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Study identifies combustion-derived nanoparticles in diesel exhaust as the predominant mediator for adverse cardiovascular events

Green Car Congress

A large body of work shows that exposure to road traffic and air pollution may be a trigger of adverse cardiovascular events such as angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure, with long-term exposure increasing the lifetime risk of death from coronary heart disease. The research by the University of Edinburgh measured the impact of diesel exhaust fumes on healthy volunteers at levels that would be found in heavily polluted cities.

FEV working on water injection system using exhaust condensate; fuel consumption improvements up to 16% possible

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FEV is developing a water injection system for internal combustion engines using condensate from exhaust gases, the “Extended Direct Condensate Injection” system. FEV’s system concept offers potential synergies which can be further enabled by exhaust heat recovery.

Neste Oil’s renewable diesel used to generate elecricity at two events in Finland

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Neste Oil’s NEXBTL renewable diesel was used to generate electricity at two major events in Finland this summer: the Flow Festival in Helsinki and the Neste Oil Rally Helsinki Battle street circuit race. When used to power on-site generator sets, the premium quality of the fuel and its purity cut exhaust emissions and eliminate the odor associated with conventional diesel.

Aeristech develops advanced 12V electric supercharger

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The 48V eSupercharger has completed more than 1600 hours of back-to-back testing at Aeristech’s in-house facility, undergoing more than 500,000 boost events during 28,000 test cycles of a wide selection of operating modes.

2016 46

MHI Develops Hybrid Turbocharger to Generate Electricity Utilizing Exhaust Gas from Marine Engines

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MHI) has developed a generator-integrated hybrid turbocharger for marine propulsion diesel engines which utilizes engine exhaust gas not only to drive the turbocharger but also to generate electricity. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

DARPA awards LiquidPiston $2.5M to advance further X4 rotary engine prototype

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This is done by changing the locations of intake and exhaust ports asymmetrically which allows for the extraction of more energy during the expansion stroke. Three combustion events per rotor revolution result in high power density.

2016 46

Toyota Central R&D developing free-piston engine linear generator; envisioning multi-FPEG units for electric drive vehicles

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In the latter approach, the gas spring chamber is responsible for returning the piston for the subsequent combustion event. Poppet valves seated in a water-cooled cylinder head were actuated by hydraulic valve trains to control exhaust valve timing.

2014 87

Shipboard Technology for Scrubbing CO2 and Criteria Pollutants from Exhaust Gas

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The Ecospec CSNOx launch event in January was co-hosted by the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), a leading ship classification society. It then sprays the treated sea-water into the exhaust funnel, where CO 2 is converted into bicarbonates, SO 2 into sulfates and NO x into nitrates through natural chemical processes.

BMW unveils latest Efficient Dynamics 3- and 4-cylinder gasoline and diesel engines

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At its Innovation Days 2016 event in Munich, BMW unveiled new versions of its three and four- cylinder gasoline and diesel engines. The exhaust manifold and turbocharger are now housed together in the cylinder head.

2016 24

ICCT-led test of 73 Euro 6 diesels finds large difference in NOx results under NEDC and more realistic WLTC

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The three main NOx control technologies currently on the market are exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); lean-burn NO x traps (LNT); and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The stored NO x is periodically reduced during short periods of fuel-rich operation (LNT regeneration events).

2015 36

Achates Power building 2.7L opposed-piston light-duty engine; exceeding CAFE 2025, Tier 3 targets at lower cost

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The opposed-piston two-strok (OP2S) engine has a combustion event at every revolution in each cylinder. Achates has demonstrated the ability to achieve exceptionally high exhaust gas temperatures at idle—much beyond what can be done with equivalent 4-stroke engines.

2017 46

ORNL-led team developing breakthrough high-temperature, high-strength Al alloy for advanced light-duty engines

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Projected conditions for internal combustion engines in 2025 push light-duty engine exhaust temperatures into the low end of gas turbine regimes, Haynes said. The increasing piston, cylinder, head, exhaust valve and turbocharger temperatures represent significant structural materials—and cost—challenges. Materials for exhaust and energy recovery.

Motiv Engines introduces 2nd-generation split-cycle concept; MkII Clarke-Brayton heavy-duty engine being designed for LNG

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It expands all the way to ambient pressure before the exhaust stroke. The power is produced in almost a 50-50 split between the combustion (central) and exhaust (largest) pistons. Section of the MkII Clarke-Brayton split-cycle engine. Note the three different cylinder sizes.

2014 33

Achates Power opposed-piston diesel for TARDEC will demonstrate multi-cylinder configuration

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Since the pistons cyclically expose or occlude the exhaust and intake ports, there is no valve train. Because the intake and exhaust ports are at the opposite ends of the cylinder, opposed-piston engines have efficient, uniflow scavenging.

KSPG shows new compact two-cylinder range extender for EVs, variable valve system

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UniValve is a mechanical system for the simultaneous and continuous adjustment of valve lift and opening event. In order to reap the advantages of very early closure, the opening event must therefore be as short as possible. The KSPG-FEV two-cylinder range extender. Click to enlarge.

Opel to begin publishing WLTP fuel consumption numbers in Q2 2016; improving SCR for NOx reductions

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The events and discussions in the last weeks and months have shown that there is a tremendous focus on the automotive industry and it is now time to act based on the learnings.

2015 53

Ford introduces second-generation 6.7L Power Stroke V8 Diesel for F-Series Super Duty; Gen 1 hits 500,000 mark

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The advanced design places the exhaust inside the engine’s V-shape while the air intake is positioned on the outside of the V. millimeters from 64 millimeters, so exhaust gases have a larger surface area to spin the turbo, providing extra power.

Advanced ADEPT 48V affordable mild hybrid on path to meet future ultra-low vehicle emissions

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The final results will be presented at the UK’s LCV2016 event on 14-15 September. Further energy recovery is achieved from CPT’s exhaust-mounted 48V turbine integrated exhaust gas energy recovery system known as TIGERS.

Opinion: Enablers of disruption in transportation

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by Mike Millikin, editor, Green Car Congress. This post is part of the ‘Think Further’ series sponsored by Fred Alger Management. For more “Think Further” content, please visit www.thinkfurtheralger.com.”.

2015 31

ICCT study finds real-world NOx emissions from Euro 6 diesels ~7x higher than Euro 6 regulatory levels

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going up a slight incline), or to normal regeneration events in the diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems.

ICL study of 39 new Euro-6 diesels finds huge variability in NOx emissions with an average 4.5x the type approval limit

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They attributed the increase in urban cycle NO x emissions in part to more frequent acceleration events.

2016 19

Nissan introduces the e-NV2000 electric van

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The battery module is set low in the vehicle under the load floor and is mounted in a reinforced zone for extra safety protection in the event of an impact. e-NV200. Click to enlarge.

2014 36

Pasha, Port of LA and California ARB partner on $26.6M Green Omni Terminal demo project; emerging zero and near-zero emission tech

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With the goal of making the Pasha terminal a more sustainable and resilient facility that can operate independently off the grid in the event of a power loss, the project also features a microgrid that includes solar generation, battery storage and an energy management system to maximize usage. Pasha Stevedoring and Terminals L.P.

CPT invests £1M to industrialize switched-reluctance 48V mild hybrid technology; new durability test cells

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Seven years ago we defined a challenging durability cycle for a water-cooled electric machine operating in the harsh under-bonnet environment, combining the most damaging events experienced by both a starter motor and an alternator at 12V. UK-based Controlled Power Technologies , a developer of vehicle driveline electrification technology, has invested £1 million (US$1.4

Hyundai begins rollout of Ioniq Hybrid, PHEV and EV; most efficient non-plug vehicle, most efficient EV in US; powertrain discussion

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The Atkinson cycle engines features head-block split cooling with a hollow exhaust valve, a long stroke, cooled EGR, and low-friction coating. As an example, it rpm overshoot is detected, the software notes this and adapts for the next event.

2017 26

Hyundai begins rollout of Ioniq Hybrid, PHEV and EV; most efficient non-plug vehicle, most efficient EV in US; powertrain discussion

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The Atkinson cycle engines features head-block split cooling with a hollow exhaust valve, a long stroke, cooled EGR, and low-friction coating. As an example, it rpm overshoot is detected, the software notes this and adapts for the next event.

2017 26

Renault Trucks’ Optifuel Lab 2 lab vehicle integrates technologies for more efficient big rigs; road test results coming in 2015

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We then multiplied the sources of electrical energy for power units by adding solar panels and installing an exhaust gas heat energy recovery system based on the Rankine cycle. Renault Trucks has developed a system to recover the waste heat contained in exhaust gases.

Solar 12

Volkswagen selects Corning DuraTrap filter for 1.6L diesels on MQB platform

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Designed to capture diesel engine soot particles while minimizing restrictions to exhaust flow, the DuraTrap AT LP 300/10 filter features thinner cell walls and an optimized material microstructure to enable better engine performance and fuel consumption. Corning diesel particulate filters are used in emission control systems to remove particulate matter (soot) from vehicle exhaust.

Renault Energy’s Sport F1 hybrid Power Unit; competing with intelligent energy management, not just power

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The internal combustion engine will produce power through consumption of traditional carbon-based fuel, while electrical energy will be harvested from both exhaust and braking by two discrete motor generator units. Exploded view of the parts of the power unit: 1.6l

Honda signs E-KIZUNA project agreement with City of Saitama for EV, PHEV and electric scooter testing; new household gas cogen unit with more efficient EXlink engine

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Honda will also be exploring the system’s potential to independently produce electricity for the household in the event of a disaster. An enhanced lower engine mount structure and other design enhancements help reduce pulsation and air channel noise in the intake and exhaust systems.

New 4-cylinder 2.3L EcoBoost on Lincoln MKC small SUV; future EcoBoost prospects

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Two pivotal factors are the three-port integrated exhaust manifold cylinder head and a twin-scroll turbocharger. The three-port IEM design is the key driver for performance because it improves airflow and optimizes exhaust energy pulses through the turbocharger.

Rosenberger Spritzguss und Formenbau manufactures new sensor carrier for EGR in one process step and without any weld lines

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The whole component is mounted as a cover on exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) modules which are fitted as standard in many automobiles in Europe. A PET membrane, which is welded into the housing, provides the pressure compensation required in the event of climate changes.

New Audi R18 e-tron quattro LMP1 racer integrates two hybrid systems, kinetic and thermal

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As before, during braking events at the front axle a Motor-Generator-Unit (MGU) recovers kinetic energy flows into a flywheel energy storage system. Use of the exhaust gas in the area of the rear diffusor, as in the case of the 2013-generation Audi R18 e-tron quattro, is now prohibited.

FEV analysis of automotive-scale Pinnacle opposed-piston engine finds potential for significant increases in fuel economy

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FEV added two additional cylinders, piping, exhaust aftertreatment, and an air cleaner to convert the model from a 250cc single cylinder into a 750 cc three cylinder engine. Variable cam timing maintains the lift and duration profile of the cam, but changes the timing of the events to earlier or later. FEV explored addition of VCT for both the intake and exhaust cams, and for intake only. less than with the exhaust cam also phased.

Dodge introduces new Dart compact, pricing starting at $15,995; 40 mpg unadjusted with 1.4L MultiAir turbo and DDCT

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Independent variable valve timing on the intake and exhaust side have extended cam phaser range to 60 crankshaft angle degrees of motion. MultiAir 2 allows better control of the start and end of the valve events and an extended opening on the intake cycle for better exhaust gas recirculation.

Scirocco to tackle Green Hell in 24hr race

Green Cars News

Three Scirocco GT24 cars that use conventional petrol will race alongside two Scirocco GT24-CNG vehicles at the event as the manufacturer aims to add another victory to those clinched in the class for two litre turbo engines in 2007 and 2008. Two engine alternatives of the Volkswagen Scirocco will tackle the 24hr race on the legendary Nurburgring circuit on May 23-24.

New Ford S-MAX first worldwide to offer Intelligent Speed Limiter

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Ford’s lean NO x trap exhaust after-treatment system helps deliver cleaner emissions. S-MAX has been designed to help protect an occupant in the event of a crash.

2015 23

Iveco featuring concept Glider truck at Challenge Bibendum 2011

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On the Glider, the heat of the exhaust gases is converted into electrical energy by a thermodynamic system that works like a compact, efficient steam engine based on the Rankine cycle.

Volvo Trucks used SuperTruck learnings to boost efficiency, performance in 2017 powertrains; wave piston, turbocompounding, injection

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Volvo’s new 2017 powertrain offerings, which include new, enhanced Volvo D11 and D13 engines, turbo compounding for the D13 engine and a one-box Exhaust Aftertreatment System (EATS), feature components derived directly from the SuperTruck program. Despite today’s efficient combustion and use of turbocharging, energy is still available in the exhaust in the form of heat and pressure.

Holtec and Mitsubishi Electric partnering to advance SMR-160 small modular reactor program

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The containment is a steel structure that will serve to dissipate heat to the environment using passive cooling for a design basis event. A typical SMR-160 would use cooling water from a local natural source such as a lake, river or ocean to condense its exhaust steam.