Study: 25% EV adoption would save US $17B annually from avoided climate change & pollution damages

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A new study led by researchers from Northwestern University projects that if electric vehicles replaced 25% of combustion engine cars currently on the road, the United States would save approximately $17 billion annually by avoiding damages from climate change and air pollution. This highlights the potential of co-beneficial solutions to climate change that not only curb greenhouse gas emissions but also reduce the health burden of harmful air pollution.

EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan sees likely increase in tropospheric ozone, with more difficulty in attaining NAAQS in many areas

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Among the many climate-related vulnerabilities that can impact its mission, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cites a likely increase in tropospheric ozone pollution as potentially making it more difficult to attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards ( NAAQS ) in many areas with existing ozone problems. The analysis comes in a draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan that the agency has released for public comment. Climate Change Emissions Policy

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Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. The piece was co-authored by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego climate and atmospheric scientist V. Besides a danger to breathe, ozone lowers crop yields.

California ARB releases final version of proposed update to Climate Change Scoping Plan; LEV IV

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the final version of the proposed First Update to the Climate Change Scoping Plan (First Update). Furthermore, commercially available technologies, such as fuel efficient passenger vehicle tires, can be utilized by both new and in-use vehicles in the near-term to achieve GHG emission reductions. Achieving our long-term climate goal and 2032 ozone standards will require a much deeper penetration of ZEVs into the fleet.

2014 193

Cutting Non-CO2 Pollutants Can Delay Abrupt Climate Change; The Fast Action Climate Agenda

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A “fast-action” climate agenda including reducing non-CO 2 climate change agents such as black carbon soot, tropospheric ozone, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), as well as expanding bio-sequestration through biochar production, can forestall fast-approaching abrupt climate changes, according to Nobel Laureate Dr. Mario Molina (Chemistry, 1995) and co-authors in a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Climate policy.

California ARB and NOAA Collaborating in $20M Research on Interaction of Air Pollution and Climate Change; One Atmosphere Approach

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Schematic diagram of the trade-offs between the implications for regional air quality and global climate change of new policies for management of the atmosphere. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are collaborating in the $20-million CalNex research project to examine the nexus between air pollution and climate change. What is the importance of natural emissions to the ozone formation process?

Royal Society Report Concludes Geoengineering and its Consequences May be the Price for Failure to Act on Climate Change; Recommendations for Plan B

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From: Geoengineering the Climate (2009) Click to enlarge. Geoengineering is defined as the deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system in order to moderate global warming. It is an unpalatable truth that unless we can succeed in greatly reducing CO 2 emissions we are headed for a very uncomfortable and challenging climate future, and geoengineering will be the only option left to limit further temperature increases.

2009 172

International study identifies 14 key measures to reduce methane and black carbon emissions; reduction in projected global mean warming of ~0.5 °C by 2050

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Circle areas are proportional to values for (A and B) climate change, (C and D) human health (values for population over age 30), and (E and F) agriculture. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and an important precursor to ground-level ozone. Ozone, a key component of smog and also a greenhouse gas, damages crops and human health. Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC) contribute to degraded air quality and global warming.

2012 220

UN report projects that increasing use of HFCs likely to have a significant climate impact by 2050; equivalent to current total annual emissions from transport

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The decrease in CO 2 equivalent emissions of ODSs (ozone-depleting substances: CFCs, halons, HCFCs, and others) may be offset by the projected increase in their non-ozone depleting substitutes (HFCs) (lines designated as HFC scenarios). Used in products such as air conditioners, refrigerators, firefighting equipment and insulation foams, HFCs are becoming popular as replacements for those phased-out or being phased-out to protect the ozone layer. Climate and the Ozone Layer.

2011 239

Up close and personal with Volkswagen’s e-Golf carbon offset project: Garcia River Forest

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Emission reductions produced by the project are verified by an approved third party and registered with the Climate Action Reserve (Project ID CAR102 ). In February 2008, GRF became one of the first forests—and the largest—to receive verification as a source of greenhouse gas reductions under the protocols of the Climate Action Reserve , adopted by the California Air Resources Board in 2007. ozone depletion potential (ODP). photochemical ozone creation potential.

2015 270

IPCC: GHG emissions accelerating despite mitigation efforts; major institutional and technological change required to keep the heat down

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Decomposition of the decadal change in total global CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion by four driving factors; population, income (GDP) per capita, energy intensity of GDP and carbon intensity of energy. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released a policymaker’s summary of Working Group III’s (WG III) latest report showing that despite a growing number of climate change mitigation policies, annual anthropogenic GHG emissions grew on average by 1.0

2014 220

Study Finds Ozone, Nitrogen Change the Way Rising CO2 Affects Earths Water

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Through a recent modeling experiment, a team of NASA-funded researchers have found that future concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone in the atmosphere and of nitrogen in the soil are likely to have an important but overlooked effect on the cycling of water from sky to land to waterways. The researchers concluded that models of climate change may be underestimating how much water is likely to run off the land and back into the sea as atmospheric chemistry changes.

2009 172

Volkswagen to use CO2 as refrigerant for future air conditioning systems

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R134a replaced CFC-12 as the MAC refrigerant in the early 1990s due to the negative impact of CFCs on the Earth’s ozone layer. According to a paper by Delphi engineers investigating another refrigerant (R152a), R134a was chosen for its combination of refrigerating properties and safety characteristics, despite indications that its global warming potential (GWP) and resulting climate impact could one day become a concern.). Climate Change Emissions Vehicle Systems

2013 256

US and UK researchers report direct measurement of key atmospheric reactant; more rapid formation of secondary aerosols

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Molecules called Criegee intermediates—carbonyl oxides—are important atmospheric reactants, but only indirect knowledge of their reaction kinetics has been available. The researchers believe the measurements will substantially impact the understanding of atmospheric chemistry mechanisms—in particular, in the more rapid formation of secondary aerosols, important in the formation of local smog as well as in global climate change.

2012 227

US EPA proposing allowing high-octane, higher ethanol content fuels as part of Tier 3 regs; E30 as example

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Under the proposal, automakers could petition the EPA for approval of a higher octane, higher ethanol content test fuel if: they could demonstrate that such a fuel would be used by the operator and would be readily available nationwide; vehicles would not operate appropriately on other available fuels; and. psi RVP in southern ozone non-attainment areas—but allows a 1 psi RVP waiver for E10.

2013 218

Calif. ARB releases GHG scoping plan update; more ZEVs, “LEV IV”, MD and HD regulations; ZEV for trucks; more LCFS

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The update identifies eight key sectors for ongoing action: Energy; Transportation, fuels, land use and infrastructure; Agriculture; Water; Waste management; Natural lands; Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (such as methane and black carbon); and Green Buildings. Many of the strategies employed to reduce GHG emissions will also work to meet the national ambient air quality standard for ozone in 2032.

2014 231

World Bank to focus on reducing short-lived climate pollutants; transport projects

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A new report prepared by the World Bank at the request of the G8 identifies ways that the World Bank can do more through its projects to reduce the emission of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs): black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone, and fluorinated gases known as HFCs. It could also have a direct impact on climate change, with the potential to reduce the warming expected by 2050 by up to 0.5 Black carbon Climate Change Emissions

2013 188

NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 reaches orbit

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The Afternoon Constellation, so named because it crosses the equator at approximately 1:30 PM local time every day, consists of five existing satellites in tight formation, collecting simultaneous data on aerosols, clouds, cloud ice, carbon sinks, carbon sources, ozone, particulates, and atmospheric water vapor. Scientists expect to be able to make preliminary data available beginning about 45 days after launch. Climate Change Emissions Research by Jack Rosebro.

2014 209

North American Countries Target “Super” Greenhouse Gases Through Strengthened Ozone Treaty

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The US, Canada, and Mexico have submitted a proposal to strengthen climate protection under the Montreal Protocol— the international treaty that phases out the production of a number of substances responsible for ozone depletion. Climate protection from the Montreal and Kyoto protocols. If accepted by the other Montreal Protocol Parties, the proposal would deliver climate mitigation equivalent to preventing more than 100 billion tonnes of CO 2 emissions.

2010 162

EPA report to Congress finds a strong scientific and technical foundation for mitigating black carbon emissions

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has submitted its final Report to Congress on Black Carbon , in response to an October 2009 request from Congress to advance efforts to understand the role of black carbon (BC) in climate change. More recent work also suggests that BC plays an important role in climate change, although there is more uncertainty about its effects on climate. Effects of BC on climate, as compared to GHGs.

2012 216

Sponsors of SAE Study Conclude HFO-1234yf Can Be Used As Low-GWP Global Replacement Refrigerant in MAC Systems

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HFO-1234yf is a non-Ozone Depleting Substance with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 4. The results from the CRP1234 programs that investigated the new refrigerant for use in mobile air conditioning systems (cars and light trucks) are available on-line. Tags: Climate Change Emissions Vehicle Systems

2009 172

National Academies Report Examines Hidden Cost of Energy Production and Use in US; Estimates $120B in 2005

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Health and other non-climate damages by life-cycle component for different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 (top) and 2030 (bottom). That figure does not include damages from climate change, harm to ecosystems, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to national security, which the report examines but does not monetize. Climate-related monetary damages range from 0.1 Tags: Climate Change Emissions Policy

2009 212

Study: Hydrofluorocarbons Will Contribute Significantly to Global Warming by 2050

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Global ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and HFC emissions (A), global CO 2 and HFC emissions (B), and ODS, HFC, and CO 2 global RF (C) for the period 2000–2050. These HFCs, gases used in refrigerators and air conditioners, are substitutes for ozone-depleting gases, but they are also strong greenhouse gases. The 1987 Montreal Protocol—restricting the use of ozone-depleting substances—helps both to protect the ozone layer and to reduce global warming.

2009 150

Study Highlights the Importance of Considering Climate Effects of Non-CO2 Emissions from Transport in Mitigation Strategies and Policies

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The radiative forcing affects of a reduction in non-CO 2 pollutants (dominated by ozone and black carbon) can outweigh CO 2 effects, depending on the replacement energy source, according to a multi-pollutant study by researchers from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and the Environmental Defense Fund that examined the impact of a 50% reduction in on-road transportation emissions. Wang (2009) Climate forcing by the on-road transportation and power generation sectors.

2009 150

House Chairmen Waxman, Markey Release Draft of Energy and Climate Legislation; Among the Many Provisions Are Cap-and-Trade, Harmonization of CAFE and California Vehicle Regulations, and Low Carbon Fuel Standard

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Markey of the Energy and Environment Subcommittee on Tuesday released a draft of far-reaching energy and climate legislation that targets job creation, promotes renewables and energy efficiency, and places limits on emissions of greenhouse gases. The draft directs EPA to make allowances from the reserve available through an auction when allowance prices rise to unexpectedly high levels. Tags: Climate Change Emissions Policy Chairman Henry A.

2009 174

SCOPE Biofuels Project Releases Assessment on Environmental Effects of Biofuel Technologies

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Criteria that account for the effects of land-use change, or that restrict the types of biofuel feedstocks, could have greater utility. A few studies also include other relevant impact indicators as acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential and various toxicity potentials. Potential impacts in terms of indirect land use change driven by increased bioenergy demand are not considered in the sample analyzed.

2009 150

Indo-US task force to study HFC phase-down

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HFCs are chemicals are potential substitutes for ozone-depleting and climate-warming CFCs and HCFCs currently being phased out under the Montreal Protocol treaty to protect the ozone layer. Although they don’t harm the ozone layer, HFCs are powerful climate warming gases and their emissions are expected to rise sharply over the next few decades without aggressive action, significantly contributing to climate change.

2011 172

ICCT study finds that transitioning to low-GWP MAC refrigerants in China could avoid up to US$150B in costs

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Among the findings of the report, “HFC-134a phase-out in the Chinese light-duty motor vehicle sector”, was that, considering the social cost of CO 2 e, up to 1 trillion RMB in costs (US$150 billion) required to address climate change could be avoided through 2050 by transitioning to low-GWP alternative MACs. The costs of transition are generally favorable compared to other available CO 2 reduction technologies for motor vehicles.

2016 193

Scientists at Climate Talks Call for New Assessment of Nitrogen and Climate

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A side event organized by the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI) at the COP-15 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen will highlight nitrogen’s role in climate change. The event organizers are calling for an immediate new assessment of nitrogen and climate which will identify innovative nitrogen management strategies for global climate change mitigation and associated co-benefits.

2009 172

EPA proposes new standards to reduce methane and VOCs emissions from oil and gas industry

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CTGs are not regulations and do not impose legal requirements on sources; rather, they provide recommendations for state and local air agencies to consider in determining reasonably available control technology (RACT) for reducing emissions from covered processes and equipment. The estimated climate benefits reflect a net reduction in climate change damages, which include human health impacts, property damages from flood risk, and the value of ecosystem services, among other effects.

2015 207

NSF issues solicitation for decadal and regional climate prediction using Earth Systems Models

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The US National Science Foundation has issued a solicitation for Decadal and Regional Climate Prediction using Earth System Models (EaSM). This is the second in a series of EaSM solicitations, and it remains focused on the prediction of future climates and their consequences for human systems on time scales of several decades and shorter and global to regional and finer spatial scales.

2012 188

CSIRO publishes Southern Hemisphere GHG data online

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The data are updated monthly from analyses of air measurements at Cape Grim, which, under baseline conditions, experiences some of the cleanest air in the world and accurately reflects global changes in greenhouse gases. The graphs we’ve made available online will enable people to examine the evidence about the major driver of recent climate change. Data for the synthetic greenhouse and ozone depleting gases, such as CFCs, also are available.

2011 188

California Air Resources Board Unveils $3.7M in Rebates for Plug-in Hybrid and Zero-Emission Vehicles

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Rebates are available to individuals, business owners and government entities in California that purchase or lease new eligible zero-emission or plug-in hybrid electric light-duty vehicles now. The amount of funding available to pay for these technologies is dependent on the amount of revenues generated from vehicle and smog abatement fees. Cleaner vehicles reduce California smog and climate change emissions, and save consumers money.

2010 198

Study finds global rivers and streams emitting 3x IPCC estimates of the GHG N2O

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That’s three times the amount estimated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and stratospheric ozone destruction. Human activities, including fossil fuel combustion and intensive agriculture, have increased the availability of nitrogen in the environment.

2010 181

California Energy Commission adopts $100M investment plan for 2013-2014 for green vehicles and fuels

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Funding priorities through the ARFVT Program support fuel and vehicle development to help attain the state’s climate change policies. For the current fiscal year, the Commission will invest approximately $90 million to encourage the development and use of new technologies, and alternative and renewable fuels, to help the state meet its climate change goals.

2013 246

Report argues advanced HD natural gas vehicles foundational for California to hit air and climate goals; near zero-emission potential

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Gladstein, Neandross & Associates (GNA), a consulting firm specializing in market development for low emission and alternative fuel vehicle technologies, infrastructure, and fuels for both on- and off-road applications, released a report examining the critical role that ultra-low-emission heavy-duty (HD) natural gas engines can play in helping California achieve its air quality, climate protection and petroleum-displacement goals.

2014 220

UK Awards 1.6M to Project Investigating Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering

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From: Geoengineering the Climate (2009) Click to enlarge. million) in funding to the project SPICE (Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering). Reducing incoming solar radiation by injecting sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere was considered the most rapidly deployable, affordable and effective option by the recent Royal Society report on Geoengineering the Climate. The rate required for global climate modification is upward of 1Mte p.a.

2010 181

Researchers describe the “where” and “when” of life cycle emissions from gasoline and ethanol in the US

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Life cycle inventories have typically been presented at global, national, or regional levels—sufficient for understanding global processes such as climate change and fossil fuel depletion, but insufficient for the analysis of local processes such as air pollution, according to the researchers. 60% of ground-level ozone (O 3 ) precursors, 6% of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and 22% of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted.

2012 206

Berkeley study identifies diesel as main source of vehicular secondary organic aerosols

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Organic aerosol (OA) in the atmosphere is detrimental to human health and represents a highly uncertain forcing of climate change. The use of petroleum-derived fuels is an important source of reactive gas-phase organic carbon that provides key precursors to the formation of secondary OA (SOA) and tropospheric ozone. Contribution of gasoline and diesel exhaust to SOA over 0% to 50% diesel fuel use. SOA contributions from the two sources are equivalent at 6% diesel fuel use.

2012 236

The #1 working mum’s guide to buying the perfect electric car

My Energi

Let’s change things up a little. What I do know, is how fossil fuel vehicles have contributed heavily to poor air quality in our towns and cities, damage to the environment, soil and water quality and have contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer!