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New mixed-oxide catalysts shown as viable substitute for platinum catalysts for diesel exhaust aftertreatment

Green Car Congress

Researchers at nano-material catalysts startup Nanostellar and colleagues at the University of Kentucky and Huazhong University of Science and Technology in China have shown that mixed-phase oxide materials based on Mn-mullite (Sm, Gd)Mn 2 O 5 are an efficient substitute for the current commercial platinum (Pt)-based catalysts for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust. Nanostellar was founded in California in 2004 by scientists from Stanford University and NASA Ames Research Center.

2012 207
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DOE awards $1.5M to Gentherm (Amerigon) for thermoelectric-based energy recovery system for heavy-duty vehicles; expands existing LDV program

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The TEG technology, which converts waste heat from gas exhaust into electric energy and has the potential to improve passenger car fuel efficiency by as much as 5%. TEG & Exhaust System in Lincoln MKT. The DOE-funded Amerigon thermoelectric project originally began in 2004 as one of several projects targeting fuel economy improvements in light-duty vehicles of 10%. Stack-designed cylindrical TEG, built with TE cartridges, developed for LDVs in first project. Click to enlarge.

2012 274
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CRC ACES Phase 2 report finds emissions from modern heavy-duty diesels well below required levels

Green Car Congress

2010 engines emissions reduction relative to 2010, 2007, and 2004 US emission standards. earlier post ), found that emissions of NO 2 and other nitrogen oxides—which can have direct health effects and contribute to the formation of smog—were approximately 61% below the 2010 EPA standard and 99% lower than in 2004 engines. These reductions came while emissions of fine particles were also 92% lower than the 2010 standard 99% lower than 2004 emissions.

2013 244
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SwRI develops D-EGR demonstrator highlighting fuel-efficient, cost-effective engine; 10% and above fuel economy improvements

Green Car Congress

D-EGR is an engine and control concept that combines fuel reforming to produce hydrogen with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to achieve very high levels of thermal efficiency. In 2013, SwRI reported a 2.0-liter engine running as a full D-EGR engine from idle to full load, delivering more than 42% brake thermal efficiency with ultra-low exhaust emissions. PSA has been a member of the HEDGE consortium (now at HEDGE-III ) since 2004.

2014 232
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Comparative study finds that B20 increases emission rates of a number of pollutants in both light- and medium-duty diesel engines at idle

Green Car Congress

They found that the level of emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants in diesel exhaust depends on fuel, load, engine calibration, and exhaust aftertreatment technology. While designed to reduce emissions and comply with emission limits, the use of biodiesel and other fuels in conjunction with emission controls can change the composition and toxicity of exhaust emissions. L engine was operated under both 2004 and 2007 calibrations. Emission rates for the 1.7

2012 200
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Ricardo investigating potential for its split-cycle engine in large engine market

Green Car Congress

Key changes to implement the integrated cycle are isothermal compression and heat addition from the exhaust gas to the charge air after the end of compression. To transfer exhaust gas heat at the end of compression requires the use of a “split cycle” in which the standard four-stroke sequence is split into two separate elements. Intake and compression are carried out in one cylinder; combustion plus expansion and exhaust in another.

2016 183
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Achates Power opposed-piston diesel for TARDEC will demonstrate multi-cylinder configuration

Green Car Congress

Since the pistons cyclically expose or occlude the exhaust and intake ports, there is no valve train. Because the intake and exhaust ports are at the opposite ends of the cylinder, opposed-piston engines have efficient, uniflow scavenging. Compared to a conventional two-stroke engine, OP engines offer better surface area-to-volume; more efficient scavenging; a larger exhaust port area; and a better ratio of expansion to compression, all contributing to higher efficiency.

2013 272
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Small-displacement two-stroke H2 engine could address performance and emissions cost-effectively for recreational market; potential for Asian motor vehicle fleet

Green Car Congress

This is due to raw, externally premixed fresh charge comprising air, fuel and lube oil being short-circuited into the exhaust during the scavenging process. Even with the move to four-stroke engines, additional complexity will be necessary—possibly exhaust after-treatment—in order to fully meet regulations. Everything else—pistons, porting and crankcase, bearings, exhaust, etc.—were —Faiz and Gautam (2004).

2012 265
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ARB researchers evaluate in-use heavy-duty NOx aftertreatment systems, find elevated levels during certain lower-temperature operations

Green Car Congress

One of the trucks was equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); three were equipped with EGR and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device. The study indicated that strategies used to maintain exhaust temperature above a certain threshold, which are used in some of the newer SCRs, have the potential to control NO x emissions during certain low-load/slow-speed driving conditions. EGR reduces NO x formation by introducing cooled exhaust gases into the combustion chamber.

2013 210
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Honeywell Set to Turbocharge 70% of US Diesel Light Truck Segment With Launch of Ford 2011 Super Duty Truck

Green Car Congress

In addition, this design allows a Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT) DualBoost turbo to drive ultra-high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) in line with 2010 US emissions standards that call for 80% reduction in NO x while maintaining the ability to achieve higher horsepower. With Ford adopting Honeywell turbo technologies to boost its 2011 Super Duty Trucks, Honeywell says it will be turbocharging 70% of the US diesel light truck segment.

2010 170
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Mazda Launches Revamped Micro-Mini Carol in Japan

Green Car Congress

Mazda Motor Corporation has launched the fully updated the Mazda Carol micro-mini for the Japanese market, its first full remodeling since September 2004. Exhaust emissions are at least 75% lower than Japan’s 2005 standards. Featuring reduced curb weight and a continuously variable transmission (CVT) with an auxiliary gearbox, the Carol provides improved eco-friendliness and even better value. Mazda Carol XS (FWD model with CVT). Click to enlarge.

2009 170
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Michigan State University Receives $2.5M ARPA-E Award to Build Wave Disc Engine/Generator for Series Hybrid Applications

Green Car Congress

In axial-flow configurations, noted Müller and co-authors in a 2004 paper, pure scavenging is a challenging task. 2004). Since heat release increases pressure inside the channel, opening the outer channel end generates an outflow of the exhaust gases. Source: Piechna, 2004. Janusz Piechna, Pezhman Akbari, Florin Iancu, Norbert Müller (2004) Radial-Flow Wave Rotor Concepts, Unconventional Designs and Applications (IMECE2004-59022).

2009 256
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EPA updates rules to ease commercialization of alternative fuel conversion systems

Green Car Congress

Exhaust, Evap, and OBD testing. MY 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and < useful life mileage. Exhaust and Evap testing + OBD scan tool test and attestation. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has updated rules making it easier for manufacturers to sell fuel conversion systems—i.e., systems that alter a conventionally-fueled vehicle or engine to enable it to run on an alternative fuel.

2011 185
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Achates Power wins $9M from ARPA-E to develop gasoline compression ignition medium-duty multi-cylinder opposed-piston engine

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The unthrottled nature of the compression ignition process provides high engine efficiency while achieving compliant exhaust emissions with conventional, low-cost aftertreatment. This engine will also be more efficient than conventional diesel engines, but without the additional cost incurred by diesel fuel injection and complex exhaust aftertreatment.

2015 150
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European Commission fines truck producers record €2.93B for colluding to pass on emission compliance costs

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Between 1997 and 2004, meetings were held at senior manager level, sometimes at the margins of trade fairs or other events. From 2004 onwards, the cartel was organized via the truck producers’ German subsidiaries, with participants generally exchanging information electronically. Scania also said it has not delayed the introduction of new engines compliant with EU-legislation for exhaust emissions.

2016 150
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Fairbanks Morse Engine and Achates Power team up on opposed-piston engines

Green Car Congress

In the early 1990s, Fairbanks Morse Engine introduced dual-fuel combustion technology that reduced NO x exhaust emissions to levels previously achievable with only lean-burn spark-ignited gas engines. Achates Power began modernizing opposed-piston engines in 2004, inspired by the record-setting Junkers Jumo 205 diesel aircraft engine. Fairbanks Morse Model 38 opposed-piston engine. Click to enlarge.

2013 191
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LiquidPiston To Unveil Compact High Efficiency Engine at 2010 SAE World Congress

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For instance, intake/compression, combustion, expansion/exhaust are occurring simultaneously in separate chambers. Combining the high peak pressures produced during constant volume combustion with Atkinson expansion, which continuously extracts energy as exhaust gases expand to atmospheric pressure, delivers unprecedented fuel efficiency. In a paper to be presented at next week’s 2010 SAE World Congress in Detroit, LiquidPiston, Inc.

2010 224
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Achates Power testing shows transient capabilities of opposed piston engine

Green Car Congress

Initial test results of the transient control and exhaust temperature management capability of Achates Power’s opposed piston (OP) two-stroke diesel engine show that under a typical transient maneuver—25% to 100% load step at low and constant engine speed—the engine can control both NO x and soot with a minimal torque lag.

2015 191
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Behind Audi’s new “rightsized” efficient EA888 Gen.3B family

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Audi initially deployed its turbocharged, direct injection TFSI technology in 2004; the second generation followed in 2007, followed by the third generation, currently on the market, in 2011. Highlights of the Gen2 TFSI were the Audi exhaust valve lift system and a pressure- and volume-flow-controlled oil pump. mm, and moved the intake and exhaust valves—slightly reduced in diameter—axially downward. Audi’s new “rightsized” 2.0L

2015 219
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BMW Outlines Intelligent Heat Management Applications for Reducing Fuel Consumption and CO2; New Thermoelectric Generator Unit Integrated with EGR

Green Car Congress

The remaining two-thirds are lost as waste heat going into the environment through the car’s exhaust emissions and through the radiator. While a small share of the thermal energy available is already used today (for example when warming up the engine or through exhaust gas turbocharging), further, specific improvements will serve to reduce fuel consumption and, accordingly, CO 2 emissions once again by several percentage points. Distribution of energy in the car. Click to enlarge.

2009 191
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Porsche 919 Hybrid LMP1 Le Mans prototype makes its debut at Geneva Show

Green Car Congress

The first system is the innovative recovery of thermal energy by an electric generator powered by exhaust gases. The V-4 gasoline engine of the Porsche 919 Hybrid features direct injection, turbocharging and an energy recovery system for the exhaust gases. Porsche 919 Hybrid. Click to enlarge. The Porsche 919 Hybrid LMP1 Le Mans prototype made its premiere at the Geneva Motor Show.

2014 241
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Achates Power developing light-duty two-stroke opposed-piston diesel engine: the OP4

Green Car Congress

Founded in 2004, Achates Power is designing and developing engines based on a two-stroke, opposed-piston, compression-ignition technology. Exhaust temperature of the OP4 was 410 °C, compared to 246 °C for the baseline; the rate of exhaust enthalpy for the OP4 was 9.0 The OP4 light-duty opposed-piston diesel. Click to enlarge.

2013 196
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Manchester team proposing graphene-based ballistic rectifier for waste heat recovery

Green Car Congress

The Manchester team is now proposing that the graphene-based ballistic rectifier can convert waste from engine exhaust into a useable electrical current to power additional automotive features such as air conditioning and power steering, or be stored in the car battery. Graphene was the world’s first two-dimensional material, isolated in 2004 at The University of Manchester; since then a whole family of other 2D materials have been discovered.

2016 174
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EPA Proposes to Streamline Approval Process for Fuel Conversion Systems

Green Car Congress

Exhaust, Evap, and OBD testing 2. MY 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and < useful life mileage. Exhaust and Evap testing + OBD attestation. 2 Exhaust and Evap refers to all exhaust emission testing and all evaporative emission and refueling emission testing required for new vehicle certification, unless otherwise excepted.

2010 199
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California Legislature Considering Bill Requiring Smog Testing for Motorcycles

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grams per kilometer (g/km) HC+NO x beginning with 2004 models and a Tier II standard of 0.8 A required 2006 review on manufacturers’ ability to meet the Tier I standard as well as an update on the progress being made toward meeting the Tier II standard found that all major manufacturers were able to meet the Tier I standard by the 2004 model year as required. On average, motorcycles sold in California by major manufacturers in 2004 achieved emissions of 0.92

2009 150
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SwRI simulations indicate Scuderi split-cycle engine consumes 25% less fuel than comparable conventional engine in Cavalier; 36% reduction with hybrid configuration

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two split pairs) operating in a 2004 Chevrolet Cavalier would consume 25% less fuel under the FTP (Federal Test Procedure) than the comparable standard gasoline engine, while matching power and torque. The Scuderi engine divides the four strokes of a combustion cycle among two paired cylinders—the left cylinder functions as an air compressor, handling intake and compression, while the right cylinder handles combustion and exhaust.

2011 179
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SUTD team proposes low-temperature thermionic converter with graphene cathode; about 45% efficiency

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from engine exhaust or industrial processes. Since monolayer graphene was exfoliated experimentally in 2004, many unique properties have been reported, such as linear band structure, ultrahigh mobility (up to 400000 cm V ?1

2015 286
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Scania Delivering 85 Ethanol Buses to Stockholm Suburbs; E95 in a Diesel Engine

Green Car Congress

The order from Busslink is Scania Sverige’s largest single bus transaction in the Swedish market since 2004. The third-generation ethanol engine is an adaptation of Scania’s 9-liter diesel engine with charge-cooling and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Scania ethanol buses for SL. Click to enlarge.

2009 150
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Achates OPGCI project targeting 50% fuel efficiency gains over downsized GDI engine at reduced cost

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At idle and low loads, rebreathing of hot exhaust gases provided stable compression ignition with very low engine-out NO x and PM emissions. Rebreathing enabled reduced boost pressure, while greatly increasing exhaust temperature. Since its founding in 2004, Achates Power has enhanced the compression-ignition OP2S engine and has worked to resolve its challenges: wrist pin and power durability; piston and cylinder thermal management; piston ring integrity; and oil management.

2015 163
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Ford puts the pedal down on performance … but not with electric drive technology right now

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Ford has been selling hybrids and, later plug-ins, since 2004. The all-new Raptor also features its first dual exhaust and new 17-inch wheels with next-generation BFGoodrich All-Terrain KO2 tires specifically designed for off-road performance. Exhaust resonators also have been removed for weight savings with the benefit of creating a sharper exhaust tone. The new Ford GT on display in the Ford stand at NAIAS. Click to enlarge.

2015 200
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Achates: LD opposed-piston, 2-stroke diesel can meet 2025 final CAFE, Tier 3 standards for full-size pickup; 30% better FE than Cummins ATLAS

Green Car Congress

Founded in 2004, Achates Power is designing and developing engines based on a two-stroke, opposed-piston, compression-ignition technology. Two-stroke engines need to maintain an appropriate pressure difference between the intake and exhaust ports to scavenge exhaust out of the cylinder after combustion and push in fresh air. Brake specific fuel consumption map for the LD Achates opposed-piston engine.

2014 184
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California ARB Seeks Further Reductions of Diesel Emissions at State Rail Yards

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Diesel exhaust contains a variety of harmful gases and more than 40 other known cancer-causing substances. Additional diesel PM reductions in 18 major CA railyards with five new locomotive measures. Source: Staff presentation. With Five Locomotive Measures Click to enlarge.

2009 161
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Norway-US Project Developing Diesel/Biodiesel, Cool Flame Reformer and Solid-Acid Fuel Cell APU

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Due to the unit’s high efficiency, CO 2 emissions are substantially lower than in conventional combustion engines, and no other demonstrable exhaust is discharged—i.e., 2004) High-Performance Solid Acid Fuel Cells Through Humidity Stabilization. Norway’s Nordic Power Systems (NPS) and California-based SAFCell Inc.,

2010 179
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Ford Making Aggressive Push With EcoBoost and Technologies Such as Ti-VCT for Improved Fuel Economy; Roadmap for Future Generations of EcoBoost Highlights Role as Company Strategy as Well as Product

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This technology also optimizes phasing on both intake and exhaust camshafts by spinning them ever so slightly to advance or retard valve timing, resulting in improved throttle response at initial throttle tip-in, reduced emissions at part throttle and enhanced efficiency at higher rpm. Ford, however, was starting with the worst 2004 new vehicle fleet fuel economy of any of its major competitors.

2009 170
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Ford Unveils Next-Generation Global Focus at NAIAS; Features New 2.0L DI Engine with Powershift Dual-Clutch Transmission for NA Market

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US small car sales—combined B- and C-segments—grew from about 14% of the market in 2004 to more than 21% now. Ti-VCT applies variable cam timing to both the intake and exhaust camshafts of its DOHC design, using electronic solenoid valves to direct high-pressure oil to control vanes in each of the camshaft sprocket housings. The next-generation Ford Focus 5-door hatchback, revealed at the 2010 North American International Auto Show. Click to enlarge.

2010 179
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US EPA Proposes New Emissions Rules for Category 3 Marine Diesel Engines, Tighter Fuel Sulfur Restrictions; Harmonization with International Standards

Green Car Congress

Current Clean Air Act (CAA) standards (Tier 1) for new Category 3 compression-ignition marine engines (marine diesel) at or above 30 liters per cylinder displacement have been in effect since January 2004 and are equivalent to the current international standards for marine engines contained in MARPOL Annex VI (which went into effect in 1997). These standards rely on engine based technologies to reduce exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ).

2009 163
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SAE Hybrid Standards Committee: Works In Progress For 2009

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J1711 (Recommended Practice For Measuring The Exhaust Emissions And Fuel Economy Of Hybrid Electric Vehicles) is designed to establish uniform chassis dynamometer test procedures for hybrid-electric vehicles that are designed to be driven on public roads. Such procedures will be used during exhaust emissions tests and fuel economy certification tests, and may be used for future “charge economy” certification tests. by Jack Rosebro. Active standards work. Click to enlarge.

2009 163
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Toshiba To Begin Mass-Producing Portable Direct Methanol Fuel Cells in 2009

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The current returns to the fuel cell cathode (air side); Protons (H+) and electrons (e-) react with the air at the cathode to form humid air, which is exhausted from the system. In June 2004, Toshiba announced a prototype of the world’s smallest DMFC with energy output of 100 milliwatts (mW), which could be integrated into devices as small as digital audio players and wireless headsets for mobile phones. The Nikkei reported that Toshiba Corp.

2009 150
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Stockholm to welcome ethanol buses

Green Cars News

The order is Scania Sverige’s largest single bus transaction in the market since 2004 and represents a continued commitment to ethanol power. It is an adaptation of Scania’s nine-litre diesel engine and includes charge-cooling and exhaust gas recirculation.

2009 34
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USGS study concludes plausible California megastorm could result in 3x more damage than severe SoCal earthquake

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An Atmospheric River originating over the central Pacific on 16 February 2004. These impacts, the authors noted, are not exhaustive. Causes of ARkStorm cumulative highway damages. Click to enlarge.

2011 191
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Audi highlights its range of electrification efforts; Q7 diesel PHEV, A7 fuel cell PHEV, BEV, 48V and more; 750 Wh/l by 2025

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Because the exhaust system transports only water, it can be made of lightweight polymer. The first technology demonstrator was the compact A2H2 in 2004, which was already equipped with a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEM). It is switched in series behind the turbocharger and always assists the turbocharger if the exhaust provides insufficient energy for instant torque buildup.

2015 203
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Perspective: US Needs to Transition to Hydrous Ethanol as the Primary Renewable Transportation Fuel

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The first such vehicles were introduced by Volkswagen in 2003, and by 2004, they accounted for more than 17% of the Brazilian auto market. An unmodified Volkswagen Golf 5 FSI was operated successfully on HE15 (15% hydrous ethanol blended with gasoline), meeting European exhaust emission standards in testing conducted by the Netherlands research organization TNO Automotive and by SGS Drive Technology Center of Austria. by Brian J. Donovan, CEO Renergie, Inc.

2009 258
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The next-generation Toyota Prius

Green Cars News

The Hybrid Synergy Drive (2004 International Engine of the Year, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Green Engine of the Year) has been comprehensively revised and improved, with more than 90 per cent of its components redesigned to create a lighter, more compact system, with a focus on increased power, further reductions in real-world fuel consumption and improved cold weather operation. As a result the exhaust temperature is lower than that of conventional engines.

Prius 35