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Black carbon is a much larger cause of climate change than previously assessed; about twice previous estimates, and 2/3 the effect of CO2

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the distribution of black carbon in the atmosphere and determine its role in the climate system. Accounting for all of the ways black carbon can affect climate, it is believed to have a warming effect of about 1.1 Synthesis of black carbon climate forcing terms. Resources.

MIT report finds China’s actions on climate change crucial; argues for global economy-wide greenhouse gas tax

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A new report from the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change shows the importance of all major nations taking part in global efforts to reduce emissions—and in particular, finds China’s role to be crucial. The report—titled “The Role of China in Mitigating Climate Change” and published in the journal Energy Economics , compares the impact of a stringent emissions reduction policy with and without China’s participation. Resources.

California ARB votes to move forward with light-duty vehicle GHG and ZEV programs through 2025; cranking it up post-2025

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After considering the Advanced Clean Cars Midterm Review ( earlier post ), the California Air Resources Board voted unanimously on Friday to continue with the vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and ZEV program for cars and light trucks sold in California through 2025. Resources.

2017 38

US DOI report highlights impacts of climate change on Western water resources

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Projected median temperature change in °F (of 112 climate projections) over the Western United States, 2070–2099 relative to 1950–1979. Resources. Climate Change Climate Change Adaptation Water

Final report of Garnaut Review Update recommends carbon pricing scheme for Australia to do its fair share on climate change

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It will be much harder and more expensive for Australia to do its fair share on climate change without a carbon pricing scheme, according to the final report of the Garnaut Climate Change Review – Update 2011, Australia in the Global Response to Climate Change. In November 2010, the Australian Government commissioned Garnaut to provide an independent update to his 2008 Climate Change Review. Resources.

Study projects thermoelectric power in Europe and US vulnerable to climate change due to lower summer river flows and higher river water temperatures

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Projected changes in summer mean usable capacity of power plants in the US and Europe for the SRES A2 emissions scenario for the 2040s (2031–2060) relative to the control period (1971–2000). A study published in Nature Climate Change suggests that thermoelectric power plants (i.e., 16% in the United States depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031—2060. Resources. Nature Climate Change doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1546.

California Governor signs new super-pollutants legislation into law; black carbon, fluorinated gases and methane

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The law is in addition to California’s existing raft of climate legislation. SB 1383 reduces the emission of super pollutants (also known as short-lived climate pollutants) and promotes renewable gas by requiring a 50% reduction in black carbon and 40% reduction in methane and hydrofluorocarbon from 2013 levels by 2030. Reducing these pollutants can have a more immediate beneficial impact on climate change. Climate Change Diesel Emissions Environmental Justice Health

2016 23

PwC analysis finds meeting 2 C warming target would require “unprecedented and sustained” reductions over four decades

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—Leo Johnson, Partner, Sustainability and Climate Change, PwC. Resilience will become a watch word in the boardroom—to policy responses as well as to the climate. —Jonathan Grant, director, sustainability and climate change, PwC. Resources.

NRC releases report on potential for climate change to pose or to alter security risks for the US over next decade

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A schematic model showing the links between climate events and outcomes of national security concern, highlighting the roles of exposure and vulnerability. Core features of the climate change situation are known with confidence. —“Climate and Social Stress”.

California Air Resources Board unanimously adopts Advanced Clean Cars Package

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The Advanced Clean Cars package will help clean our air, help us fight climate change, and perhaps most important for average citizens, save thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicles. Resources. Climate Change Emissions Fuel Efficiency Hybrids Plug-ins Policy

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Study finds transport, residential heating main sources of black carbon in Russian Arctic

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Reducing black carbon pollution holds some potential for climate change mitigation, especially in the Arctic, but in order to take effective action, we have to know where it is coming from. This research drew on IIASA research that was part of a European-Union funded project, Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-lived Pollutants (ECLIPSE). Resources. Black carbon Climate Change Emissions Russia

2017 18

Garnaut Climate Change Review issues first of 8 update papers in 2011; reaffirms decision-making framework and need for mitigation efforts

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As commissioned by the Australian Government in 2010, the Garnaut Climate Change Review, led by Professor Ross Garnaut, has issued the first of a series of papers scheduled for this month and next updating the 2008 Climate Change Review. —2008 Climate Change Review. Market and non-market benefits of climate change mitigation arise from avoiding the costs associated with climate change itself. Resources.

The Climate Change Caravan

Revenge of the Electric Car

Say Hello to Guest Blogger Alexis Ringwald - with this first dispatch from the Climate Change Caravan in India. On January 3, 2009, a group of passionate individuals launched the Climate Solutions Road Tour : an epic month-long 3,500 km journey from Chennai to New Delhi, India to demonstrate that clean transportation solutions do exist and call upon automakers globally to build them. More soon … Follow our Climate Solutions Road Tour at: [link].

New method details contributions of climate change & natural variability to rapid Arctic ice loss

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The study, from the University of Washington, the University of California Santa Barbara and federal scientists, is published in Nature Climate Change. The paper builds on previous work by Ding and other UW scientists that found changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean have in recent decades created a “hot spot” over Greenland and the Canadian Arctic that has boosted warming in that region. Resources.

Scenarios For 2030 Zero-Emissions Cars In CA: Hydrogen Or Not?

Green Car Reports

And it is now state policy to reduce emissions of climate-change gases, primarily carbon dioxide, from its 30 million-plus road vehicles by a whopping 80 percent by 2050. Green CARB California California Air Resources Board hydrogen plug-in cars state laws zero emissions With epic smog in the Los Angeles Basin, the state of California has led the nation''s charge to reduce emissions from road vehicles for more than half a century.

GWU team develops cost-effective solar process to produce lime for cement without CO2 emission

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Thus no CO 2 is formed, to eliminate cement’s greenhouse gas contribution to anthropogenic climate change. Resources. Climate Change Emissions Solar

2012 34

Study: even with high LDV electrification, low-carbon biofuels will be necessary to meet 80% GHG reduction target; “daunting” policy implications

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The implication for biofuels is important, to the extent they are aimed at meeting climate and petroleum use reduction goals. The reference case scenarios assume no change to GHG intensity from current levels. The implications of this research are daunting with regard to climate policy.

2015 24

New modeling study finds thawing permafrost could release vast amounts of carbon and accelerate climate change by the end of this century

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Billions of tons of carbon trapped in high-latitude permafrost may be released into the atmosphere by the end of this century as the Earth’s climate changes, further accelerating global warming, a new computer modeling study indicates. Resources.

California Air Resources Board adopts GHG cap-and-trade program; first auctions slated for Aug/Nov 2012

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The California Air Resources Board on Thursday adopted the final greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cap-and-trade regulation. The cap-and-trade joins a suite of other major climate program measures including standards for ultra-clean cars (Advanced Clean Cars, earlier post ), low-carbon fuels (Low Carbon Fuel Standard, earlier post ) and renewable electricity. Resources. Climate Change Emissions Policy

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Oil and Gas Climate Initiative to invest $1B over 10 years in low-emissions tech

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The Oil and Gas Climate Initiative (OGCI) will invest $1 billion over the next ten years to develop and to accelerate the commercial deployment of innovative low-emissions technologies. Led by the heads of ten oil and gas companies that aim to lead the industry response to climate change, OGCI member companies—BP, CNPC, Eni, Pemex, Reliance Industries, Repsol, Royal Dutch Shell, Saudi Aramco, Statoil and Total—together represent one fifth of the world’s oil and gas production.

Rice researchers show ocean could have contained enough methane to cause drastic climate change 56M years ago

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Analysis by researchers at Rice University suggests that the theory that the release of massive amounts of carbon from methane hydrate frozen under the seafloor 56 million years ago drove a massive climate change incident—the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)—is quite possible. Resources.

Volkswagen to use CO2 as refrigerant for future air conditioning systems

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According to a paper by Delphi engineers investigating another refrigerant (R152a), R134a was chosen for its combination of refrigerating properties and safety characteristics, despite indications that its global warming potential (GWP) and resulting climate impact could one day become a concern.). With its GWP of 1, it is also the refrigerant that has the least impact on climate. Resources. Climate Change Emissions Vehicle Systems

2013 28

Lung Association report highlights health and climate costs of petroleum-based transportation and the benefits of shifting to ZEVs

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A new report produced by the American Lung Association concludes that over-reliance on petroleum-based fuels for transportation costs the 10 ZEV states in the US (California and nine other states that have adopted the California Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program) an estimated $37 billion in health expenses and climate costs every year—with California costs alone hitting $15 billion. in hidden health and climate costs. Climate benefits include $5.5

Hansen paper emphasizes importance of retention and expansion of nuclear power for health and climate reasons

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Large-scale expansion of unconstrained natural gas use would not mitigate the climate problem and would cause far more deaths than expansion of nuclear power, according to their analysis, which is published in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology. Resources.

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I’ve Done The Math – Now I’m Doing Something About It

Creative Greenius

I can’t do it with the climate clock ticking so loudly now and with so many critical parts of the math equation in my own South Bay backyard. square mile town will cause, there’s the bad math this adds up to for the climate.

2013 21

Adaptation of rice shows use of symbiogenics as a new strategy for reducing impacts of climate change and catastrophes on plants

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Rice—which provides nearly half the daily calories for the world’s population—could become better adapted to stresses resulting from climate change and some catastrophic events through what researchers are calling “symbiogenics”—symbiosis-altered gene expression. Rodriguez said that using these endophytes is one of the only real strategies available for mitigating the effects of climate change on plants in natural and agricultural ecosystems.

Steep increase in global CO2 emissions despite reductions by industrialized countries; driven by power generation and road transport

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Throughout the Kyoto Protocol period, industrialized countries have made efforts to change their energy sources mix. The report shows that the current efforts to change the mix of energy sources cannot yet compensate for the ever increasing global demand for power and transport.

2010 26

World Bank report examines likely impacts and risks associated with a 4 °C global warming within this century

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A new report commissioned by the World Bank, and prepared by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) and Climate Analytics, provides a snapshot of recent scientific literature and new analyses of likely impacts and risks that would be associated with a 4 °C global warming within this century. The World Bank report focused on developing countries, while recognizing that developed countries are also vulnerable and at serious risk of major damages from climate change.

Researchers demonstrate electrochemical synthesis of ammonia from air and water under mild conditions

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Andrews have demonstrated that ammonia can be synthesized directly from air (instead of N 2 ) and H 2 O (instead of H 2 ) under a mild condition (room temperature, one atmosphere) with supplied electricity which can be obtained from renewable resources such as solar, wind or marine. Resources. Ammonia Climate ChangeResearchers from the University of Strathclyde and the University of St.

2013 21

Georgia Tech study projects potential mixed impacts of climate change policies on air quality

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In the study, the researchers assessed the impact of four potential climate mitigation policies—two climate tax scenarios (CT1 and CT2); a combined transportation and energy scenario (TE); a biomass energy (BE) scenario; plus a reference case—on air quality in the US in 2050 using a chemical transport model (CTM) to simulate air pollutant concentrations and applying recent climate downscaling and emissions modeling advancements. Resources.

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DOE Joint Genome Institute approves 41 projects for 2012 Community Sequencing Program; climate, environment and bioenergy feedstocks

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The projects span the globe and the unexplored branches of the tree of life, and promise to yield a better understanding of the interplay between climate, ecosystem and organism. The development of these genetic resources will enable scientists to identify genes that contribute to a number of traits that are essential to develop efficient biomass production including increased stress tolerance, water and nitrogen use efficiency and biomass production.

AASHTO Launches Transportation and Climate Change Resource Center Website

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The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) has launched a newly expanded and enhanced website on climate change and transportation, the AASHTO Transportation and Climate Change Resource Center. Launched on May 5, the site is designed to serve as the primary AASHTO communication tool for transportation and climate change, providing information for state transportation departments as well as other transportation practitioners.

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Report from Victoria EV Trial reinforces importance of source of electricity and EV efficiency in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

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The step change in both EV calculations reflects impacts arising from the single battery replacement forecast. Resources. Australia Climate Change Electric (Battery) Emissions Lifecycle analysis

State Department issues Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on Keystone XL Pipeline: climate change impacts

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The document is a detailed draft technical review of potential environmental impacts associated with the segment of the pipeline in the US, including: impacts from construction, impacts from potential spills, impacts related to climate change, and economic impacts. Resources.

PBL/JRC: Global CO2 emissions increase to new all-time record in 2013, but growth is slowing down

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China started to take new measures to improve energy efficiency and to make a fuel shift away from coal, including coal consumption targets, an increase in hydropower and structural changes. Resources. Climate Change Emissions

California and China expand partnership on climate change

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and China’s top climate official, National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Vice Chairman Xie Zhenhua, signed an agreement on climate change—the first between the NDRC and a subnational entity. The NDRC oversees China’s efforts to address climate change and much of the government’s economic strategy. California Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr.

EIA: world energy consumption to grow 56% 2010-2040, CO2 up 46%; use of liquid fuels in transportation up 38%

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Non-petroleum liquids resources from both OPEC and non-OPEC sources grow on average by 3.7% Biomass Climate Change Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Emissions Forecasts Fuels Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) Market Background World energy consumption by fuel type, 2010-2040. Source: IEO2013.

2010 17

Researchers confirm existence of North Icelandic Jet current; implications for ocean response to climate change

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An international team of researchers has confirmed the presence of a deep-reaching ocean circulation system off Iceland—the North Icelandic Jet (NIJ)—that could significantly influence the ocean’s response to climate change in previously unforeseen ways. Resources.

US National Research Council reiterates need for action in US to limit magnitude of climate change; final volume in Americas Climate Choices

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Illustration of the steps in an iterative risk management approach for addressing climate change. From: America’s Climate Choices. This trend cannot be explained by natural factors such as internal climate variability or changes in incoming energy from the sun.

Tsinghua University provincial-level lifecycle study finds fuel-cycle criteria pollutants of EVs in China could be up to 5x those of natural gas vehicles due to China’s coal-dominant power mix

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emissions, the NO x and SO 2 increases are significant enough to notably change total national emissions, they conclude.China has made a firm commitment to improve its air quality. Resources. China Climate Change Electric (Battery) Emissions Lifecycle analysis Natural Gas