Study quantifies impact of oil and gas emissions on Denver’s ozone problem

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Summertime ozone pollution levels in the northern Front Range periodically spike above 70 parts per billion (ppb), which is considered unhealthy—on average, 17 ppb of that ozone is produced locally. Colorado has been out of compliance with federal ozone standard since 2007.

Ethanol and Ozone

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ozone There are so many reasons ethanol shouldn't be priority #1 in America's quest for petroleum replacement. I blogged about this previously here. Yet another reason to think again about the ethanol craze in an article in today's LA Times. Of our "alternative fuel" options, only electricity can truly be made renewably (wind, solar, geothermal, small hydro), with no carbon or other noxious emissions. And only electric drive cars can operate truly zero-emission.

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Plug-in Hybrid Study: Electricity Better

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Air Quality Because of the significant reduction in emissions from gasoline and diesel fuel use and because caps are in place for some conventional pollutants for the electric power sector, the study finds that in many regions deployment of PHEVs would reduce exposures to ozone and particulate matter, and reduce deposition rates for acids, nutrients, and mercury.

US EPA to Reconsider National Ozone Standards

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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will reconsider the 2008 primary and secondary ozone standards. In 2008, EPA established a new primary 8-hour standard for ozone of 0.075 parts per million (ppm), and a new secondary standard set at a form and level identical to the new primary standard. The agency will propose any revisions to the ozone standards by December 2009 and will issue a final decision by August 2010.

NOAA Study Identifies Nitrous Oxide as Top Ozone-Depleting Emission in 21st Century

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Currently, anthropogenic N 2 O emissions represent the largest contribution to ozone depletion. The study, published online 27 August in the journal Science , for the first time evaluated nitrous oxide emissions from human activities in terms of their potential impact on Earth’s ozone layer.

HEI ACES study of lifetime animal exposure to New Technology Diesel Engine exhaust finds no lung cancer

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exhaust from heavy-duty diesel engines meeting EPA 2007 and later emissions requirements—has found no evidence of carcinogenic lung tumors. The study exposed laboratory rats 80 hours a week, for up to 30 months, to emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine meeting 2007 US EPA standards using new filters and other control technology. The first study to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of lifetime exposure to new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE)—i.e.,

Annual American Lung Association report shows continued progress in air quality, but more to be done

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This year’s report finds that the majority of American cities most-polluted by ozone (smog) or year-round particle pollution (soot) have improved, showing continued progress in the cleanup of toxics under the requirements of the Clean Air Act. million people—live in areas with levels of ozone and/or particle pollution that are often dangerous to breathe. Counties are graded for ozone, year-round particle pollution and short-term particle pollution levels.

National Research Council report finds it unlikely the US will meet cellulosic biofuel mandates absent major innovation or a change in policies

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In 2005, Congress enacted the Renewable Fuel Standard as part of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) and amended it in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). However, air-quality modeling suggests that production and use of ethanol to displace gasoline is likely to increase air pollutants such as particulate matter, ozone, and sulfur oxides.

EPA Issues Proposed Endangerment Finding for Greenhouse Gases; Proposed Cause or Contribute Finding Identifies Motor Vehicles as Contributing Source

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After a thorough scientific review ordered in 2007 by the US Supreme Court, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a proposal with two distinct findings regarding greenhouse gases. Findings from a recent EPA study titled “Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on Regional US Air Quality: A Synthesis of Climate Change Impacts on Ground-Level Ozone,” for example, suggest that climate change may lead to higher concentrations of ground-level ozone, a harmful pollutant.

Up close and personal with Volkswagen’s e-Golf carbon offset project: Garcia River Forest

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In February 2008, GRF became one of the first forests—and the largest—to receive verification as a source of greenhouse gas reductions under the protocols of the Climate Action Reserve , adopted by the California Air Resources Board in 2007. ozone depletion potential (ODP).

Study finds changes in the Arctic sea ice cover may be driving changes in atmospheric chemistry

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Significant reductions of older perennial Arctic sea ice that has resulted in an expansion of younger and saltier sea ice may be intensifying the chemical release of bromine into the atmosphere, resulting in the depletion of ground-level ozone but also the deposit of toxic mercury in the Arctic, according to a new NASA-led study which has been accepted for publication in the AGU’s Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres.

BP Products to Pay Nearly $180M to Settle Violations at Texas City Refinery; Conversion of Diesel Vehicles to Natural Gas Part of Settlement

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In October 2007, the company pled guilty to a felony violation of the Clean Air Act and agreed to pay a $50 million fine for violations related to the explosion, the largest criminal fine ever assessed against a corporation for Clean Air Act violations. The settlement requires that BP address violations of Clean Air Act requirements limiting emissions of stratospheric ozone-depleting hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) from leaking cooling appliances. BP Products North America Inc.

Emissions of Air Pollutants down in EU-27

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The European Community’s air pollutant emission inventory report released by the European Environment Agency finds that in 2007, sulphur oxides (SO x ) emissions were down by 72 % from 1990 levels. The downward emission trend of three main pollutants which cause ground-level ozone continued in 2007: carbon monoxide (CO) fell by 57%, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were down by 47% and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) have dropped 36%.

California Air Resources Board Unveils $3.7M in Rebates for Plug-in Hybrid and Zero-Emission Vehicles

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million program that Governor Schwarzenegger approved in 2007 to spur technological innovation in the transportation sector. In October 2007, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed AB 118 which provides approximately $200 million annually through 2015 to the California Energy Commission, the Bureau of Automotive Repair and the ARB to fund air quality improvement projects that will accelerate clean engine technologies. The California Air Resources Board announced $3.7

CRC ACES Phase 2 report finds emissions from modern heavy-duty diesels well below required levels

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2010 engines emissions reduction relative to 2010, 2007, and 2004 US emission standards. g/hp-hr between 2007 and 2009 to a level less than or equal to 0.20 Improvements were also made in PM emissions control, eliminating the need for active regeneration (onboard cleaning via exhaust fuel injection upstream of DOC) of the DPF during ACES Phase 2 testing, compared to the several regeneration occurrences with the 2007 technology engines tested in ACES Phase 1.

Stanford Professor Urges EPA to Include Black Carbon in Endangerment Finding

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In 2007, Jacobson and four colleagues testified in the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform on the role of black carbon. C increased Arctic warming from 1890 to 2007. F, with about 40% due to ozone. The second study found that local CO 2 emissions produce CO 2 domes over cities, which increase local ozone and PM, increasing local mortality.

Cal Energy Commission approves $1M grant to develop 12L near-zero NOx nat gas engine

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grams per brake horsepower hour (g/bhp-hr), and constitute a 90% reduction of emissions compared to the previous standard (CARB 2007) of 2.0 Nevertheless, it is projected that even with the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles compliant with the 2010 standards, upcoming National Ambient Air Quality Standards requirements for ozone attainment cannot be achieved in California’s worst air basins without further significant reductions in NO x emissions from heavy-duty fleets.

Study projects net cooling of climate from ship emissions through 2050

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1 from shipping in 2007, corresponding to 3.3% 1 of the total ship emissions in 2007. In addition to CO 2 , other compounds such as ozone (O 3 ) precursors (nitrogen oxides (NO x =NO+NO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) and aerosols such as black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) are emitted by ships. Shipping-induced global temperature change in 2050 using different parameterizations of Indirect Aerosol Effect (IAE). Credit: ACS, Lund et al.

EPRI-NRDC report finds widespread vehicle electrification and a cleaner grid could lead to substantial cuts in GHG by 2050

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This study builds on the 2007 Environmental Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles by EPRI and NRDC ( earlier post ), which showed that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles could contribute to reductions in national greenhouse gas emissions, while also leading to improved air quality. Modeling simulations indicate that even considering recent Tier 3 vehicle emission standards, electrifying on-road vehicles can result in modest, yet widespread reductions in ozone and PM 2.5

Study Finds Controlling Soot May Be Fastest Method to Reduce Arctic Ice Loss and Global Warming; Second-Leading Cause of Global Warming After CO2

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1990; Anisimov, 2007] and chemical production of ozone in already-polluted locations [Jacobson, 2008b]. These three gases are all greenhouse gases, and ozone is a surface air pollutant. Warmer temperatures due to soot and other components also increase emissions of ozone and particulate matter precursors, including biogenic organic gases [e.g.,

Comparative study finds that B20 increases emission rates of a number of pollutants in both light- and medium-duty diesel engines at idle

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Unregulated pollutants also include ozone precursors and bioaccumulative and toxic compounds. This engine also has an EGR system and is further equipped with a DOC and a catalyzed DPF that meets 2007 emissions regulations. L engine was operated under both 2004 and 2007 calibrations.

Study finds power law scaling relationship between urban population and NO2 pollution

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The researchers used tropospheric NO 2 columns retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite, which measures NO 2 throughout the atmosphere in the afternoon around the world.

WMO: Atmospheric Concentrations of Main Greenhouse Gases in 2008 Set New Highs

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from 2007 to 2008. While the concentration of CH 4 was stable for seven years (from 1999 to 2006), both 2007 and 2008 show a significant increase. ppb higher than in 2007, and 19% above the pre-industrial level.

Study Highlights the Importance of Considering Climate Effects of Non-CO2 Emissions from Transport in Mitigation Strategies and Policies

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The on-road transportation (ORT) and power generation (PG) sectors are major contributors to CO 2 emissions and a host of short-lived radiatively-active air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone and fine aerosol particles, that exert complex influences on global climate.

UN Review of Recent Climate Research Concludes That Impacts Of Climate Change Coming Faster Than Anticipated

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In 2007, summer sea ice in the Arctic Ocean shrank to its smallest extent ever, 24% less than the previous record in 2005, and 34% less than the average minimum extent in the period 1970-2000. In 2008, the minimum ice extent was 9% greater than in 2007, but still the second lowest on record. Until the summer of 2007, most models projected an ice-free September for the Arctic Ocean towards the end of the current century. Significant climate anomalies 2008/2009.

California ARB Seeks Further Reductions of Diesel Emissions at State Rail Yards

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NO x helps create ground-level ozone, or smog. Additional diesel PM reductions in 18 major CA railyards with five new locomotive measures. Source: Staff presentation. With Five Locomotive Measures Click to enlarge.

UNEP Report Calls for More Sophisticated Approach to Developing Biofuels; Limitations of Current LCA Studies

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Here, RME show advantages for primary energy and GHG, but disadvantages in terms of acidification, eutrophication and ozone depletion. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion liters (13.7

EPA says methane emissions from natural gas production have dropped 36% from 2007-2011

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In its recently released Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 – 2011 ( earlier post ), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the field production of natural gas have declined by 36% from 2007 to 2011 (from 83.1 The figure includes the direct effects and those indirect effects due to the production of tropospheric ozone and stratospheric water vapor.)

Researchers report on potential long-range atmospheric emissions impacts of increased ethanol fuel use in North America

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Meeting the full requirements of the 36 billion gallons per year of biofuel required by the US Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 entirely with ethanol fuel. This is accompanied by a modest regional decrease in surface ozone (of order 1%).

EPA issues greenhouse gas proposals

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After a thorough scientific review was ordered by the US Supreme Court in 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a proposal on greenhouse gases. The analysis also looked at the impact of climate change on human health and suggests that it may lead to higher levels of ground-level ozone, a harmful pollutant.

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US Climate Action Report to UN Projects 4% Growth in Total US GHG Emissions to 2020

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The projections represent a “business-as-usual” scenario that incorporates major policies in place as of 31 March 2009, including the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and ARRA, as well as a number of other federal and state measures. From 2005 through 2020, total US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected to rise by 4% under a “with measures” scenario (but without a cap-and-trade program and other complementary policies), from 7,109 Tg CO 2 Eq. to 7,416 Tg CO 2 Eq.,

National Academies Report Examines Hidden Cost of Energy Production and Use in US; Estimates $120B in 2005

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Damages are expressed in cents per VMT (2007 USD). The committee that wrote the report focused on monetizing the damage of major air pollutants—sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and particulate matter—on human health, grain crops and timber yields, buildings, and recreation.

ARB releases proposed cap-and-trade regulation for comment; transportation fuels impacted in 2015

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ARB staff reviewed four offset protocols and recommends that they be approved as part of this regulatory package: (1) the Urban Forest Projects Protocol; (2) the US Ozone Depleting Substances Projects Protocol; (3) the Livestock Manure (Digester) Projects Protocol; and (4) the US Forest Projects Protocol. The California Air Resources Board released its proposed greenhouse gas cap-and-trade regulation.

Perspective: US Needs to Transition to Hydrous Ethanol as the Primary Renewable Transportation Fuel

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During the 1992 and later high ozone seasons no person, including without limitation, no retailer or wholesale purchaser-consumer, and during the 1992 and later regulatory control periods, no refiner, importer, distributor, reseller, or carrier shall sell, offer for sale, dispense, supply, offer for supply, transport or introduce into commerce gasoline whose Reid vapor pressure exceeds the applicable standard. by Brian J. Donovan, CEO Renergie, Inc.

SCOPE Biofuels Project Releases Assessment on Environmental Effects of Biofuel Technologies

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A few studies also include other relevant impact indicators as acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential and various toxicity potentials. 2007) may not be robust. ” 2007). The SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) International Biofuels Project, has published the full proceedings of its Rapid Assessment workshop on the environmental effects of biofuel technologies, 22-25 September 2008.

House Chairmen Waxman, Markey Release Draft of Energy and Climate Legislation; Among the Many Provisions Are Cap-and-Trade, Harmonization of CAFE and California Vehicle Regulations, and Low Carbon Fuel Standard

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The draft amends the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 to include nonprofit hospitals and public health facilities among public institutions eligible for grants and loans for energy efficiency. The draft adds HFCs to the list of similar substances that EPA currently regulates because they deplete the ozone layer. Chairman Henry A. Waxman of the Energy and Commerce Committee and Chairman Edward J.