Study finds rising temperatures increase risk of unhealthy ozone levels absent sharp cuts in precursors

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Ozone pollution across the continental United States will become far more difficult to keep in check as temperatures rise, according to new work led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The study shows that Americans face the risk of a 70% increase in unhealthy summertime ozone levels by 2050, assuming continued greenhouse gas emissions with resultant significant warming (IPCC Scenario A2 and RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5.). Ozone formation.

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone Would Provide Immediate Benefit Against Climate Change

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Reducing emissions of black carbon soot and ground-level ozone would quickly make a considerable dent in the climate change problem and would also contribute to public health and protect crop yields, according to an essay in the September/October issue of Foreign Affairs. Ground level or tropospheric ozone (different than the stratospheric ozone that blocks the sun’s UV rays) is formed by ozone precursor gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, methane, and other hydrocarbons.

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MIT study says combustion emissions cause ~200,000 premature deaths/year in US; vehicles and power generation top sources

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1,000 to 21,000) deaths due to changes in ozone concentrations. 900 to 11,000) ozone-related early deaths per year. 300 to 4,000) ozone-related premature mortalities per year. 2000 (90% CI: 0–4,000) early deaths from ozone, according to the study.

UN report projects that increasing use of HFCs likely to have a significant climate impact by 2050; equivalent to current total annual emissions from transport

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The decrease in CO 2 equivalent emissions of ODSs (ozone-depleting substances: CFCs, halons, HCFCs, and others) may be offset by the projected increase in their non-ozone depleting substitutes (HFCs) (lines designated as HFC scenarios). Used in products such as air conditioners, refrigerators, firefighting equipment and insulation foams, HFCs are becoming popular as replacements for those phased-out or being phased-out to protect the ozone layer. W m -2 relative to 2000.

Study Finds On-Road Transportation Sector the Greatest Net Contributor to Atmospheric Warming Now and in Mid-Term; Power Sector Takes the Lead by 2050

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Radiative forcing due to perpetual constant year 2000 emissions grouped by sector for 2020 (left) and 2100 (right) showing the contribution from each species. used a climate model to analyze the effects of a wide range of chemical species, including carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, organic carbon, black carbon, nitrate, sulfate, and ozone, from 13 sectors of the economy from 2000 to 2100.

EPA to begin work on proposed rulemaking for on-road heavy-duty ultra-low NOx standard for MY 2024

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EPA acknowledged a need for further NO x reductions from heavy duty on-road trucks, buses, and other vehicles to reduce adverse health impacts from ground-level ozone and microscopic airborne particles; that the Clean Air Act directs EPA to revise standards from time-to-time in order to protect public health; and that it has been 16 years since EPA last revised its NO x standards for heavy-duty highway engines.

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US NOx Cap and Trade Program Lowers Smog Levels in Eastern United States

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The existing US NO x cap-and-trade program lowered 2008 summertime NO x emissions from power plants and large industrial sources 62% compared to year 2000 levels and 75% lower than in 1990, according to a report released by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Cutting Non-CO2 Pollutants Can Delay Abrupt Climate Change; The Fast Action Climate Agenda

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Cutting HFCs, black carbon, tropospheric ozone, and methane can buy us about 40 years before we approach the dangerous threshold of 2°C warming. —co-author HFCs are powerful greenhouse gases originally developed as substitutes for ozone-depleting chemicals. Tropospheric ozone.

Study: Hydrofluorocarbons Will Contribute Significantly to Global Warming by 2050

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Global ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and HFC emissions (A), global CO 2 and HFC emissions (B), and ODS, HFC, and CO 2 global RF (C) for the period 2000–2050. These HFCs, gases used in refrigerators and air conditioners, are substitutes for ozone-depleting gases, but they are also strong greenhouse gases. The 1987 Montreal Protocol—restricting the use of ozone-depleting substances—helps both to protect the ozone layer and to reduce global warming.

Houston-Galveston area to deploy 30 battery-electric delivery trucks

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DOE selected this project to improve local air quality in the Houston-Galveston area, which is currently designated as a National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 8-hour ozone non-attainment area. The vehicles that will be deployed under this grant are based on Smith’s latest production model Series 2000, which has been fully deployed in several locations across the country.

California Air Resources Board posts revised draft of strategy to reduce “Super Pollutants”

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California has already cut anthropogenic black carbon emissions by more than 90% since the 1960s, and existing measures are projected to cut mobile source emissions by 75% and total anthropogenic emissions by nearly 60% between 2000 and 2020.

Study finds paved surfaces in Houston worsen air quality

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Houston, with a mix of petrochemical facilities, sprawling suburbs, and traffic jams that stretch for miles, has some of the highest levels of ground-level ozone and other air pollutants in the United States. Paved surfaces in the Houston area keep the city warmer than more natural surfaces.

Critical review finds actual measurement data on segments of natural gas lifecycle sparse or lacking

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Between 2000 and 2011, the number of producing gas wells in the US increased by 50%, reaching 514,637. Air emissions from the natural gas life cycle include greenhouse gases, ozone precursors (volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides), air toxics, and particulates.

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GISS study finds applying stricter non-CO2 vehicle emission standards worldwide would yield climate benefits in addition to major health and agricultural benefits

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million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops; $US0.6-2.4 Impacts of worldwide vehicle emissions in 2030 compared with 2000. While reductions in particulate matter tend to produce local health benefits, the scientists found health and agricultural benefits from reduced ozone disperse more widely. Climate response to non-CO 2 vehicle emissions. Global and regional zonal mean temperature changes relative to 2010 due to non-CO 2.

Stanford Professor Urges EPA to Include Black Carbon in Endangerment Finding

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Jacobson first showed in 2000 that black carbon was the second-leading cause of global warming after carbon dioxide in terms of radiative forcing and, in 2002, that its control was the most effective method of slowing warming. F, with about 40% due to ozone. The second study found that local CO 2 emissions produce CO 2 domes over cities, which increase local ozone and PM, increasing local mortality.

ICCT report finds global implementation of advanced emissions and fuel-quality regs could cut early deaths from vehicle emissions by 75% in 2030

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Global trends in vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT) and early deaths from vehicle-related fine particle exposure (2000–2030). Chambliss et al. Click to enlarge.

Study projects net cooling of climate from ship emissions through 2050

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In addition to CO 2 , other compounds such as ozone (O 3 ) precursors (nitrogen oxides (NO x =NO+NO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) and aerosols such as black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) are emitted by ships. Other than these emissions from combustion associated with main engines and boilers, there are also emissions of ozone-depleting substances (CFCs/HCFCs/ HFCs) from refrigerant and air conditioning systems.

New study finds asthma morbidity in children is enhanced in areas with high traffic-related air pollution near the home

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Research data included 11,390 emergency room visits and hospital admissions made by 7,954 children ages 0 to 18 between 2000 and 2008. and ozone in warm months, and with PM 2.5 , carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen in the cool season.

NASA GISS Study Finds That Methane Has an Elevated Warming Effect Due to Interactions With Aerosols

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And hydroxyls drive long chains of reactions involving other common gases, including ozone. That’s noteworthy because nitrogen oxides have primarily been associated with ozone formation and warming in the past. Radiative forcing by greenhouse gases from 1750 to 2000.

Study Finds Traveling by Car Increases Global Temperatures More than Traveling by Plane In the Long Term

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Global average values for the year 2000. Findings for freight transport (year 2000) include: The specific climate impact of air transport is 3 to 42 times higher, for a light truck it is 2 to 8 times higher than average truck transport. As planes fly at high altitudes, their impact on ozone and clouds is disproportionately high, though short lived.

Emissions of Air Pollutants down in EU-27

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The downward emission trend of three main pollutants which cause ground-level ozone continued in 2007: carbon monoxide (CO) fell by 57%, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were down by 47% and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) have dropped 36%. Emissions of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), a seriously health-damaging pollutant, have decreased by 2% compared to the previous year and by about 12% since the year 2000.

UNEP Report Calls for More Sophisticated Approach to Developing Biofuels; Limitations of Current LCA Studies

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Here, RME show advantages for primary energy and GHG, but disadvantages in terms of acidification, eutrophication and ozone depletion. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion liters (13.7

California ARB Seeks Further Reductions of Diesel Emissions at State Rail Yards

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In 2000, the ARB established California’s Diesel Risk Reduction Plan, which aims to reduce diesel emissions to 85% below 2000 levels by 2020. NO x helps create ground-level ozone, or smog. Additional diesel PM reductions in 18 major CA railyards with five new locomotive measures.

Researchers Engineer Yeast to Produce Methyl Halides from Biomass; Precursors for Biohydrocarbon Fuels

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Methyl halides are naturally produced by a number of organisms; the enzyme responsible for this production—methyl halide transferase (MHT)—has been studied in the context of the environmental production of methyl halides, which contribute to ozone depletion.

UN Review of Recent Climate Research Concludes That Impacts Of Climate Change Coming Faster Than Anticipated

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For 30 reference glaciers in nine mountain ranges tracked by the World Glacier Monitoring Service, the mean rate of loss since 2000 has roughly doubled since the rate during the previous two decades. The hole in the ozone layer has had a cooling effect on Antarctica, and is partly responsible for masking expected warming on the continent. Significant climate anomalies 2008/2009. Source: Climate Change Compendium. Click to enlarge.

Automakers agree on common plug to recharge electric vehicles

Tony Karrer Delicious EVdriven

Im gonna post a couple excerpts here: Most ozone pollution is caused by motor vehicles, which account for 72% of nitrogen oxides and 52% of reactive hydrocarbons (principal components of smog). (7,