array with a direct interface with microbial systems. Nature transforms CO 2 into a variety of complex molecules using a limited number of biosynthetic intermediates as building blocks.

2015 203

Rochester researchers demonstrate robust photogeneration of hydrogen in water using semiconductor nanocrystals and a nickel catalyst

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Researchers at the University of Rochester (New York) have developed a robust and highly active system for solar hydrogen generation in water using semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) and a nickel catalyst. We report here a system that provides light-driven H 2 production with exceptional longevity, maintaining its high activity with no decrease for over two weeks using water as solvent. The nanocrystals were capped with DHLA (dihydrolipoic acid) to make them water-soluble.

2012 196

ARPA-E announces $98M in funding for 40 OPEN projects; two opposed-piston engines projects receive $10M total

Green Car Congress

OPEN solicitations are an open call to scientists and engineers for transformational technologies across the entire scope of ARPA-E’s energy mission. The top awardee in this segment is Pinnacle Engines ( earlier post ), which is receiving $8 million for the design and demonstration of an electrification-enabled full-featured opposed piston 4-stroke engine for hybrid and range extender applications. ARPA-E Batteries Engines Fuel Cells Fuel Efficiency Hybrids

2018 211

Daimler Trucks NA SuperTruck achieves 115% freight efficiency improvement over 2009 baseline; 50.2% engine BTE

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Testing was also conducted at the DTNA Detroit engineering facility to demonstrate engine efficiency by achieving 50.2% engine brake thermal efficiency. The Freightliner SuperTruck uses a downsized and downsped 10.7-liter engine, a hybrid system, a Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system, along with a number of other upgrades. The 390 hp/1400 lb-ft torque (291 kW/1,898 N·m) engine features a revamped combustion system. Engines Fleets Fuel Efficiency Heavy-duty

2015 292

PNNL study uncovers role of water in forming impurity in bio-oil upgrading; insight into fundamentals of biofuel catalysis

Green Car Congress

In working to elucidate the chemistry of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) for the catalytic upgrading of pyrolytic bio-oil to fuel-grade products, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have discovered that water in the conversion process helps form an impurity which, in turn, slows down key chemical reactions. The results of the study apply not only to water but to related liquids in bio-oil such as alcohols and certain acids.

2014 185

2018 VW Tiguan and new 2.0 TSI B-cycle engine gives VW a strong offering in compact SUV segment

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The all-new 2018 Volkswagen Tiguan—the second-generation of the vehicle—is powered by the latest version of the EA888 four-cylinder engine, the 2.0L This is the only engine/transmission combination available in the Tiguan in the US. The core element of the new engine is a new combustion process combining short intake events with a high compression ratio. Engine. Engine. engine in the Volkswagen Group.).

2017 255

Ford launches 10-year project to transform Dearborn campus; sustainability in the built environment; Living Building Challenge

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The 10-year transformation of the company’s more than 60-year-old Dearborn facilities will colocate 30,000 employees from 70 buildings today into primarily two locations—a product campus and a world headquarters campus. Among the key criteria is that 100% of the building’s energy needs on a net annual basis must be supplied by on-site renewable energy. Construction of the new product campus begins this month at the Ford Research and Engineering Center.

2016 150

Van Hool to build 40 hydrogen buses for Cologne and Wuppertal (Germany); largest fuel cell bus order in Europe to date

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Hydrogen is converted to electricity in the fuel cell, with water vapour as its only emission, while the batteries provide additional power wherever and whenever needed. Ballard believes that its fuel cell engine product line has an unparalleled performance record. Van Hool has been building hydrogen buses for the American market since 2005 and for the European market since 2007.

2018 239

MOL orders methanol carriers with first methanol dual-fuel engines

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MOL) has ordered methanol carriers with the first methanol burned dual-fueled low-speed diesel main engine. The engine building has already been completed, and its manufacturer, Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., MOL ordered methanol carriers, which will be equipped with this diesel main engine, from Minaminippon Shipbuilding Co., Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd.

2015 210

Mercedes-Benz powering ahead with €3B strategic engine initiative; increasing electrification, 48V; diesel and gasoline; cylinder deactivation

Green Car Congress

Following the launch of the new Mercedes-Benz four-cylinder OM 654 diesel engine in spring 2016 in the E 220d ( earlier post ), 2017 will see the addition of four more members to the all-new family of engines: six-cylinder in-line engines in both diesel (OM 656) and gasoline (M 256) versions; a new four-cylinder gasoline engine (M 264); and a new biturbo V8 (M 176) with cylinder deactivation. billion) in its strategic engine initiative. Coasting with engine off.

2016 207

Toyota Central R&D developing free-piston engine linear generator; envisioning multi-FPEG units for electric drive vehicles

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is developing a prototype 10 kW Free Piston Engine Linear Generator (FPEG) featuring a thin and compact build, high efficiency and high fuel flexibility. Poppet valves seated in a water-cooled cylinder head were actuated by hydraulic valve trains to control exhaust valve timing. 2014) “Development of Free Piston Engine Linear Generator System Part 1 - Investigation of Fundamental Characteristics,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1203 doi: 10.4271/2014-01-1203.

2014 329

Cummins unveils SmartEfficiency initiative for transit buses; diesel, hybrid and near-zero NOx engines

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hybrid engine systems; the ISL G Near Zero (NZ) NO x natural gas engine ( earlier post ); the isolated engine coolant loop system for the 2017 L9 and ISL G; and a new SmartSupport service program. A water-to-water heat exchanger will be mounted on the L9 or ISL G, and will provide heat to the passenger compartments, as needed, while providing a self-contained coolant flow to the engine compartment area. Diesel Emissions Engines Hybrids Natural Gas

2016 163

U. Houston-led project looking for new exhaust treatment catalysts for low-temperature lean-burn combustion engines

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A chemical engineer from the University of Houston is leading a $2.1-million project to find new catalytic materials that work at lower exhaust temperatures, allowing automakers to build vehicles that operate more efficiently while retaining the ability to clean emissions before they leave the tailpipe. Engineers from Fiat-Chrysler Automobiles Inc. Catalytic converters clean vehicle exhaust into nitrogen, water and carbon dioxide.

2017 161

Pinto Energy to build 2,800 bpd small-scale GTL plant in Ashtabula; Velocys microchannel technology

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Pinto Energy LLC (Pinto), a developer of smaller scale Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) facilities, will build a 2,800 barrel per day (bpd) GTL plant at Pinto’s 80-acre industrial site to the east of Ashtabula, Ohio. Pinto recently filed the project’s air and water permits, and is in discussions with regional economic authorities for further local support. Pinto has chosen Ventech Engineers International LLC (Ventech) as the project’s EPC Contractor.

2013 214

Praj to build demo commercial cellulosic ethanol plant in India

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The demo plant will seek to demonstrate technical and commercial viability as well optimization of water and energy integration and its impact on the capex and opex of the commercial financial proposal. The engineering package is ready and Praj has signed an MOU with a customer for the location. Praj Industries will set up a 10-million liter (2.6 million gallons US) per year demo commercial plant to produce cellulosic ethanol in India.

2012 185

Siemens water purification unit generates enough methane to power its own operations; Singapore scaling up to larger pilot facility

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A new biological water purification facility developed by Siemens generates enough methane gas to power its own operations. Now, the city state is building a much larger pilot facility—one that will process 300 times more effluent than its predecessor, or about as much sewage water as is produced by around 1,000 people. A typical urban biological water purification facility accommodates water from 10,000 to 100,000 residents.

2011 179

Hyundai showcasing new downsized turbo engines and 7-speed dual-clutch transmission; i40 48V Hybrid, i30 CNG

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New engines and transmission. Hyundai Motor is showcasing two new turbocharged gasoline direct injected (T-GDI) engines at the Paris Motor Show 2014. Both engines—1.0-liter and 1.4-liter units which are part of a new generation of engines from the Kappa family—meet growing demand for small capacity, turbocharged engines to reduce fuel consumption and CO 2 emission without compromising performance. Kappa 1.4-liter T-GDI engine.

2014 205

Dearman-led consortium awarded $3.1M to develop waste-heat-recovery system using liquid air engine

Green Car Congress

A consortium led by the Dearman Engine Company has been awarded £1.86 The tenth competition under the Low Carbon Vehicles Innovation Platform’s integrated delivery program (IDP), IDP10 is targeting the building of an integrated low-carbon-vehicle innovation chain, from the science base, through collaborative R&D to fleet-level demonstration. The Dearman Engine operates by the vaporization and expansion of cryogenic fluids. The project builds on an earlier TSB-funded project.

2014 210