Studies find global COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced PM2.5 and NO2 pollution, but ozone up

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The only other comparable events are short-term reductions in China’s emissions due to strict regulations during events like the 2008 Beijing Olympics. However, the drop in nitrogen dioxide pollution has caused an increase in surface ozone levels in China, according to one of the new studies.

2020 259

Study finds damage due to premature mortality from PM2.5 decreased >20% from 2008 to 2014

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related damages, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University and Stanford have found that, US-economy-wide, gross external damage (GED) due to premature mortality has decreased by more than 20% from 2008 to 2014. GED was calculated for the 3 most recent NEI years: 2008, 2011, and 2014. We do not include damages from morbidity or other pollutants such as exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO x ) or ozone. In a new study of PM 2.5

2019 199
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EPA tightens ground-level ozone standard to 70 ppb

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issued its final rule revising the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone to 70 parts per billion (ppb) from 75 ppb to protect public health. Ground-level ozone forms when nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the air. EPA examined nearly 2,300 studies in this review of the ozone standards including more than 1,000 new studies published since the last review of the standards in 2008.

2015 199

EPA proposes tightening primary ozone standards to range of 65-70 ppb; final rule by October 2015

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Counties where measured ozone is above proposed range of standards, based on 2011-2013 monitoring data. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing tightening the ground-level 8-hour ozone (O 3 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to within a range of 65 to 70 parts per billion (ppb), while taking comments on a level as low as 60 ppb. EPA will issue final ozone standards by 1 October 2015.

2014 232

US EPA to Reconsider National Ozone Standards

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will reconsider the 2008 primary and secondary ozone standards. In 2008, EPA established a new primary 8-hour standard for ozone of 0.075 parts per million (ppm), and a new secondary standard set at a form and level identical to the new primary standard. The agency will propose any revisions to the ozone standards by December 2009 and will issue a final decision by August 2010.

Ozone 183

Obama Administration withdraws proposed rulemaking on strengthened ozone standards

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In a statement released this morning, President Barack Obama said he has requested that US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa Jackson withdraw the agency’s draft Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) rulemaking. In January 2010, EPA proposed strengthening the NAAQS for ground-level ozone, the main component of smog, and said it planned to issue final standards by 31 August 2010. Overview of January 2010 proposed revisions to ozone NAAQS.

Ozone 223

Study quantifies impact of oil and gas emissions on Denver’s ozone problem

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The first peer-reviewed study to directly quantify how emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) activities influence summertime tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution in the Colorado Front Range confirms that chemical vapors from oil and gas activities are a significant contributor to the region’s chronic ozone problem. em>That allows us to look at how oil and gas emissions are influencing ozone production ,” said McDuffie.

Denver 150

EPA Proposes New Tougher Ground-Level Ozone Standards

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Counties projected to violate proposed Primary 8-hour Ground-Level Ozone Standards in 2020. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has proposed the strictest standards to date for ground-level ozone. Ground-level ozone forms when emissions from industrial facilities, power plants, landfills and motor vehicles react in the sun. In September 2009 Administrator Jackson announced that EPA would reconsider the existing ozone standards, set at 0.075 ppm in March 2008.

Ozone 174

EPA proposes approval of new ozone plans for the two of the worst Air Quality Zones in US: California’s San Joaquin Valley and South Coast

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US EPA Region 9 8-hour ozone trends, 1979-2000. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to approve the 8-hour ozone air quality plans—which include their attainment demonstrations, enforceable commitments and reductions from new technologies—for California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and South Coast (SC) areas, two of the worst air quality areas left in the country. In 2008, the 8-hour standard was lowered to 0.075 ppm.

2011 207

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. Ground level or tropospheric ozone (different than the stratospheric ozone that blocks the sun’s UV rays) is formed by ozone precursor gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, methane, and other hydrocarbons.

US EPA proposes to retain existing NAAQS for ozone

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to retain, without changes, the existing, more stringent 2015 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The standards, established in 2015, are currently set at 70 parts per billion (ppb), in terms of a 3-year average of the annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone concentrations. From 2017 to 2019, ozone concentrations fell 4%.

2020 174

Study Finds Ozone Concentrations at Current Clean Air Standards Levels Can Impair Even Healthy Lungs

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Exposure to ozone at levels currently deemed safe by the NAAQS clean air standards can have a significant and negative effect on lung function, according to researchers at the University of California, Davis. In March 2008, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established a new primary 8-hour standard for ozone of 0.075 parts per million (ppm), and a new secondary standard set at a form and level identical to the new primary standard. EPA Ground-Level Ozone website.

2009 174

WMO: Atmospheric Concentrations of Main Greenhouse Gases in 2008 Set New Highs

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Relative contribution of major greenhouse gases to the overall change in radiative forcing between 1979 and 1984 (a) and from 2003 to 2008 (b). Atmospheric levels of major greenhouse gases continue to increase, according to the World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) 2008 Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. from 2007 to 2008. The globally averaged mixing ratio of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in 2008 was 385.2

2008 195

Ozone concentrations can impair healthy lungs

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In the August issue of the American Thoracic Society’s American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine , it states that exposure to ozone at levels currently deemed safe by the NAAQS clean air standards can have a significant negative effect on lung function. The US Environmental Protection Agency established a primary eight-hour standard for ozone of 0.075 parts per million in March 2008.

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NOAA Study Identifies Nitrous Oxide as Top Ozone-Depleting Emission in 21st Century

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Comparison of annual N 2 O ODP-weighted emissions from the 1990s with emissions of other ODS in 1987 and in 2008. Currently, anthropogenic N 2 O emissions represent the largest contribution to ozone depletion. The study, published online 27 August in the journal Science , for the first time evaluated nitrous oxide emissions from human activities in terms of their potential impact on Earth’s ozone layer.

2009 150

MECA emissions inventory & air quality modeling shows potential benefits of national cleaner trucks initiative at CARB limits

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The modeled 2028 base year 8-hour ozone design values were found to be above the 70 ppb NAAQS for 75 monitoring locations. By 2035, 46 states will be in attainment with the 2015 ozone NAAQS of 70 ppb (only counties in California and Utah remain in nonattainment).

2020 227

San José International deploys 10 Proterra electric buses in airport fleet

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Funded in part by a $5-million zero-emissions grant from the Federal Aviation Administration, the electric buses replace the aging compressed natural gas bus fleet that has been operating at SJC since 2008. The electric bus fleet is anticipated to reduce ozone emissions by 1.1

2019 268

California SCAQMD petitioning EPA for national ultra-low NOx standard for trucks

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Without a nationwide ultra-low NO x emission standard, SCAQMD argues, California will not be able to meet the 2023 deadline for achieving the federally mandated 8-hour ozone standard, which was adopted in 1997 and set at 80 parts per billion. Nor will the region be able to meet the 2031 deadline for the 8-hour ozone standard that was adopted in 2008 and lowered to 75 parts per billion.

2016 163

US EPA Reports National Trends Show Improvements in Air Quality

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Since 1990, nationwide air quality has improved significantly for the six common air pollutants: ground-level ozone; particle pollution; lead; nitrogen dioxide; carbon monoxide; and sulfur dioxide, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report “Our Nation’s Air - Status and Trends through 2008”. Nationally, air pollution was lower in 2008 than in 1990 for: 8-hour ozone, by 14%.

2010 174

Reduction in diesel carbonyl emissions using F-T fuel from coal

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Jakober, 2008). lower ozone formation potential of the carbonyl compounds present than DF under the identical operating conditions. Kleeman (2008) “Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles,”.

2014 190

Study finds marine workboat engines staying in service two times longer than estimated by EPA; emissions reduction implications

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DTF and EDF’s new report, “ Impact of Updated Service Life Estimates on Harbor Craft and Switcher Locomotive Emission Forecasts and Cost-Effectiveness ”, completed by Ramboll Environ, found the average Category 2 workboat remains in service for 50 years, instead of the 23-year lifespan estimated by the EPA in the 2008 Heavy Duty Locomotive and Marine Rule.

2019 199

CARB approves $423M plan to mitigate harm from Volkswagen defeat devices; significant investments in heavy-duty vehicles and equipment sectors

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Beginning in model year 2008 VW sold about 600,000 2.0- Excess NO x emissions are a major public health concern in California, because they are a key ingredient in formation of ozone (smog), CARB notes. More than 10 million Californians live in areas in extreme non-compliance areas for ozone. Ozone is a contributor to asthma attacks, cardio-pulmonary disease and premature death.

2018 235

NOAA, partners find about 98% decline in VOCs concentrations in LA Basin over last 50 years despite 3x increase in use of gasoline and diesel

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VOCs, primarily emitted from the tailpipes of vehicles, are a key ingredient in the formation of ground-level ozone which, at high levels, can harm people’s lungs and damage crops and other plants. The 98% drop in VOCs in the last 50 years does not mean that ozone levels have dropped that steeply; the air chemistry that leads from VOCs to ozone is more complex than that.

2012 240

Study finds changes in the Arctic sea ice cover may be driving changes in atmospheric chemistry

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Significant reductions of older perennial Arctic sea ice that has resulted in an expansion of younger and saltier sea ice may be intensifying the chemical release of bromine into the atmosphere, resulting in the depletion of ground-level ozone but also the deposit of toxic mercury in the Arctic, according to a new NASA-led study which has been accepted for publication in the AGU’s Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres.

2012 190

US NOx Cap and Trade Program Lowers Smog Levels in Eastern United States

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The existing US NO x cap-and-trade program lowered 2008 summertime NO x emissions from power plants and large industrial sources 62% compared to year 2000 levels and 75% lower than in 1990, according to a report released by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). State level ozone emissions in the NBP, from 1990 to 2010 (projected). This market-based cap and trade program was created to cost-effectively reduce NO x emissions during the ozone season.

2009 183

PowerTrain to pay $2M penalty for selling nearly 80K engines that failed to meet Clean Air Act standards

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Between 2002 and 2008, PowerTrain imported 79,830 nonroad engines or pieces of equipment into the US that were not covered by a Clean Air Act-required certificate of conformity. EPA estimates that the PowerTrain engines that were sold to the public caused excess emissions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, which contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone (smog).

2011 174

PowerTrain to pay $2M penalty for selling nearly 80K engines that failed to meet Clean Air Act standards

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Between 2002 and 2008, PowerTrain imported 79,830 nonroad engines or pieces of equipment into the US that were not covered by a Clean Air Act-required certificate of conformity. EPA estimates that the PowerTrain engines that were sold to the public caused excess emissions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, which contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone (smog).

2011 174

California ARB moves forward with climate and air quality actions

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Approximately 70% of the reductions needed to meet the ozone standard in the South Coast in 2031 would come from existing or proposed regulatory actions. These actions would be implemented through the Further Deployment measures, tailored for each mobile sector, that have been developed to provide further emission reductions from the deployment of cleaner technologies necessary to meet the South Coast’s Extreme ozone non-attainment area needs.

2017 183

Linde subsidiary to blend HCR188C alternative low global warming potential refrigerants in EU

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HCR188C/R441A and HCR188C/R443A are both patented and trademarked zero-ozone-depleting/extremely low global-warming-potential (GWP) hydrocarbon blends. TEGA is ISO 9001:2008 certified, and is one of the main distributors for flammable and non-flammable refrigerants in Europe. TEGA GmbH, a subsidiary of The Linde Group, has signed an agreement with A. Trust & Holdings, Inc.

2015 197

Cutting Non-CO2 Pollutants Can Delay Abrupt Climate Change; The Fast Action Climate Agenda

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2009), reproduced from Ramanathan and Feng (2008) Click to enlarge. Cutting HFCs, black carbon, tropospheric ozone, and methane can buy us about 40 years before we approach the dangerous threshold of 2°C warming. —co-author HFCs are powerful greenhouse gases originally developed as substitutes for ozone-depleting chemicals. The Montreal Protocol has already delayed climate change by seven to 12 years, and put the ozone layer on the path to recovery later this century.

EPA Proposes Transport Rule to Cut Pollution from Power Plants in 31 States and DC; New Approach for Pollution Reduction

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This proposal reduces emissions contributing to fine particle (PM 2.5 ) and ozone nonattainment that often travel across state lines. SO 2 and NO x react in the atmosphere to form fine particle pollution and ground-level ozone (smog), which are linked to widespread illnesses and premature deaths. Twenty-six states would be required to reduce NO x emissions during the hot summer months of the ozone season because they contribute to downwind states’ ozone pollution.

2010 195

EPA finalizes Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (Transport Rule)

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The Cross-State Air Pollution Rule replaces and strengthens the requirements of the 2005 Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), which the US Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit ordered EPA to revise in 2008. reductions; annual NO x reductions; and ozone-season NO x. Ozone Season NO x Power Plant Emissions. Transport Rule states. Source: EPA. Click to enlarge.

2011 183

California ARB Expands Assistance Program for Truckers to Reduce Diesel Emissions

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The changes made to the statewide Voucher Incentive Program, also known as the VIP, will make funding available to a larger variety of trucks that will help owners comply early with the statewide truck and bus regulation passed in 2008. In December 2008, ARB adopted statewide clean truck and bus regulations to bring California closer to meeting federally mandated air-quality standards and deadlines.

2010 174

NC State Researchers Developing Ozonolysis Pretreatment for Energy Grass Feedstocks

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Researchers at North Carolina State University are developing an ozone-based pre-treatment technique (ozonolysis) to release sugars from the energy grass miscanthus for production into renewable fuels or chemicals with minimal generation of chemical waste streams and degradation of the carbohydrate components. Ozone is highly reactive towards compounds incorporating conjugated double bonds and functional groups with high electron densities. Ozone. 2008).

2010 163

New study finds asthma morbidity in children is enhanced in areas with high traffic-related air pollution near the home

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Research data included 11,390 emergency room visits and hospital admissions made by 7,954 children ages 0 to 18 between 2000 and 2008. and ozone in warm months, and with PM 2.5 , carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen in the cool season.

2015 289

US and UK researchers report direct measurement of key atmospheric reactant; more rapid formation of secondary aerosols

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Because a large fraction of the tropospheric oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons is initiated by reaction with ozone, these biradical “Criegee intermediates” play a substantial role in the tropospheric budgets of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), ozone, NO x , NO y , and HO x. Dr. George Marston from the University of Reading (UK) notes that: The Criegee intermediates (CIs) are central to understanding the reactions of ozone with unsaturated compounds.

2012 228

Study Finds Controlling Soot May Be Fastest Method to Reduce Arctic Ice Loss and Global Warming; Second-Leading Cause of Global Warming After CO2

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2008] and methane [Schutz et al., 1990; Anisimov, 2007] and chemical production of ozone in already-polluted locations [Jacobson, 2008b]. These three gases are all greenhouse gases, and ozone is a surface air pollutant. Warmer temperatures due to soot and other components also increase emissions of ozone and particulate matter precursors, including biogenic organic gases [e.g.,

2010 203

Research shows clean fuel-use for ships off California coast extremely effective in reducing sulfur dioxide pollution

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More findings from the CalNex research on a variety of subjects, from the formation of ozone to the interactions of particles and clouds, are being presented at a four-day workshop May 16 through 19 in Sacramento, California.

2011 174

NASA GISS Study Finds That Methane Has an Elevated Warming Effect Due to Interactions With Aerosols

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Because the latter was a $126 billion/year market in 2008, even small differences in GWPs can have large economic consequences. And hydroxyls drive long chains of reactions involving other common gases, including ozone. That’s noteworthy because nitrogen oxides have primarily been associated with ozone formation and warming in the past.

2009 228

California Air Resources Board posts revised draft of strategy to reduce “Super Pollutants”

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CARB began publicly evaluating controls for SLCPs with the first AB 32 Scoping Plan in 2008. Research now shows that immediate action to cut super pollutants in California will reduce damage to forests and crops, lower background ozone and help clean the air in the state’s most polluted regions, including the Central Valley. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has posted a revised draft of California’s proposed Short-Lived Climate Pollutant (SLCP) Strategy.

2016 200

HEI ACES study of lifetime animal exposure to New Technology Diesel Engine exhaust finds no lung cancer

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This phase was conducted at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in 2007 and 2008 and was the basis for selecting one HHDD engine/control system for health testing in Phase 3. This phase started in 2008 with the installation of a specially designed emissions-generation and animal-exposure facility at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) and was conducted in two parts.

2015 249

EPA and DOT issue final Phase 2 GHG and fuel efficiency rulemaking for medium- and heavy-duty trucks

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In order to achieve the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards set by US EPA, CARB estimates that the South Coast Air Basin alone (including Los Angeles) will need an 80% reduction in NO x emissions by 2031. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) jointly released the finalized Phase 2 greenhouse gas and fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty trucks.

2016 150

Stanford Professor Urges EPA to Include Black Carbon in Endangerment Finding

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F, with about 40% due to ozone. The second study found that local CO 2 emissions produce CO 2 domes over cities, which increase local ozone and PM, increasing local mortality. Jacobson (2008) On the causal link between carbon dioxide and air pollution mortality.

2009 150